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CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES: EMERGING AREAS ON THE BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS

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CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES: EMERGING AREAS ON THE BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS PRE-HISTORIC AFRICA Regions in Africa Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Northern Africa (inc ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES: EMERGING AREAS ON THE BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS


1
CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES EMERGING AREAS ON THE
BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS
2
THE CLASSIC WORLD
3
PRE-HISTORIC AFRICA
  • Regions in Africa
  • Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Northern Africa (inc. Nile
    Valley)
  • The Sahara is the greatest physical and cultural
    barrier
  • North settled early by Berbers, Hamites
    (Caucasian groups)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa has larger regions with many
    micro regions
  • West Africa Forest, Sahel called Sudan, Central
    Africa, East Africa, South Africa
  • Each region defined by physical geography and
    vegetation many micro cultures
  • North and East Africa saw first African
    civilizations
  • The Nile River Pharaonic Egypt Kush-Meroe
    (often called Nubia)
  • The Ethiopian Highlands Axum (Aksum) or Ethiopia
  • North Africa Carthaginian Empire, Roman and
    Greek civilizations
  • The Sudan
  • Sudanic region was sahel or plains stretching
    across Africa south of Sahara
  • 9000 B.C.E. domestication of cattle cultivation
    of sorghum, cotton
  • Became home to most Sub-Saharan civilizations
  • Small states based on tribes, clans developed
  • Religion polytheism, shamanism, placation of
    spirits, divination
  • Climatic Change
  • Prior to 5000 CE Sahara one large inland sea
    surrounded by plains

4
REGIONS IN AFRICA
5
AFRICAN CLIMATE ZONES
6
AFRICAN LANGUAGE FAMILIES
7
FIRST AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS
  • Egyptian History, c. 3100 BCE to 525 BCE
  • Pre-history dominated by small city-states along
    Nile
  • Old Kingdom
  • Menes- Narmer united Upper/Lower Egypt
  • Pyramid era pharaohs considered divine
  • Middle Kingdom
  • 2nd Illness saw Semitic invasion Hyksos
  • New Kingdom Egyptian empire
  • 3rd Illness Invasions
  • After 7th century
  • Ruled by Assyrians, Persians
  • Greeks, Romans, Byzantines
  • Not independent until 1956 CE
  • Kush (Nubia) assimilates Egyptian culture
  • Upper Nile ethnically were Black Africans
  • Adopted Egyptian practices religion,
    architecture
  • Ruled Egypt as 26th Dynasty
  • Famous for iron, gold trade
  • Became Christian through Egyptian contacts

8
ANCIENT MAP OF AFRICA
9
NILE SOCIETIES
  • Urban elites (2) ruled over rural masses
  • Dominated by rulers, officials, priests
  • Merchants, artisans, soldiers
  • Social Classes
  • Pharaoh (ruler and his immediate family)
  • Officials (Advisors, generals, soldiers, priests)
  • Merchants and artisans
  • Peasants majority of population
  • Slaves usually prisoners of war
  • Patriarchal societies with a twist
  • Women were occasionally rulers
  • Women had rights, could own lands
  • Were less than males but not oppressed
  • Probably due to the influence of the goddess Isis

10
RELIGIONS OF THE NILE
  • Polytheism
  • Extremely complex pantheon of gods
  • Deification of nature
  • Extremely powerful, influential priesthood with
    great wealth
  • Conflict of good, evil
  • Humans judged for their actions
  • Cult of Osiris
  • Strong belief in afterlife, accountability for
    actions
  • Mummification was but one aspect of this
  • Regenerative cycle of Osiris/Ra-Re/Horus
  • Ahkenaton and Monotheism
  • Amenhotep believed there was only one God
  • Ended polytheism, opposed by priests was
    assassinated
  • Nubian Beliefs
  • Adopted many Egyptian beliefs
  • Major focus on the sun and moon

11
WRITING
  • Early Nile Writing
  • Hieroglyphics (Pictographs)
  • Merotic Writing in Nubia
  • Geez Writing in Axum
  • Education
  • Scribes had influence
  • Often attached to court or temples
  • Services rented out
  • Scribes could advance socially
  • Sub-Saharan Writing
  • Lacked alphabet, books
  • Lack due to termites, lack of durable medium
  • Developed oral traditional, tribal memories
  • West African griots
  • Memorized history by mneumonic devices
  • Kept all records for tribes, rulers
  • Islam brought first alphabet to Sub-Saharan Africa

12
ECONOMICS OF NILE
  • Economic Specialization and Trade
  • Bronze Age arose around 17th century B.C.E.
  • Iron Age begins around 1,000 B.C.
  • Transportation
  • Largely waterborne little need for roads
  • Out of Nile Valley, camels and horses were common
  • Trade
  • Egypt was largely self-sufficient, autarkic
  • Net exporter of grains, foodstuffs, luxuries,
    paper, medicines
  • Most trade was based on luxury products
  • Papyrus, paper, medicines, herbs, finished
    products especially silver
  • Imports tended to be wood, gold, finished
    products
  • Kush-Meroe specialized in iron, gold workings
  • Trade Routes
  • Up Nile to Kush-Meroe
  • Across Sinai to Fertile Cresent
  • Down Red Sea to East Africa, Southern Arabia
  • Across Mediterranean to Greece, Phoenicia
  • Little contact with interior of
    Africa                            

13
THE NOK CULTURE
  • Discovered 1928 in Northern Nigeria
  • Was it a civilization or advanced culture?
  • Flourished 900 BCE to 200 CE on Niger-Benue River
  • Clearly first Sub-Saharan civilization/culture
  • Precursor of Bantu, West African forest peoples
  • Knowledge is based on archeology
  • Iron makers and sculptors
  • Animals and humans made from fired clay
  • Figures of animals, peoples including leaders
  • Seem to have been pastoralists, farmers
  • Could smelt iron
  • Have found iron tools, weapons probably also
    used wood
  • Seemed to have skipped copper, bronze ages
  • Indigenous or borrowed from North Africa, Nile
    River?

14
GHANA 1ST SUB-SAHARAN CIVILIZATION
  • Camels
  • Camels came to Egypt from Arabia, 7th century
    B.C.E.
  • Romans introduced them to North Africa, patrolled
    desert
  • After 500 C.E. camels replaced horses, donkeys as
    transport animals
  • Camels' arrival quickened pace of communication
    across the Sahara
  • Islamic merchants crossed the desert to trade in
    West Africa
  • Established relations with sub-Saharan West
    Africa by 8th century
  • The kingdom of Ghana
  • Kings maintained a large army of two hundred
    thousand warriors
  • A principal state of west Africa, not related to
    modern state of Ghana
  • Became the most important commercial site in west
    Africa
  • Controlled gold mines, exchanged it with nomads
    for salt
  • Provided gold, ivory, and slaves
  • Wanted horses, cloth, manufactured goods
  • Koumbi-Saleh
  • Capital city
  • Thriving commercial center

15
THE BANTU
  • The Bantu peoples
  • Originated in the region around modern
    Nigeria/Cameroon
  • Influenced by Nok iron making, herding,
    agriculture
  • Population pressure drove migrations, 2000 BCE
    700 BCE
  • Two major movements to south and to east and
    then south
  • Languages split into about 500 distinct but
    related tongues
  • Bantu agriculture and herding
  • Early Bantu relied on agriculture slash-burn,
    shifting
  • Pastoralists, semi-nomadic due to agriculture,
    cattle
  • Iron metallurgy
  • Iron appeared during the 7th and 6th centuries
    B.C.E.
  • Iron made agriculture more productive
  • Expanded divisions of labor, specialization in
    Bantu societies
  • Population Pressures
  • Iron technologies produced population upsurge
  • Large populations forced migration of Bantu

16
THE BANTU MIGRATION
  • The Bantu Migration
  • Population pressure led to migration, c. 2000
    B.C.E.
  • Movement to South, along Southeast and Southwest
    coasts
  • Languages differentiated into about 500 distinct
    but related tongues
  • Occupied most of sub-Saharan (except West) Africa
    by 1000 C.E.
  • Split into groups as they migrated Eastern,
    Central, Southern
  • Bantu spread iron, herding technologies as they
    moved
  • Bananas
  • Between 300/500 C.E., Malay seafarers reached
    Africa
  • Settled in Madagascar, visited East African coast
  • Brought with them pigs, taro, and banana
    cultivation
  • Bananas became well-established in Africa by 500
    C.E.
  • Bantu learned to cultivate bananas from Malagasy
  • Bananas caused second population spurt,
    migration surge
  • Reached South Africa in 16th century CE
  • Population growth
  • 3.5 million people by 400 B.C.E.
  • 11 million by the beginning of the millennium
  • 17 million by 800 C.E.

17
MAP OF THE BANTU MIGRATIONS
18
BANTU LANGUAGES
19
BANTU POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • Stateless societies
  • Early Bantu societies did not depend on elaborate
    bureaucracy
  • Societies governed through family and kinship
    groups
  • Village council, consisted of male family heads
  • Chief of a village was from the most prominent
    family heads
  • A group of villages constituted a district
  • Villages chiefs negotiated intervillage affairs
  • Chiefdoms
  • Population growth strained resources, increased
    conflict
  • Some communities began to organize military
    forces, 1000 C.E.
  • Powerful chiefs overrode kinship networks and
    imposed authority
  • Some chiefs conquered their neighbors
  • Kingdom of Kongo
  • Villages formed small states along the Congo
    River, 1000 C.E.
  • Small states formed several larger
    principalities, 1200 C.E.
  • One of the principalities conquered neighbors,
    built kingdom of Kongo
  • Maintained a centralized government with a royal
    currency system
  • Provided effective organization until the
    mid-17th century

20
SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • Diversity of African societies in Sub-Saharan
    Africa
  • Complex societies developed into kingdoms,
    empires, and city-states
  • Coexisted with small states and stateless
    societies
  • Lineages consisted of all members descended from
    a common ancestor
  • Kinship groups of stateless societies
  • Extended families and clans as social and
    economic organizations
  • Communities claimed rights to land, no private
    property
  • Village council allocated land to clan members
  • Sex and gender relations
  • Men undertook heavy labor, herding,
  • Women were responsible for child rearing,
    domestic chores, farming
  • Men monopolized public authority but women could
    be leaders
  • Women enjoyed high honor as the source of life
  • Many societies were matrilineal aristocratic
    women influenced public affairs
  • Women merchants commonly traded at markets
  • Sometimes women organized all-female military
    units
  • Islam did little to curtail women's opportunities
    in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Age grades
  • Publicly recognized "age grades" or "age sets"

21
EARLY AFRICAN RELIGION
  • Creator god
  • Recognized by almost all African peoples
  • Created the earth and humankind, source of world
    order
  • Lesser gods and spirits
  • Often associated with natural features, forces in
    world
  • Participated actively in the workings of the
    world
  • Believed in ancestors' souls influencing material
    world
  • Diviners
  • Mediated between humanity and supernatural beings
  • Called shamans and inappropriately witch
    doctors
  • Interpreted the cause of the people's misfortune
  • Used medicine or rituals to eliminate problems
  • African religion was not theological, but
    practical
  • Religion to placate the gods, ask for assistance,
    cures, fertility
  • Public celebrations inc. dancing, singing formed
    community
  • Genders honored different deities, had separate
    ceremonies

22
EARLY EAST AFRICAN HISTORY
  • Early visitors to east Africa
  • Egyptians visited, traded with area
  • Famous expedition of Hatshepshut to Punt
  • Indian, Persian visited after 500 B.C.E.
  • Greeks, Romans called area Azania
  • Malays established colonies on Madagascar
  • Kingdom of Axum (Aksum)
  • Sabeans of Yemen created Axum
  • Arose in highlands of Ethiopia
  • Trading state across Bab el Mandeb straits
  • Tribute empire on land trade gold, frankincense,
    myrrh, food, ivory
  • Built stone structures, issued own coins
  • Eventually became Monophysite Christian
  • King Ezana converted and court followed in early
    4th century
  • Developed Geez language, writing in association
    with Christianity
  • Maintained strong contacts with Egypt
  • Traded with Romans, Byzantines, Persians,
    Indians, Arabs
  • By 2nd century Bantus populated much of East
    Africa
  • By 7th century Arab merchants begin to visit

23
ECONOMIC REGIONS OF AFRICA
24
NOMADIC SOCIETY AND ECONOMY
  • Nomadic peoples
  • Pastoral nomads
  • Clans from common ancestors, with related
    languages
  • Central Asia's steppes
  • Good for grazing, little rain, few rivers
  • Nomads and their animals few settlements
  • Nomads drove their herds in migratory cycles
  • Lived mostly on animal products
  • Produced millet, pottery, leather goods, iron
  • Nomads and settled peoples
  • A love, hate relationship of war and trade
  • Trade, exchange Nomads maintained caravan routes
  • Exchanged horses for finished goods including
    silk
  • Fluidity of classes, gender in nomadic society
  • Two social classes nobles and commoners
  • Patriarchal society but women accorded many
    rights, privileges
  • Religions
  • Mostly shamanistic
  • Diviners influence forces of nature, interpret it

25
THE NOMADS WORLD
26
BORDERS OF CHINA
  • Relative Location
  • Korea, Vietnam borders of China
  • Japan located off coast of East Asia
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Korea, Vietnam
  • Mountainous, cut by river valleys
  • Population located on plains
  • Japan
  • Volcanic islands, very mountainous
  • Deep valleys with plains
  • Demography
  • Peoples related to Chinese
  • Populace generally heavy on plains
  • Rice was principal crop
  • Cities exist but rarer than China
  • Cities centers of Chinese culture
  • Countryside resistant to Sinification

27
THE CONFUCIAN WORLD
28
EARLY KOREA, VIETNAM AND JAPAN
  • Ancient Korea and Vietnam
  • Divided into warring kingdoms later united by
    Silla (S. Korea)
  • Han China first influenced Korea Korea tributary
  • Korea copied Chinese bureaucracy Confucianism
    entered with bureaucracy
  • Tang ruled Korea as a tributary aristocratic
    elites became Buddhist, rule
  • Viet people originate in Southern China, related
    to Chinese
  • Driven south into Red River by Chinese migration
  • Han China controls Northern Vietnam drive China
    out after 1000 year war
  • Confucianism retained by elite along with
    bureaucratic ruling model
  • Ancient Japan
  • Earliest inhabitants were nomadic Caucasians
    (Ainu) from Northeast Asia
  • Japanese related to Koreans, migrated into
    islands, pushed Ainu north
  • Ruled by several dozen states dominate by clans,
    1st millennium BCE
  • Shinto Ancestor veneration with deification of
    nature, spirits (kami)
  • Nara Japan (710-794 C.E.)
  • Yamato clan claimed imperial authority
  • The imperial court modeled on that of the Tang
  • Built a new capital (Nara) in 710 C.E., modeled
    on Chang'an
  • Prince Shotoku wrote first Japanese constitution

29
THE CELTS
  • Celts
  • History
  • Arose in Alps, Central Europe 1200 BCE
  • Settled in France, Spain, Britain, Ireland
  • Migrated into Italy, Balkans, Greece, Turkey
    around 1000 BCE
  • Pauls Letter to the Galatians Celt tribe of
    Turkey
  • Strong tradition of warfare, raids
  • Civilization at Ancient Bronze Age similar to
    Mycenae Greece
  • Some cities but generally fortified hill sites
  • Grew wheat and barley and kept sheep, cattle and
    some pigs
  • Developed crafts, strong artistic tradition
    pottery
  • Controlled salt deposits as source of trade
  • Strong trade with Mediterranean, Greeks,
    Etruscans
  • Developed Iron technologies around 1000 BCE
  • Structures and hierarchies
  • Organized into clans, tribes ruled by kings and
    druids
  • Polytheistic, deified nature priests druids
  • Strong tradition of bards, story tellers,
    ballads, heroes, saints
  • Rome and the Celts

30
CELTIC WORLD
CELTS BECAME Treveri Helveti Parisi Veneti Regni
Iceni Caledones Celtiberi AND LATER Irish Welsh
Scots Britons Cornish Manx
31
THE GERMANS
  • Early Bronze Age History
  • Original Homeland Sweden
  • Migrated into Germany, Denmark
  • Sometimes allies, slaves of Celts
  • later established independence of Celts
  • Settled 2/3 of Europe
  • Eastern Europe, Central Europe, steppes of
    Ukraine
  • Pushed up to Rhine, Danube border
  • Germans and Romans
  • With defeat of Celts, Germans became threat to
    Rome
  • Germans were stronger than Celts, defied Romans
  • In 1st century, defeated Romans, remained
    independent
  • Romans erected elaborate defense systems against
    Germans
  • Late 3rd century Germans become Roman
    mercenaries
  • Late 4th century Germans allowed to settle in
    Roman empire
  • Society
  • Agrarian society small villages, fortified
    areas some trade
  • Strong tribes, loyalty to warlords raiding very
    important
  • Two classes nobility and commoners both owned
    land

32
THE GERMAN WORLD
Teutons Became Goths Visigoths Ostrogoths Vandals
Franks Burgundians Suevi Alans Angles Saxons Jutes
Lombards Norsemen Germans Austrian Dutch Flemish
English Swiss Swedes Danes Norwegians Icelanders
33
THE EARLY SLAVIC MIGRATIONS
Slavs were Originally Part of the
German World. The tribes were allied. When
the Germans Moved West, Slavs Were ruled First
by Huns and Later Independent. They filled Hun
and German vacuum.
34
THE POLYNESIANS OCEANIC NOMADS
  • Malayo-Polynesians
  • Originated in New Guinea
  • Developed shifting agriculture, portable
    agriculture
  • Farm one area intensively, move on
  • Raised banana, taro, sweet potato, fish, pigs,
    chickens
  • Sailing Technology
  • Double hulled canoes central platform with sail
  • Use stars, winds, wave patterns, air/sea
    patterns, islands, atolls, birds
  • Migrated across island chains in boats
  • By 1500 BCE settled Madagascar by 300 CE Easter
    Island
  • By 500 CE settled Polynesia, Micronesia, Hawaii
  • By 1000 CE settled New Zealand totally
    different climate
  • Social Structures
  • Migration needed to avoid overpopulation
  • Depleted resources, shortages, environmental
    degradation, conflict
  • Eastern Island was example of this problem
  • Hamlet and villages
  • Hamlets on volcanic islands, up to 5 houses
    often one family
  • Villages on larger islands, up to 30 houses
    often an important chief, king

35
POLYNESIAN WORLD
KEY 1. Polynesia 2. Hawaii 3. New Zealand 4.
Easter Island 5. Samoa 6. Fiji 7. Tahiti
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