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Garrison Oceanography 7e Chapter 15

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Title: Garrison Oceanography 7e Chapter 15


1
Oceanography An Invitation to Marine Science,
7th Tom Garrison
Chapter 15 Marine Animals
2
Chapter 15 Study Plan
  • Animals Arose Near the End of the Oxygen
    Revolution
  • Invertebrates Are the Most Successful and
    Abundant Animals
  • The Worm Phyla Are the Link to Advanced Animals
  • Advanced Invertebrates Have Complex Bodies and
    Internal Systems
  • Construction of Complex Chordate Bodies Begins on
    a Stiffening Scaffold
  • Vertebrate Evolution Traces a Long and Diverse
    History
  • Fishes Are Earths Most Abundant and Successful
    Vertebrates
  • Fishes Are Successful because of Unique
    Adaptations
  • Sea Turtles and Marine Crocodiles Are Ocean-Going
    Reptiles
  • Some Marine Birds Are the Worlds Most Efficient
    Flyers
  • Marine Mammals Include the Largest Animals Ever
    to have Lived

3
Chapter 15 Main Concepts
  • Animals could not evolve until atmospheric oxygen
    was abundant. Photosynthetic autotrophs (mainly
    cyanobacteria) changed the composition of the
    atmosphere during the oxygen revolution.
  • More than 90 of all living and fossil animals,
    including all of the earliest multi-cellular
    animals, are invertebrates animals without
    backbones.
  • By nearly any criterion, arthropods a group
    that includes lobsters, shrimp, crabs, and
    insects are the most successful of Earths
    animals.
  • The Chordates possess a stiffening scaffold a
    notochord on which they are constructed. In
    vertebrate chordates, this structure persists as
    a vertebral column.
  • Fishes are Earths most abundant and successful
    vertebrates.
  • Marine mammals include the whales, the largest
    animals ever to have lived on Earth.

4
Animals Arose near the End of the Oxygen
Revolution
  • During the oxygen revolution (2 billion to 400
    million years ago), photosynthetic autotrophs
    mostly bacteria caused a rapid rise in the
    amount of oxygen in the air, which made possible
    the evolution of animals. Animals are thought to
    have arisen between 900 and 600 million years ago.

5
Phylum Porifera Contains the Sponges
  • The body plan of a simple sponge.

6

Water out
Central cavity
Water in
Collar cell
Stepped Art
Fig. 15-3b-d, p. 406
7
Stinging Cells Define the Phylum Cnidaria
  • Anatomy of a reef coral polyp, with enlarged
    detail showing a cross section of the outer
    covering and tissue. The symbiotic photosynthetic
    zooxanthellae are crucial to the survival of this
    type of coral.

8
Advanced Invertebrates Have Complex Bodies and
Internal Systems
  • Bivalves are suspension feeders that make their
    living by filtering the water for edible
    particles. In this diagram (showing a bivalve
    with its left shell removed), water and tiny bits
    of food are swept into the animal by the movement
    of tracts of cilia on the gills. Food settles
    onto the gills and is then driven toward the
    mouth and swallowed.

9
Sea Stars Are Typical of the Phylum Echinodermata
  • The water-vascular system in a sea star (shown in
    blue). (a) Water enters the animals body through
    a sieve plate, which excludes material that might
    clog the tubes and valves, and circulates through
    canals.

10
Construction of Complex Chordate Bodies Begins on
a Stiffening Scaffold
  • Chordata is the most advanced animal phylum. All
    chordates have, at some time during development,
    a notochord. Both invertebrate and vertebrate
    chordates are represented in ocean environments.
  • In some chordates the notochord is lost during
    development. These are the invertebrate
    chordates.
  • Most chordates (about 95) retain the notochord
    in some form. These are the vertebrate chordates.

11
Vertebrate Evolution Traces a Long and Diverse
History
  • One proposed family tree for the vertebrates and
    their relatives, the invertebrate chordates.

12
Class Osteichthyes Comprises the Familiar Bony
Fishes
  • About 90 of all living fishes are contained
    within the osteichthyan order Teleostei, which
    contains the cod, tuna, halibut, goldfish, and
    other familiar species.
  • (left) Some of the diversity exhibited by teleost
    (bony) fishes. These fishes are not all drawn to
    the same scale.

13
Fishes Are Well Adapted to Their Environment
  • What are some problems posed by living in a
    marine environment?
  • Movement, shape and propulsion - fish must be
    able to move through water, which is 1,000 times
    denser and 100 times more viscous than air
  • Maintenance of level - fish tissue is usually
    denser than the surrounding water, so fish must
    have a system to keep from sinking
  • Gas exchange - the problem of extracting oxygen
    from water
  • Osmotic considerations - fish need a system to
    maintain proper salt levels in their bodies
  • Feeding and defense - competitive pressure among
    a large number of fish resulted in the evolution
    of a wide variety of feeding habits

14
Fishes Are Well Adapted to Their Environment
  • Turbulence and drag. At the same speed, with the
    same frontal area, shape (a) will have about 15
    times as much drag as shape (c). Shape (b) shows
    only a small improvement in drag over the disk.

15
Gas Exchange Is Accomplished through Gills
  • Cutaway of a mackerel, showing the position of
    the gills (a). Broad arrows in (b) and (c)
    indicate the flow of water over the gill
    membranes of a single gill arch. Small arrows in
    (c) indicate the direction of blood flow through
    the capillaries of the gill filament in a
    direction opposite to that of the incoming water.
    This mechanism is called countercurrent flow.

16
Successful Fishes Quickly Adapt to Their Osmotic
Circumstances
  • Osmoregulation in freshwater and marine fishes.

17
Like All Birds, Marine Birds Evolved from
Dinosaur-Like Ancestors
  • Only 270 of the known species of birds qualify as
    seabirds. Seabirds have salt excreting glands to
    eliminate salt taken in with their food.
  • There are four groups of seabirds
  • Tubenoses - this group includes the albatrosses
    and petrels
  • Pelicans - this group includes relatives of the
    penguins that have webbed feet and throat pouches
  • Gulls - these birds are found along the shore,
    where they scavenge for food.
  • Penguins - these birds have lost the ability to
    fly, but are excellent swimmers

18
Marine Mammals Share Common Features
  • What are the three groups of marine mammals?
  • Cetacea porpoises, dolphins and whales
  • Carnivora - seals, sea lions, walruses and sea
    otters
  • Sirenia manatees and dugongs

19
Marine Mammals Share Common Features
  • A few of the marine mammals of the Order Cetacea.
    Suborder Mysticeti (mystidos unknowable)
    whales are known for having no teeth and instead
    use baleen for filter feeding.

20
Marine Mammals Share Common Features
  • Some representatives of the order Cetacea.
    Suborder Odontoceti (odontos tooth) whales are
    known for being active predators who use teeth
    for feeding. The toothed whales search for food
    using echolocation, a biological equivalent to
    sonar.

21
The Order Cetacea Includes the Whales
  • Marine animals have evolved effective adaptations
    for capturing prey, avoiding danger and
    maintaining thermal and fluid balance with their
    environment.
  • (above) Echolocation, used by toothed whales to
    locate and perhaps stun their prey.

22
The Order Cetacea Includes the Whales
  • A plate of baleen and its position in the jaw of
    a baleen whale. For clarity, the illustration
    shows an area of the mouth cut away.

23
Chapter 15 in Perspective
  • In this chapter you learned that animals must
    ultimately depend on primary producers
    (autotrophs) for nutrition. Animals could not
    exist on Earth until increasing levels of free
    oxygen in the atmosphere permitted them to
    metabolize food obtained from autotrophs. And
    remember, it was the photosynthetic autotrophs
    themselves that contributed huge quantities of
    oxygen to the environment. True multi-cellular
    animals arose between 900 and 700 million years
    ago, near the end of this oxygen revolution.
    Their variety is astonishing a tribute to
    millions of years of complex interplay between
    environment, producer, and consumer.
  • Our survey of marine animals followed the course
    of their evolution. The complexity of animals
    increased as we moved from groups (phyla) whose
    basic structure seems to have solidified
    relatively early in the history of animals to
    groups that evolved more recently. Every marine
    animal has evolved effective adaptations for
    capturing prey, avoiding danger, maintaining
    thermal and fluid balance with their
    surroundings, and competing for space, and our
    survey of marine animals stressed these
    adaptations.
  • In the next chapter you will learn how these
    animals interact with one another and with their
    environment. The organisms you met in the last
    two chapters do not live alone. They are
    distributed throughout the marine environment in
    specific communities groups of interacting
    producers, consumers, and decomposers that share
    a common living space. The types and variety of
    organisms found in a particular community depend
    on the physical and biological characteristics of
    that living space.
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