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The Muslim World Expands

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Title: The Muslim World Expands


1
The Muslim World Expands
  • Pre-AP World History
  • Chapters 18

2
Ghazis
  • Warriors for Islam Many Anatolian Turks saw
    themselves as ghazis in their wars against the
    Byzantine Empire. They formed military societies
    under the leadership of an emir, a chief
    commander, and followed strict Islamic codes of
    conduct.
  • The most successful ghazi was Osman. People in
    the West called him Othman and named his
    followers Ottomans. Osman built a small Muslim
    state in Anatolia between 1300 and 1326. His
    successors expanded it by buying land, forming
    alliances with some emirs and conquering others.
    The Ottomans military success was largely based
    on the use of gunpowder. They replaced their
    archers on horseback with musket-carrying foot
    soldiers. They also were among the first people
    to use cannons as weapons of attack. Even heavily
    walled cities fell to an all-out attack by the
    Turks.
  • The second Ottoman leader, Orkhan I, was Osmans
    son. He felt strong enough to declare himself
    sultan, meaning overlord or one with power.
    And in 1361, the Ottomans captured Adrianople,
    the second most important city in the Byzantine
    Empire. A new Turkish empire was on the rise. The
    Ottomans acted wisely toward the people they
    conquered. They ruled through local officials
    appointed by the sultans and often improved the
    lives of the peasants. Most Muslims had to serve
    in Turkish armies and make contributions required
    by their faith. Non-Muslims did not have to serve
    in the army but had to pay for their exemption
    with a small tax.
  • The rise of the Ottoman Empire was briefly
    interrupted in the early 1400s by a rebellious
    warrior and conqueror from Samarkand in Central
    Asia. Permanently injured by an arrow in the leg,
    he was called Timur-i-Lang, or Timur the Lame.
    Europeans called him Tamerlame. Timur burned the
    powerful city of Baghdad in present-day Iraq to
    the ground. He crushed the Ottoman forces in the
    Battle of Ankara in 1402. This defeat hatled the
    expansion of their empire.

3
Ottomans
  • Name given to the followers of Osman, the most
    successful Anatolian Turkish Ghazi. Between 1300
    and 1326 Osman built a small Muslim state on the
    Anatolian peninsula. His descendants expanded it
    by buying land, forming alliances with some
    emirs, and conquering others. In 1451, aided by
    the use of guns and canons, the Ottomans
    conquered the Byzantine Empire, establishing
    themselves as the most powerful force in the
    Middle East.
  • The Anatolian Peninsula , which is surrounded by
    the Black Sea (North), the Aegean Sea (West) and
    the Mediterranean Sea (South), was an important
    center of trade between Asia and Europe In the
    late 13th century, a new group of Turks under
    their leader Osman began to build power in the
    northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula. In
    the early 14th century, the Osman Turks began to
    expand and began the Ottoman dynasty. The Sea of
    Marmara separates the Anatolian Peninsula from
    Eastern Europe, connecting the Black and Aegean
    Seas. The Ottomans expanded west-ward and
    eventually controlled the Bosporous and the
    Dardanelles. These two straits (narrow
    passageways), separated by the Sea of Marmara,
    connect the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, which
    leads to the Mediterranean. The Byzantines had
    controlled this area for centuries.
  • Timur the Lame turned his attention to China
    after destroying Baghdad. When he did, war broke
    out among the four sons of the Ottoman sultan.
    Mehmed I defeated his brothers and took the
    throne. His son, Murad II, defeated the
    Venetians, invaded Hungary, and overcame an army
    of Italian crusaders in the Balkans. He was the
    first of four powerful sultans who led the
    expansion of the Ottoman Empire through 1566.
    Murads son Mehmed II achieved the most dramatic
    feat in Ottoman history. By the time Mehmed took
    power in 1451, the ancient city of Constantinople
    had shrunk from a population of a million to a
    mere 50,000. Although it controlled no territory
    outside its walls, it still dominated the
    Bosporous Strait. Controlling this waterway meant
    that it could choke off traffic between the
    Ottomans territories in Asia and in the Balkans.

4
Sultan
  • Sultan The supreme authority in both politics
    and the military in the Ottoman Empire the
    position was hereditary, passed from father to
    son.
  • Under the rule of the sultans, the Ottoman Empire
    grew strong. Religious tolerance and unique
    architectural designs, as seen in the mosques,
    were among the Ottoman Empires strengths and
    contributions. Gunpowder Empire were formed by
    outside conquerors who unified the regions that
    they conquered due to their mastery of the
    technology of firearms. A son of the sultan,
    although not necessarily the eldest, always
    succeeded the father. This practice led to
    struggles over succession upon the death of
    individual sultans. The losers of these struggles
    were often executed. A harem, literally meaning
    Sacred Place, was the private domain of the
    Sultan where he and his wives resided. Often a
    sultan chose 4 wives as his favorites. When a son
    became Sultan, his mother became known as the
    queen mother and acted as a major adviser to the
    throne.
  • The Grand Vizier was the Sultans chief minister
    The Vizier led meetings of the Sultans imperial
    council and during these meetings the Vizier
    acted as the voice of the Sultan. During the
    council meetings, the sultan sat behind a screen,
    overhearing the proceedings, and then privately
    indicated his desires to the grand vizier. The
    empire was divided into provinces and districts,
    each governed by officials. They were assisted by
    bureaucrats who had been trained in a palace
    school for officials in Istanbul. The sultan gave
    land to senior officials. They were then
    responsible for collecting taxes and supplying
    armies for the empire from this landed area. The
    Ulema were a group of religious advisers to the
    Sultan who administered the legal system and
    schools for educating Muslims. The Ottomans were
    Sunni Muslims. In theory, the Sultan was
    responsible for guiding the flock and maintaining
    Islamic law. In practice, the Sultans gave their
    religious duties to the Ulema. The Ottoman
    system was generally tolerant of non-Muslims, who
    made a significant minority within the empire.
    Non-Muslims paid a tax, but they were allowed to
    practice their religion or convert to Islam.
  • Mehmed II decided to face the Byzantines head-on.
    Give me Constantinople! he thundered shortly
    after taking power at age 21. Then, in 1453, he
    launched his attack. Mehmeds Turkish forces
    began firing on the city walls with mighty
    canons. One of these was a 26-foot gun that fired
    1,200-pound boulders. A chain across the Golden
    Horn between the Bosporus Strait and the Sea of
    Marmara kept the Turkish fleet out of the citys
    harbor. Finally, one night Mehmeds army tried a
    daring tactic. They dragged 70 ships over a hill
    on greased runners from the Bosporus to the
    harbor. Now Mehmeds army was attacking
    Constantinople from two sides. The city held out
    for over seven weeks, but the Turks finally found
    a break in the wall and entered the city.

5
Timur the Lame
  • A Mongol warrior from Samarkand in Central Asia
    who, in the early 1400s, invaded Ottoman
    territory. Timurs forces burned the powerful
    city of Baghdad to the ground and crushed the
    Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, halting
    the expansion of the Ottomans. However, Timurs
    forces abandoned the Middle East to invade China
    in 1404 and Timur died of illness one year later.
  • The empire of the Mongols under Timur Lenk
    (Tamerlane) collapsed in the early 15th century,
    leaving the area in a state of anarchy, without
    any recognized leadership. The modern nations of
    Iran, Iraq Afghanistan, and Pakistan inhabit this
    region today. The Ottoman sultans were
    enthusiastic patrons of the arts. The period from
    Mehmed II to the early 18th century witnessed a
    flourishing production of pottery rugs, silk,
    and other textiles jewelry and arms and armor.
    All of these adorned the palaces of the rulers.
    Artists came from all over the world to compete
    for the sultans generous rewards. By far the
    greatest contribution of the Ottoman Empire to
    world art was in architecture, especially the
    magnificent mosques of the last half of the 16th
    century. The Ottoman Turks modeled their mosques
    on the open floor plan of Constantinoples
    Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia, creating a
    prayer hall with an open central area under one
    large dome. The greatest of all Ottoman
    architects in the mid-16th century was Sinan. He
    oversaw the building of 81 mosques, each topped
    by a large dome and often framed with four
    towers, or minarets.
  • Mehmeds grandson, Selim the Grim, came to power
    in 1512. He was an effective sultan and a great
    general. In 1514, he defeated the Safavids of
    Persia at the Battle of Chaldiran. Then he swept
    south through Syria and Palestine and into North
    Africa. At the same time that Cortez was toppling
    the Aztec Empire in the Americas, Selims empire
    took responsibility for Mecca and Medina.
    Finally, he took Cairo, the intellectual center
    of the Muslim world. The once-great civilization
    of Egypt had become just another province in the
    growing Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire didnt
    reach its peak size and grandeur until the reign
    of Selims son, Suleyman I. Suleyman came to the
    throne in 1520 and ruled for 46 years. His own
    people called him Suleyman the Lawgiver. He was
    known in the West, though, as Suleyman the
    Magnificent.

6
Mehmed II
  • Mehmed II Leader of the Ottomans from 1451 to
    1481 Mehmeds forces conquered the Byzantine
    capital of Constantinople in 1453, renaming it
    Istanbul. After his victory, Mehmed opened
    Constantinople to new citizens of many religions
    and backgrounds. Jews, Christians, Muslims,
    Turks and non-Turks all flowed in. They helped
    rebuilt the city, which was renamed Istanbul.
  • With 80,000 Ottoman troops ranged against only
    7,000 Byzantine defenders, Mehmed laid siege to
    Constantinople on April 6th, 1453. The Ottomans
    bombarded the city with massive cannons hurling
    stone balls weighing up to 1,200 pounds each. The
    Byzantines took their final stand behind the
    walls along the western edge of the city. They
    fought desperately for almost two months to save
    their city. Finally, on May 29th, the walls were
    breached, and Ottoman soldiers poured into the
    city. The Byzantine emperor died in the final
    battle, and a great three-day sack of the city
    began. When Mehmed II saw the ruin and
    destruction, he lamented, What a city we have
    given over to plunder and destruction.
  • Sultan Selim I was the ruler of the Ottoman
    Empire from 1481 to 1520 Selim led successful
    conquests into Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia,
    establishing Ottoman control of several of
    Islams holy cities, including Jerusalem,
    Makkah(Mecca) Madinah(Medina). Selim declared
    himself the new caliph, the defender of Islam and
    successor to Muhammad. After their victories in
    the east, Ottoman forces spent the next few years
    advancing westward along the African coast almost
    to the Strait of Gibraltar.
  • Pashas were officials in the Ottoman Empire who
    collected taxes, maintained law and order, and
    were responsible to maintain the sultans court
    in Constantinople. After capturing Constantinople
    in 1453, the Ottoman Turks tried to complete
    their conquest of the Balkans, taking the
    Romanian territory of Walachia, but the
    Hungarians stopped their advance up the Danube
    valley. Under Sultan Suleyman I, the Ottomans
    pushed into Austria but were defeated at Vienna
    in 1529. Until the late 1600s the Ottoman Empire
    remained a threat to central Europe.

Closure Question 1 Do you think that the
Ottomans were wise in staffing their military and
government with slaves? Explain.
7
Suleyman the Lawgiver
  • Ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566
    During Suleymans reign the Empire reached its
    peak size, conquering all of the Eastern
    Mediterranean Sea and invading into Hungary and
    Austria. To govern his vast empire, Suleyman
    created a law code to handle both criminal and
    civil actions, simplified and limited taxes, and
    systematized and reduced government bureaucracy.
    These changes improved the lives of most citizens
    and made Suleyman the most powerful monarch on
    earth.
  • Suleyman was a superb military leader. He
    conquered the important European city of Belgrade
    in 1521. The next year, Turkish forces captured
    the island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean and now
    dominated the whole eastern Mediterranean.
    Applying their immense naval power, the Ottomans
    captured Tripoli on the coast of North Africa.
    They continued conquering peoples along the North
    African coastline. Although the Ottomans occupied
    only the coastal cities of North Africa, they
    managed to control trade routes to the interior
    of the continent. In 1526, Suleyman advanced into
    Hungary and Austria, throwing central Europe into
    a panic. Suleymans armies then pushed to the
    outskirts of Vienna, Austria. Reigning from
    Istanbul, Suleyman had waged war with central
    Europeans, North Africans, and Central Asians.
    Only Charles V, head of the Hapsburg Empire in
    Europe, came close to rivaling his power.
  • Binding the Ottoman Empire together in a workable
    social structure was Suleymans crowning
    achievement. The massive empire required an
    efficient government structure and social
    organization. In the halls of the U.S. Congress
    are images of some of the greatest lawgivers of
    all time. Included in that group are such persons
    as Thomas Jefferson, Moses, and Suleyman.
    Suleymans law code prescribed penalties for
    various criminal acts and for bureaucratic and
    financial corruption. He also sought to reduce
    bribes, did not allow imprisonment without a
    trial, and rejected promotions that were not
    based on merit. He also introduced the idea of a
    balanced budget for governments.

8
Devshirme
  • System which provided slave labor for the Ottoman
    Empire. The Sultans army drafted boys from the
    peoples of conquered Christian territories. The
    army educated them, converted them to Islam, and
    trained them as soldiers. 20,000 of these men
    became the sultans personal slaves and staffed
    the palace bureaucracy.
  • As a Muslim, Suleyman was required to follow
    Islamic law. In accordance with Islamic law, the
    Ottomans granted freedom of worship to other
    religious communities, particularly to Christians
    and Jews. They treated these communities as
    millets, or nations. They allowed each millet to
    follow its own religious laws and practices. The
    head of the millets reported to the sultan and
    his staff. This system kept conflict among people
    of the various religions to a minimum.
  • Suleyman had broad interests, which contributed
    to the cultural achievements of the empire. He
    found time to study poetry, history, geography,
    astronomy, mathematics, and architecture. He
    employed one of the worlds finest architects,
    Sinan, who was probably from Albania. Sinans
    masterpiece, the Mosque of Suleyman, is an
    immense complex topped with domes and half domes.
    It includes four schools, a library, a bath, and
    a hospital. Art and literature also flourished
    under Suleymans rule. This creative period was
    similar to the European Renaissance. Painters and
    poets looked to Persia and Arabia for models. The
    works that they produced used these foreign
    influences to express original Ottoman ideas in
    the Turkish style. They are excellent examples of
    cultural blending.

9
Janissaries
  • The elite guard of the Ottoman dynasty The
    Janissaries were men who were recruited from the
    Christian Balkan population, converted to Islam,
    and made the personal servants of the Ottoman
    Sultan.
  • As knowledge of firearms spread in the late 14th
    century the Ottomans began to master the new
    technology. The janissaries, trained as a
    well-armed infantry, were able to spread Ottoman
    control in the Balkans. With their new forces,
    the Ottomans defeated the Serbs at the Battle of
    Kosovo in 1389. During the 1390s, the Ottomans
    advanced northward and annexed Bulgaria. Over the
    next 300 years, Ottoman rule expanded to areas in
    western Asia, North Africa, and Europe.
  • Despite Suleymans magnificent social and
    cultural achievements, the Ottoman Empire was
    losing ground. Suleyman killed his ablest son and
    drove another into exile. His third son, the
    incompetent Selim II, inherited the throne.
    Suleyman set the pattern for later sultans to
    gain and hold power. It became customary for each
    new sultan to have his brothers strangled. The
    sultan would then keep his sons prisoner in the
    harem, cutting them off from education or contact
    with the world. This practice produced a long
    line of weak sultans who eventually brought ruin
    on the empire. However, the Ottoman Empire
    continued to influence the world into the early
    20th century.

Closure Question 2 How did Suleymans selection
of a successor eventually spell disaster for the
Ottoman Empire?
10
Closure Assignment 1
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 18, Section 1
  • Do you think that the Ottomans were wise in
    staffing their military and government with
    slaves? Explain.
  • How did Suleymans selection of a successor
    eventually spell disaster for the Ottoman Empire?
  • Do you think that Suleymans religious tolerance
    helped or hurt the Ottoman Empire? Explain.

11
Cultural Blending
  • The cultural changes caused by interaction
    between two groups. Cultural blending is most
    often caused by one or more of the following four
    activities migration, pursuit of religious
    freedom or conversion, trade, and conquest.
    Cultural blending leads to changes in language,
    religion and ethical systems, styles of
    government, racial or ethnic blending, and arts
    and architecture.
  • Each time a culture interacts with another, it
    is exposed to ideas, technologies, foods, and
    ways of life not exactly like its own.
    Continental crossroads, trade routes, ports, and
    the borders of countries are places where
    cultural blending commonly begins. Societies that
    are able to benefit from cultural blending are
    those that are open to new ways and are willing
    to adapt and change. The blended ideas spread
    throughout the culture and produce a new pattern
    of behavior. Cultural blending has several basic
    causes. The blending that contributed to the
    culture of the Ottomans, which you just read
    about in Section 1, depended on some of these
    activities. Surrounded by the peoples of
    Byzantium, the Turks were motivated to win
    territory for their empire. The Ottoman Empires
    location on a major trading route created many
    opportunities for contact with different
    cultures. Suleymans interest in learning and
    culture prompted him to bring the best foreign
    artists and scholars to his court. They brought
    new ideas about art, literature, and learning to
    the empire.
  • Cultural blending may lead to changes in
    language, religion, styles of government, the use
    of technology, and military tactics. These
    changes often reflect unique aspects of several
    cultures. Sometimes the written characters of one
    language are used in another, as in the case of
    written Chinese characters used in the Japanese
    language. In the Safavid Empire, the language
    spoken was Persian. But after the area converted
    to Islam, a significant number of Arabic words
    appeared in the Persian language. Buddhism spread
    throughout Asia. Yet the Buddhism practiced by
    Tibetans is different from Japanese Zen Buddhism.
    The concept of democratic government spread to
    many areas of the globe. Although the basic
    principles are similar, it is not practiced
    exactly the same way in each country.

Closure Question 1 Which of the results of
cultural blending do you think has the most
lasting effect on a country? Explain.
12
Safavid
  • Safavid Shia Muslim dynasty established in the
    15th century which controlled territory in
    southern Asia bordered by India (east), Russia
    (north), and the Ottoman Empire (west).
    Originally members of an Islamic religion
    brotherhood, the Safavids built a powerful army
    under the leadership of Ismail and established a
    religious state. Any citizen who did not convert
    to Shiism was put to death. The Safavids clashed
    repeatedly with the Ottoman Sunnis.
  • Shah Esmail was the founder of the Safavid
    dynasty a devout Shia Muslim, Esmail was a
    descendant of Saft od-Din, who had established a
    community of Turks in Azerbaijan, near the
    Caspian Sea. Esmail led Shia Muslims to conquer
    much of Iran and Iraq in 1501 and gradually
    expanded Safavid control in southern Asia. The
    Shia faith was used as a unifying force in the
    Safavid empire. Esmail made conversion to Shia
    Islam mandatory for all living in his empire.
    Many Sunnis were killed or exiled as a result.
  • Conquest and ongoing cultural interaction fueled
    the development of the Safavid Empire.
    Originally, the Safavids were members of an
    Islamic religions brotherhood named after the
    founder, Safi al-Din. In the 15th century, the
    Safavids aligned themselves with the Shia branch
    of Islam. The Safavids were also squeezed
    geographically between the Ottomans and Uzbek
    tribespeople and the Mughal Empire. To protect
    themselves from these potential enemies, the
    Safavids concentrated on building a powerful
    army. The Safavid military became a force to
    reckon with. In 1499, a 12-year-old named Ismail
    began to seize most of what is now Iran. Two
    years later he completed the task. To celebrate
    his achievement, he took the ancient Persian
    title of shah, or king. He also established Shia
    Islam as the state religion.

Closure Question 2 Why might Ismail have
become so intolerant of the Sunni Muslims?
13
Shah
  • Shah King leaders of the Safavid Dynasty
    assumed this title and, like the Ottoman sultans,
    claimed to be the spiritual leaders of all Islam.
  • Esmail sent Shia preachers into the Anatolian
    Peninsula to convert members of Turkish tribes in
    the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman sultan tried to
    halt this activity, but Esmail refused to stop.
    Esmail also ordered the massacre of Sunni
    Muslims when he conquered Baghdad in 1508. Tabriz
    was the original capital of the Safavid Dynasty
    established by Esmail. Located in disputed
    territory between the Safavids and Ottomans just
    north of modern Iraq, Tabriz became the sight of
    many battles between the two empires. Alarmed by
    the activities of the Safavids, the Ottoman
    sultan, Selim I, advanced against the Safavids in
    Persia. With their muskets and artillery, the
    Ottomans won a major battle near Tabriz. However,
    Selim could not maintain control of the area and
    a few years later Esmail regained Tabriz.
  • The Safavid rulers were eagerly supported by the
    Shias. In return, the shahs declared Shia Islam
    to be the state religion. Shahs were more
    available to their subjects than were rulers
    elsewhere. The show great familiarity to
    strangers, remarked one visitor, and even to
    their own subjects, eating and drinking with them
    pretty freely.
  • The Safavid shahs played an active part in trade
    and manufacturing activity. Most goods in the
    empire traveled by horse or camel caravans, and
    the roads were kept fairly clear of thieves and
    bandits. Safavid Persia was probably not as
    prosperous as its neighbors to the east and west
    the Moguls and the Ottomans. Hemmed in by the
    sea power of the Europeans to the south and the
    land power of the Ottomans to the west, the
    Safavids found trade difficult. Riza-i-Abbasi was
    the most famous artist during the Safavid
    dynasty soft colors and flowing movement
    dominated the features of Safavid painting.

14
Shah Abbas
  • Grandson of Shah Ismail who ruled to Safavid
    Empire beginning in 1587 Abbas, similar to
    Suleyman in the Ottoman Empire, led the Safavids
    at the height of their power. He reformed the
    government to eliminate corruption, encouraged
    religious toleration and trade with Europe, and
    supported the arts, bringing hundred of Chinese
    artisans to teach the Safavids intricate
    metalwork, miniature paintings, pottery, and
    weaving. Persian carpets, woven with intricate
    designs and made in the Safavid Empire, became
    extremely popular in Europe.
  • In the 1580s, the Ottomans went on the attack.
    They placed Azerbaijan under Ottoman rule and
    controlled the Caspian Sea with their fleet. This
    forced the new Safavid shah, Abbas, to sign a
    peace treaty in which he lost much territory in
    the northwest. Esfaban was the 2nd capital of the
    Safavid Dynasty established by Shah Abbas after
    Safavids were defeated by Ottomans in the late
    16th century and located in the heart of
    modern-day Iran.
  • Abbas adorned his new capital city with the
    latest Persian architecture. Esfaban became one
    of the worlds largest cities with a population
    of one million. Under Abbas, who ruled from 1588
    to 1629, the Safavids reached the high point of
    their glory. Similar to the Ottoman Empire,
    administrators were trained to run the kingdom.
    Shah Abbas also strengthened his army, which he
    armed with the latest weapons. After the death of
    Abbas in 1629, the Safavid dynasty gradually
    lost its vigor. Most of Abbas successors lacked
    his talent and political skills.
  • Shah Abbas reformed aspects of both military and
    civilian life. He limited the power of the
    military and created two new armies that would be
    loyal to him alone. One of these was an army of
    Persians. The other was a force that Abbas
    recruited from the Christian north and modeled
    after the Ottoman janissaries. He equipped both
    of these armies with modern artillery. Abbas also
    reformed his government. He punished corruption
    severely and promoted only officials who proved
    their competence and loyalty. He hired foreigners
    from neighboring countries to fill positions in
    the government.

15
Esfahan
  • The 2nd capital of the Safavid Dynasty
    established by Shah Abbas after Safavids were
    defeated by Ottomans in the late 16th century and
    located in the heart of modern-day Iran.
  • Orthodoxy is strict belief in and obedience to
    traditional religious teachings The power of Shia
    religious elements began to increase in the
    Safavid court and in society at large.
    Intellectual freedom marked the height of the
    empire. However, the pressure to conform to
    traditional religious beliefs increased in the
    17th century. For example, Persian women had
    considerable freedom during the early empire. In
    the 17th century however they were forced into
    seclusion and required to adopt the wearing of
    the veil. In the early 18th century, during the
    reign of Shah Hussein, Afghan peoples invaded and
    seized the capital of Esfaban. The remnants of
    the Safavid ruling family were forced to retreat
    to Azerbaijan, their original homeland. Anarchy
    is lawlessness and disorder following the
    collapse of the Safavid dynasty its territory
    entered a long period of political and social
    anarchy.
  • With a design that covered four and a half miles,
    Esfahan was considered one of the most beautiful
    in the world. It was a showplace for the many
    artisans, both foreign and Safavid, who worked on
    the buildings and the objects in them. For
    example, 300 Chinese potters produced glazed
    building tiles for the buildings in the city, and
    Armenians wove carpets. Shah Abbas brought
    hundreds of Chinese artisans to Esfahan. Working
    with Safavid artists, they produced intricate
    metalwork, miniature paintings, caligraphy,
    glasswork, tile work, and pottery. This
    collaboration gave rise to artwork that blended
    Chinese and Persian ideas. These decorations
    beautified the many mosques, palaces, and
    marketplaces.
  • The most important result of Western influence on
    the Safavids, however, may have been the demand
    for Persian carpets. This demand helped change
    carpet weaving from a local craft to a national
    industry. In the beginning, the carpets reflected
    traditional Persian themes. As the empire became
    more culturally blended, the designs incorporated
    new themes. In the 16th century, Shah Abbas sent
    artists to Italy to study under the Renaissance
    artist Raphael. Rugs then began to reflect
    European designs.

Closure Question 3 How did the location of the
Safavid Empire contribute to the cultural
blending in the empire?
16
Closure Assignment 2
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 18, Section 2
  • Which of the results of cultural blending do you
    think has the most lasting effect on a country?
    Explain.
  • Why might Ismail have become so intolerant of
    the Sunni Muslims?
  • How did the location of the Safavid Empire
    contribute to the cultural blending in the empire?

17
Mughals
  • Mughals - Natives of the mountainous region north
    of the Indus River valley who established a
    dynasty which controlled most of India from 1526
    to 1707. The Mughal culture combined the religion
    of Islam with the warring nature of the Mongols.
  • The Gupta Empire crumbled in the late 400s.
    First, Huns from Central Asia invaded. Then,
    beginning in the 700s, warlike Muslim tribes from
    Central Asia carved northwestern India into many
    small kingdoms. The people who invaded descended
    from Muslim Turks and Afghans. Their leader was a
    descendant of Timur the Lame and of the Mongol
    conqueror Genghis Khan. They called themselves
    Mughals, which means Mongols. The land they
    invaded had been through a long period of
    turmoil.
  • The 8th century began with a long clash between
    Hindus and Muslims in this land of many kingdoms.
    For almost 300 years, the Muslims were able to
    advance only as far as the Indus River valley.
    Starting around the year 1000, however,
    well-trained Turkish armies swept into India. Led
    by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, they devastated
    Indian cities and temples in 17 brutal campaigns.
    These attacks left the region weakened and
    vulnerable to other conquerors. Delhi eventually
    became the capital of a loose empire of Turkish
    warlords called the Delhi Sultanate. These
    sultans treated the Hindus as conquered people.
  • Between the 13th and 16th centuries, 33 different
    sultans ruled this divided territory from their
    seat in Delhi. In 1398, Timur the Lame destroyed
    Delhi. The city was so completely devastated that
    according to one witness, for months, not a bird
    moved in the city. Delhi eventually was rebuilt.
    But it was not until the 16th century that a
    leader arose who would unify the empire. In 1494,
    an 11-year-old boy named Babur inherited a
    kingdom in the area that is now Uzbekistan and
    Tajikstan. It was only a tiny kingdom, and his
    elders soon took it away and drove him south. But
    Babur built up an army. In the years that
    followed, he swept down into India and laid the
    foundation for the vast Mughal Empire.

18
Babur
  • Babur The founder of the Mughal dynasty a
    descendant of Gengis Khan Timur the Lame,
    Baburs small forces used modern weaponry,
    including firearms, to conquer northern India by
    1526.
  • Delhi. a city in northern India, was captured by
    Babur in 1526. Babur had inherited a part of
    Timur Lenks empire in an upland river valley of
    the Syr Darya. As a youth he led a group of
    warriors who seized Kabul in 1504. Thirteen years
    later, Baburs forces crossed the Kyhber Pass
    into India. Baburs forces were far smaller than
    those of his enemies. However, they had advanced
    weapons, including artillery, and used them to
    great effect. Babur continued his conquests in
    North India until his death in 1530 at the age of
    47.
  • Babur was a brilliant general. In 1526, for
    example, he led 12,000 troops to victory against
    an army of 100,000 commanded by a sultan of
    Delhi. A year later, Babur also defeated a
    massive rajput army. After Baburs death, his
    incompetent son, Humayun, lost most of the
    territory Babur had gained. Baburs 13-year-old
    grandson took over the throne after Humayuns
    death. Baburs grandson was called Akbar, which
    means Great. Akbar certainly lived up to his
    name, ruling India with wisdom and tolerance from
    1556 to 1605.
  • Akbar recognized military power as the root of
    his strength. In his opinion, a King must always
    be aggressive so that his neighbors will not try
    to conquer him. Like the Safavids and the
    Ottomans, Akbar equipped his armies with heavy
    artillery. Cannons enabled him to break into
    walled cities and extend his rule into much of
    the Deccan plateau. In a brilliant move, he
    appointed some rajputs as officers. In this way
    he turned potential enemies into allies. This
    combination of military power and political
    wisdom enabled Akbar to unify a land of at least
    100 million people more than in all of Europe
    put together.
  • Akbar was a genius at cultural blending. A
    Muslim, he continued the Islamic tradition of
    religious freedom. He permitted people of other
    religions to practice their faiths. He proved his
    tolerance by marrying Hindu princesses without
    forcing them to convert. He allowed his wives to
    practice their religious rituals in the palace.
    He proved his tolerance again by abolishing both
    the tax on Hindu pilgrims and the hated jizya, or
    tax on non-Muslims. He even appointed a Spanish
    Jesuit to tutor his second son.

19
Akbar
  • Akbar Grandson of Babur and perhaps the
    greatest conquering Mogul monarch Akbar is best
    known for religious tolerance. Though a Muslim
    himself, he granted religious freedom to his
    subjects, married a Hindu woman, and permitted
    Jesuit priests to preach in his empire.
  • Akbar was only 14 when he took the throne. By
    using heavy artillery his armies were able to
    overpower the stone fortresses of their rivals.
    The empire he established appeared highly
    centralized, but was actually a collection of
    semi-independent states held together by the
    power of the emperor. Zamindars were local
    officials chosen and given land by the emperor
    who were responsible to collect taxes from those
    living in their area and forward them to the
    emperor. All Indian peasants were required to pay
    about 1/3 of their annual harvest to the state,
    but the system was applied justly. When bad
    weather struck in the 1590s, taxes were reduced
    or suspended altogether. Thanks to a long period
    of peace and political stability, trade and
    manufacturing flourished.
  • Akbar governed through a bureaucracy of
    officials. Natives and foreigners, Hindus and
    Muslims, could all rise to high office. This
    approach contributed to the quality of his
    government. Akbars chief finance minister, Todar
    Mal, a Hindu, created a clever and effective
    taxation policy. He levied a tax similar to the
    present-day U.S. graduated income tax,
    calculating it as a percentage of the value of
    the peasants crops. Because this tax was fair
    and affordable, the number of peasants who paid
    it increased. This payment brought in much needed
    money for the empire. Akbars land policies had
    more mixed results. He gave generous land grants
    to his bureaucrats. After they died, however, he
    reclaimed the lands and distributed them as he
    saw fit. On the positive side, this policy
    prevented the growth of feudal aristocracies. On
    the other hand, it did not encourage dedication
    and hard work by the Mughal officials. Their
    children would not inherit the land or benefit
    from their parents work. So the officials
    apparently saw no point in devoting themselves to
    their property.

Closure Question 1 Why were Akbars tax
policies so successful?
20
Sikhs
  • A nonviolent religious group whose doctrines
    contained elements similar to Hinduism and Sufism
    (Islamic mysticism) however, the Sikhs see
    themselves as an independent tradition and not an
    offshoot of another religion. The Sikhs protected
    Khusrau, Akbars grandson who rebelled against
    the rule of his parents, Jahangir and Nur Jahan.
    As a result, future Mughal rulers targeted the
    Sikhs as their enemies, arresting and torturing
    many of their leaders.
  • As Akbar extended the Mughal Empire, he welcomed
    influences from the many cultures in the empire.
    This cultural blending affected art, education,
    politics, and language. Persian was the language
    of Akbars court and of high culture. The common
    people, however, spoke Hindi, a language derived
    from Sanskrit. Hindi remains one of the most
    widely spoken languages in India today. Out of
    the Mughal armies, where soldiers of many
    backgrounds rubbed shoulders, came yet another
    new language. This language was Urdu, which means
    from the soldiers camp. A blend of Arabic,
    Persian, and Hindi, Urdu is today the official
    language of Pakistan.
  • The arts flourished at the Mughal court,
    especially in the form of book illustrations.
    These small, highly detailed and colorful
    paintings were called miniatures. They were
    brought to a peak of perfection in the Safavid
    Empire. Baburs son, Humayun, brought two masters
    of this art to his court to teach it to the
    Mughals. Some of the most famous Mughal
    miniatures adorned the Akbarnamah (Book of
    Akbar), the story of the great emperors
    campaigns and deeds. Indian art drew from
    traditions developed earlier in Rajput kingdoms.
    Hindu literature also enjoyed a revival in
    Akbars time. The poet Tulsi Das, for example,
    was a contemporary of Akbars. He retold the epic
    love story of Rama and Sita from the fourth
    century B.C. Indian poem the Ramayana in Hindi.
    This retelling, the Ramcaritmanas, is now even
    more popular than the original.

21
Shah Jahan
  • Shah Jahan Emperor of the Mughals from 1628 to
    1658 Expanded the boundaries of the empire
    through invasion of the Deccan Plateau (Central
    India) but also increased taxes, leading to
    poverty among his subjects.
  • Akbar died in 1605 and was succeeded by his son
    Jahangir. During the early years of his reign, he
    continued to strengthen the central governments
    control over his vast empire. Jahangirs power
    began to weaken when he fell under the influence
    of one of his wives, Persian-born Nur Jahan. As
    Jahangir lost interest in governing, he gave more
    authority to his wife. The empress used her
    position to enrich her own family. Shah Jahans
    rule was marred by his failure to deal with
    growing domestic problems. He had inherited a
    nearly empty treasury. His military campaigns and
    expensive building projects put a heavy strain on
    imperial finances, compelling him to raise taxes.
  • Akbar devoted himself to architecture too. The
    style developed under his reign is still known as
    Akbar period architecture. Its massive but
    graceful structures are decorated with intricate
    stonework that portrays Hindu themes. The capital
    city of Fatehpur Sikri is one of the most
    important examples of this type of architecture.
    Akbar had this red-sandstone city built to thank
    a Sufi saint, Sheik Salim Chisti, who had
    predicted the birth of his first son. With
    Akbars death in 1605, the Mughal court changed
    to deal with the changing times. The next three
    emperors each left his mark on the Mughal Empire.
  • Akbars son called himself Jahangir, or Grasper
    of the World. However, for most of his reign, he
    left the affairs of state to his wife, who ruled
    with an iron hand. Jahangirs wife was the
    Persian princess Nur Jahan. She was a brilliant
    politician who perfectly understood the use of
    power. As the real ruler of India, she installed
    her father as prime minister in the Mughal court.
    She saw Jahangirs son Khusrau as her ticket to
    future power. But when Khusrau rebelled against
    his father, Nur Jahan removed him. She then
    shifted her favor to another son, Shah Jahan.

Closure Question 2 Why was Nur Jahan able to
hold so much power in Jahangirs court?
22
Taj Mahal
  • Taj Mahal Large building project built during
    the rule of Shah Jahan in the city of Agra in the
    mid 17th century. The project took 20 years to
    build and is considered the most beautiful
    building in India.
  • Women had long played an active role in Mogul
    tribal society. Mogul rulers often relied on
    female relatives for political advice. To a
    degree, these Mogul attitudes toward women
    affected Indian society. Women from aristocratic
    families frequently received salaries and were
    allowed to own land. At the same time, the
    Moguls placed certain restrictions on women under
    their interpretations of Islamic law. These
    practices generally were adopted by Hindus. The
    practice of isolating women was followed by many
    Hindus.
  • Many Hindu practices remained unchanged by Mogul
    rule. The custom of suttee continued in spite of
    efforts by the Moguls to abolish it. Child
    marriage also remained common. Another major
    artistic achievement of the Moguls was painting.
    Like architecture, painting in Mogul India
    resulted from the blending of two cultures
    Persian and Indian. Akbar established a state
    workshop for aristists who worked under the
    guidance of Persian masters to create the Mogul
    school of painting. The Akbar style includes
    the portrayal of humans in action, and Akbar
    encouraged his artists to imitate European art
    forms.
  • Jahangirs son and successor, Shah Jahan, could
    not tolerate competition and secured his throne
    by assassinating all his possible rivals. He had
    a great passion for two things beautiful
    buildings and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Nur Jahan
    had arranged this marriage between Janagirs son
    and her niece for political reasons. Shah Jahan,
    however, fell genuinely in love with his Persian
    princess. In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39
    while giving birth to her 14th child. To enshrine
    his wifes memory, he ordered that a tomb be
    built as beautiful as she was beautiful. Fine
    white marble and fabulous jewels were gathered
    from many parts of Asia. This memorial, the Taj
    Mahal, has been called one of the most beautiful
    buildings in the world. Its towering marble dome
    and slender minaret towers look like lace and
    seem to change color as the sun moves across the
    sky.

23
Aurangzeb
  • Aurangzeb Emperor of Moguls from 1658 to 1707
    expanded the Mogul Empire to its largest size,
    covering nearly all of India. Ended religious
    freedom, imposing a tax on non-Muslims and
    forcing Hindus to convert to Islam.
  • Aurangzeb is one of the most controversial rulers
    in the history of India. Constant warfare and
    religious intolerance made his subjects
    resentful. As a man of high principle, Aurangzeb
    attempted to eliminate many of what he considered
    to be Indias social evils. Suttee was a Hindu
    custom of cremating a widow alive on her
    husbands funeral pyre Aurangzeb outlawed this
    practice. Aurangzeb was a devout Muslim and
    adopted a number of measures that reversed Mogul
    policies of religious tolerance. He tried to
    forbid gambling and drinking. He also prohibited
    the building of new Hindu temples. These policies
    led to Hindu outcries and domestic unrest. A
    number of revolts broke out in provinces
    throughout the empire. After Aurangzebs death
    there were many contenders for the throne. India
    was increasingly divided and vulnerable to attack
    from abroad. In 1739, Delhi was sacked by the
    Persians, who left it in ashes.
  • Calcutta and Madras were British trading forts
    established in the mid-17th century from which
    England carried Indian-made cotton goods to the
    East Indies, where they were traded for spices.
    The arrival of the British hasted the decline of
    the Mogul Empire. British successes in India
    attracted rivals, especially the French. The
    French established their own forts. For a brief
    period, the French went on the offensive, even
    capturing the British fort at Madras.

Closure Question 3 Why were the policies of
Aurangzeb so destructive to the Mughal Empire?
24
Closure Assignment 3
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 18, Section 3
  • Why were Akbars tax policies so successful?
  • Why was Nur Jahan able to hold so much power in
    Jahangirs court?
  • Why were the policies of Aurangzeb so destructive
    to the Mughal Empire?
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