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Earth Systems Overview

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Earth Systems Overview The Earth is a system consisting of four major interacting components: the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere, and – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Systems Overview


1
Earth Systems Overview
  • The Earth is a system consisting of four major
    interacting components
  • the atmosphere,
  • the biosphere,
  • the hydrosphere, and
  • the geosphere
  • Lets examine each of these four spheres in
    detail

2
Earth Systems Overview
TEK Define and identify the components of the
geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere
and biosphere and the interactions among them
(cycles).
3
Lithosphere
  • The upper solid surface of the earth, which is
    made of rocks, is called the lithosphere.
  • Its depth is not the same everywhere. It is
    thinnest below the oceans and thickest below the
    continents.
  • It has two layers, i.e. ,SIAL and SIMA.
  • It is broken into 10 large rigid plates.
    Movements of the lithosphere plates results in
    the formation of deep sea, trenches, mountain
    ranges as well as earthquakes.

4
Atmosphere
  • A thin layer of odourless, tasteless , colourless
    gasses surrounding the earth is called
    atmosphere.
  • It is essential not only for man ,but for all
    forms of life as it acts like a blanket in
    controlling heat coming from the sun.
  • It is a mixture of many gasses like Nitrogen
    -78.03,Oxygen- 20.99, Argon-0.93, Carbon
    dioxide-0.03etc.
  • Besides hydrogen,neon,helium,ozoneetc. Are also
    found.
  • It also contains water vapour, dust particles,
    smoke particles ,salt particles etc.
  • The atmosphere is divided into the following
    layers

5
The Atmosphere
  • The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air,
    which we call the atmosphere.
  • The atmosphere consists of four unique layers
    (the troposphere, the stratosphere, the
    mesosphere, and the thermosphere).
  • The atmosphere reaches over 350 miles up from
    the surface of the Earth.
  • The atmosphere is primarily composed of nitrogen
    (about 78) and oxygen (about 21). Other
    components exist in small quantities.

6
Hydro sphere
  • Hydro sphere
  • The hydrosphere literally means all the water
    of all earth. It consists of both the relatively
    shallow layer of water which covers about three
    quarters of the earth surface, forming the
    oceans, seas, lakes, ice sheets etc.
  • The oceans covering 71of the earth surface,
    hold 97of all the earths water.
  • About 75of the total fresh water is locked up
    in glaciers and ice sheets.

7
Hydrosphere
  • The hydrosphere contains all the water found on
    our planet.
  • Surface Water Includes the ocean as well as
    water from lakes, rivers and creeks.
  • Ground Water Includes water trapped in the soil
    and groundwater.
  • Atmosphere water vapor.
  • Frozen water Includes ice caps and glaciers.
    Specifically called the cryosphere.
  • Only about 3 of the water on Earth is fresh
    water, and about 70 of the fresh water is frozen
    in the form of glacial ice. (0.9 in liquid form)

8
Biosphere
  • Biosphere is that portion of the earth which is
    occupied by various forms of life.
  • It is an intricately interlocked system ,which
    contains all that is needed for life,all that is
    available for life and all that ever will be
    available.
  • The total thickness of the biosphere is only
    about 24kms.Vertically it only extends as high as
    the tops of the tallest trees.
  • The ingredients of the biosphere are constantly
    recycled and renewed in nature.
  • It is a kind of link between the other spheres of
    the earth. Without it the earth would be a
    sterile planet and human life and human
    activities would not exists.

9
The Biosphere
  • The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth,
    and includes all living organisms (including
    humans), and all organic matter that has not yet
    decomposed.
  • The biosphere is structured into a hierarchy
    known as a food chain.
  • Energy and nutrients, like carbon, are
    transferred from one level of the food chain to
    the next.

10
  • EXOSPHERE - 600km and above
  • IONOSPHERE- 80-600 km gt ionization takes
    place,
  • reflecting
    radio waves
  • MESOPAUSE- upper limit of mesosphere
  • MESOSPHERE- 50-80 km gt ozone gas is found,
    absorbs
  • ultraviolet rays
  • STRATOPAUSAE- upper limit of stratosphere
  • STRATOSPHERE- 12-50km gt aircraft moves, mother of
    pearl
  • clouds
  • TROPOPAUSE - upper boundary is tropopause,
  • TROPOSPHERE- 0-12kmgtrain ,fog, mist ,hail
    etc. take place

11
Geosphere
  • The geosphere is the solid part of the earth,
    from the core to the surface.
  • Includes volcanoes, rocks, minerals, coal, oil
    etc.
  • Mineral resources are mined from the geosphere.

12
Earth System Science
Earth System Science is the study of how the four
spheres of the Earth system interact continually,
each affecting the others.
Example A scientist that studies global warming
is an Earth System Scientist.
13
System Interactions
Volcanoes (Lithosphere) erupt, sending ash and
gases into the air (atmosphere) and sending lava
and ash down onto surrounding forests (biosphere)
and human habitations (biosphere).
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Biosphere
14
System Interactions
Hurricanes (atmosphere) sweep across the ocean
(hydrosphere) and onto the land (geosphere),
damaging the dwellings of people (biosphere) who
live along the coast.
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Biosphere
15
System Interactions
Earthquakes (geosphere) can damage buildings
which may kill people (biosphere), as well as
cause fires which release gases into the air
(atmosphere). Earthquakes in the ocean may cause
a tsunami (hydrosphere) which can eventually hit
land and kill both animals and people (biosphere).
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
16
CFA
1. Name the four main earth systems.
Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere
2. Which branch of science studies the
interactions between these earth systems?
Earth System Science Example is a scientist that
studies global warming.
3. A forest fire would effect which earth systems?
All four Fires (Biosphere) will destroy plant
and animal life while releasing smoke and other
contaminants into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and
geosphere.
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