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The Sun-Earth-Moon Relationship


The Sun-Earth-Moon Relationship High and Low Tide A rise is sea level is known as high tide A drop in sea level is known as low tide. High Tides As the earth rotates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Sun-Earth-Moon Relationship

The Sun-Earth-Moon Relationship
EarthChapter 23, section 1Journal EntryWhat
are the Earths Movements?
  • Objectives
  • Examine Earths physical characteristics
  • Differentiate between rotation and revolution
  • Discuss what causes seasons to change
  • Homework
  • Complete packet 10 What are the Earths Motions?

Physical Properties of Earth
Diameter (Pole to Pole) 12, 714 km
Diameter (Equator) 12, 756 km
Circumference (Poles) 40, 075 km
Mass 5.98 X 10 to 24th power
Average Density 5.52g/cm cubed
Average distance to the Sun 149, 600,000 km
Period of rotation 23 hours, 56 minutes
Period of revolution 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes

The Earth in Space
  • The earth is a round three dimensional shape
    called a sphere.
  • The Earth revolves around the sun.
  • In one year it travels 940,000,000 km.
  • The Earth rotates on its axis, an imaginary
    vertical line.
  • These two combined movements affect both day and
    night and the seasons on Earth.

Day and Night
  • The Earths rotation causes day and night every
    24 hours.
  • The Earth rotates in a counterclockwise pattern (
    west to east) causing the sun to appear to rise
    in the east and set in the west.
  • Since the Earths axis is tilted when the North
    Pole is leaning toward the sun, the South Pole is
    leaning away.
  • The hemisphere that leans toward the sun has long
    days and short nights.

A Year on Earth
  • The Earth takes 365.25 days to complete the
    revolution around the sun.
  • An extra day is added to the calendar every four
    years in February.
  • This is called a leap year.

  • Since the earth is spherical and tilted,
    different areas of the earth receive different
    amount of sunlight.

Direct and Indirect Radiation
  • Areas near or at the equator receive direct solar
  • As you move away from the equator, north or
    south, you receive less direct (indirect)

Direct and Indirect
  • The equator receives direct (90º) radiation year
  • In New Jersey, we receive light that is angled
    about 60º (indirect).
  • At the Poles, the light received is very indirect

Indirect and Direct Radiation
  • Direct radiation covers a smaller area and is
    more concentrated.
  • The more indirect the light, the larger the area
    it covers and the less concentrated each area.

Seasons on Earth
  • The Earth has four seasons winter, spring,
    summer and autumn.
  • Five of the other planets, Mars, Saturn, Uranus,
    Neptune and possibly Pluto.
  • The other planets, Mercury, Venus and Jupiter, do
    not have seasons since they are not tilted on
    their axis.

Earths Orbit
  • The earths orbit is an ellipse. The earth is
    not in the center of the ellipse. It is closest
    to the sun in January.
  • It is the tilt that causes the seasons.

  • The Earths tilt also causes the Suns radiation
    to strike the hemispheres at different angles.
  • The part tilted toward receives more direct (90)
    angles of radiation.

  • When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the
    sun, that part of the Earth has summer since the
    suns rays are more direct and the days are
  • At the same time, the Southern Hemisphere is
    tilted away and has winter.
  • Summer and winter are not affected by the
    distance from the sun.

  • Summer begins in the Northern Hemisphere on June
    20 or 21.
  • The summer solstice is the longest day of the
    year. It is the time when the sun reaches its
    greatest distance North or South of the equator.
  • The winter solstice is the shortest day of the
    year. This occurs when the Sun is directly above
    the Earths equator.
  • When the Northern Hemisphere has the longest day,
    the Southern Hemisphere has the shortest day.

  • Twice a year neither hemisphere is tilted toward
    the sun. These times are known as equinoxes.
  • Spring begins on March 20 or 21, the vernal
  • Autumn begins on September 22 or 23, the autumnal

Solstice and Equinox
  • The Earths magnetic field is called the
  • The magnetic field starts at an altitude of 1000
    km and extends to an altitude of 64,000 km on
    the side facing the sun.
  • On the side facing away from the sun, the
    magnetosphere extends in a long tail caused by
    solar winds blowing away from the sun.

Magnetic Field
  • The movement of the material in the core, along
    with the Earths rotation generates a magnetic
    field around the earth.
  • This field protects us from harmful radiation.

Magnetic Field
  • The magnetic field around earth also allows to
    know direction, and animals to migrate.
  • Motors, computers and credit cards all work
    because of the magnetic field.

Magnetic Field
  • The magnetic field produces the aurora borealis
    and aurora australis.
  • The location of the poles changes over times.
  • Without the magnetosphere we would not have

  • The magnetosphere is constantly being reshaped by
    the solar winds.

Jupiters Magnetosphere
  • Jupiters magnetosphere is similar but much
  • The magnetic field on Jupiter is caused by a
    giant liquid hydrogen ocean.

Journal Entry 54
  • What causes the phases of the moon?

The Moon- Earths SatelliteChapter 23, section 2
  • Objectives
  • Identify the phases of the moon and their cause.
  • Explain why solar and lunar eclipses occur.
  • Infer what the Moons surface features may reveal
    about its history.

The Moons Characteristics
  • The moons diameter is 1/4 of the Earth.
  • The moons gravity is 1/6 of the Earth.
  • The moon is 384,403 km from the Earth.
  • The moon does not have an atmosphere or weather.
  • The temperature is extreme from 100 degrees
    Celsius to 175 degrees.

Movements of the Moon
  • Perigee is the point of the moons orbit
    closest to the Earth. The apogee is the point of
    the moons orbit farthest from the Earth.
  • The moons period of rotation is the same as the
    period of revolution so the same side of the moon
    always faces the Earth.

The Earth, the Moon and the Sun
  • As the Earth moves in its yearly revolution
    around the sun, the moon moves in a monthly
    revolution around the Earth.At the same time both
  • The motion of these three result in the changing
    appearance of the moon as seen from the Earth and
    the blocking of light.

  • At all times ½ of the moon is in darkness.
  • We only see part of the moon from Earth.
  • Each phase is visible at certain times of the day.

Moon Phase Visibility
Phase Ahead or Behind the Sun Rise time in East Mid point in sky Set time in West
New Moon A few minutes behind Sunrise Noon Sunset
First Quarter 6 hours behind Noon Sunset Midnight
Full Moon 12 hours behind Sunset Midnight Sunrise
Last Quarter 6 hours ahead Midnight Sunrise Noon
Phases of the Moon
  • The moon goes through all of its phases every
    29.5 days. The moon reflects sunlight toward the
  • The moon has 8 phases.
  • The moon is said to be waxing when the lighted
    area grows larger and waning when the lighted
    area appears to grow smaller.

Moon Phases
New Moon
  • A new moon occurs when the moon comes between the
    sun and Earth and the side of the moon facing
    Earth is in darkness.

Waxing Crescent
  • At waxing crescent phase the moon is getting
    larger from new moon.
  • About ¼ of the moon is lighted on the right side.

First Quarter
  • One week later at First quarter moon, ½ of the
    moon appears lighted on the right side.

Waxing Gibbous
  • At this phase the part of the moon that can be
    seen from earth is more than ½ lighted on the
    right side.

Full Moon
  • At full moon the Sun earth and moon are in a
    direct line. The entire side of the moon that is
    facing the earth is completely light.

Waning Gibbous
  • The lighted part of the moon that can be seen
    from earth is starting to get smaller at this
  • The moon is more than ½ lighted on the left side.

Last Quarter
  • The moon is now ½ lighted on the left side.

Waning Crescent
  • The lighted part of the moon that can be seen
    from earth is getting smaller in this phase.
  • It is less than ½ lighted on the left side.

New Moon
  • The moon then stars all over again as a new moon.
  • The moon is between the earth and the sun and the
    side of the moon facing us is in complete

Solar Eclipse
  • A solar eclipse occurs when the new moon comes
    directly between the sun and the Earth.

Penumbra and Umbra
  • The people in the umbra of the shadow see a total
    solar eclipse.
  • The people in the penumbra, the larger outer
    shadow, see a partial solar eclipse.

Lunar Eclipse
  • A lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes
    through the Earths shadow.

Lunar Eclipses
  • When the moon moves through the umbra, a total
    lunar eclipse occurs.
  • When the moon moves through the penumbra, a
    partial lunar eclipse occurs.

Moon Earth
  • As a result of the Earths gravitational pull on
    the moon, the side that faces Earth has a bulge.
  • The moons gravitational pull on Earth results in
    the rise and fall of the oceans, known as the

  • In 1609, Galileo looked at the moon with a
    telescope. He called the lowlands, Maria.
  • The highlands reach to a height of 8 km.
  • Most of the craters are in the highlands. One of
    the largest is Copernicus, which is 91 km in

The Moons Surface
  • The moons surface has many depressions called
  • Meteorites, asteroids and comets strike the
    Moons surface creating the depressions.

  • When the asteroids struck the surface, they
    caused cracks which allowed lava to flow and fill
    up the craters.
  • This produced dark, flat regions called maria.

Inside the Moon
  • Scientists use instruments to study moon quakes.
  • The crust is 60 km thick on the side facing
  • On the far side it is 150 km thick.

Inside the Moon
  • Beyond the crust is a solid mantle that is about
    1000 km deep.
  • A partly molten zone of the mantle extends even
    farther down.
  • The central core is made of solid and iron-rich.

Origin of the Moon
  • One theory states that the moon was formed
    millions of kilometers from the Earth and
    captured by its gravity.
  • The moon may have been formed in the nebular
    cloud in which the Earth formed.
  • The Impact theory says that aMars sized object
    struck the Earth and tore a huge chunk away,
    leaving a hole.

Pacific Ocean
  • The remaining depression became the Pacific

Exploring Earths MoonChapter 23, Section 3
  • Objectives
  • Describe recent discoveries about the moon.
  • Examine facts about the moon that might influence
    future space travel.

Study of the Moon
  • In 1959, the Soviet Union launched the Luna
    spacecraft which made a close up study of the
  • In 1961, the United States began a program with
    the first Ranger spacecraft and a series of Lunar

  • The Surveyor was designed to land on the moon.
    Five landed and analyzed the soil. The goal was
    to prepare for the landing of the Apollo

Apollo Missions
  • In 1969 Apollo 11 landed on the moon.
  • By 1972, then the Apollo missions ended as United
    States astronauts had walked on the moon.

  • In 1994, the Clementine was placed into lunar
    orbit. It mapped the features of the moon,
    including impact basins.

Impact Basins
  • The depression left by an object striking the
    moon is known as an impact basin or an impact
  • The South Pole-Aiken Basin is the oldest
    identifiable feature on the moon.

Frozen Water
  • The bottom of impact basins at the poles never
    receive direct sunlight. The temperatures are
    very low. Early signals indicated the presence
    of frozen water that might be used for future
    moon colonies.

Mapping the Moon
  • The Clementine took high resolution photos of
    the surface.
  • It found that the crust on the side facing Earth
    is much thinner than the far side.
  • It also found that the crust is thinnest under
    the impact basins.

Lunar Prospector
  • In 1998, NASA launched the desk-sized Lunar
  • It orbited the moon from pole to pole for a year.

Icy Poles
  • The Lunar Prospector also mapped the Moons
    gravity, magnetic field, and abundance of 11
  • It confirmed that 11 billion metric tons of ice
    water was present in deep craters at the lunar

  • The rise and fall in sea level is called a tide.

  • Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the
    moon and the sun.
  • Although the sun is bigger in mass, the moon is
    closer, so the moon had a greater effect than the

High and Low Tide
  • A rise is sea level is known as high tide
  • A drop in sea level is known as low tide.

High Tides
  • As the earth rotates it passes under the moon.
  • The part of the earth that is passing under the
    moon will have a high tide and so will the area
    directly on the other side of the globe.

Low Tides
  • The area in between high tide areas will have low
  • Most areas of the earth have two high tides and
    two low tides every day.

One High and Low Tide
  • A few areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico only have
    one of each.

Tide Cycle
  • A complete tide cycle of two high tides and two
    low tides takes 24 hours and 50 minutes.
  • This is because the earth has to catch up to the
    moon since the moon moved forward while the earth
    was rotating.

Tidal Range
  • The tidal range is the difference between the
    level of the ocean at high and low tide.

Tidal Bores
  • Sometime when the tide from a wide area of ocean
    enters a narrow river it can make a wave in the
    river known as a tidal bore.

Tidal Bulges
  • Two bulges of water form, one on the side under
    the moon and one on the side directly opposite
    the moon.

Tidal Bulges
  • The force exerted by the moon on the side under
    the moon is greater than any other force so the
    water is pulled toward the moon.

Tidal Bulges
  • On the opposite side the centrifugal force of
    rotation is greater than any other force so the
    water is pulled up.

Slowing Rotation
  • The action of the tides is slowing the rotation
    of the Earth by 0.002 second per century.
  • If this continues to happen we could become
    gravitationally locked.

Suns Gravitational Pull
  • The Suns gravitational pull can weaken or
    strengthen the Moons effect on Earth.
  • When the moon, earth and sun are in a straight
    line the pull is stronger.

Spring Tides
  • Spring Tides occur during new moon and full moon.
  • During spring tides, high tides are higher and
    low tides are lower than normal.
  • There is a greater tidal range.

Neap Tide
  • Neap Tide occur when earth sun and moon are
    forming a right angle.
  • The pull of the moon and sun are partially
    cancelled out.
  • Neap tides are moderate. There is a small tidal
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