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CIS 480/BA 479: Managing Technology for Business Strategies Week 1

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Title: CIS 480/BA 479: Managing Technology for Business Strategies Week 1


1
CIS 480/BA 479 Managing Technology for Business
StrategiesWeek 1
  • Dr. Jesús Borrego
  • Regis University

2
Agenda
  • Instructor
  • Course Overview
  • Course Materials
  • Introductions
  • Group Assignment
  • Chapters 1, 2 and 3
  • Homework 1

3
Instructor
  • Dr. Jesús Borrego
  • Education
  • PhD MIS MS CS BS CS BS EE
  • Hometown
  • Colorado Springs
  • Married, 5 kids
  • Teaching since 1989, various levels
  • At Regis U. since 1995

4
Background and Experience
  • US Marines Communications and Data Processing
    (among others)
  • Programmer in many languages
  • Database designer for DoD Customers
  • Quality Engineer, Configuration Manager, Software
    Tester
  • Hardware and Software Configuration Management
  • Information Assurance

5
Background and Experience (Contd)
  • DoD
  • USMC, Logicon, Hughes Aircraft, Advanced
    Technology, ARINC, Integral Systems/Kratos
  • Commercial
  • HP/Agilent, DMW Worldwide, Insurance
    Technologies, Intermap Technologies, Western
    Union

6
Course Introduction
  • Prerequisites None
  • Textbook
  • Laudon, L. Laudon, J. (2014). Management
    Information Systems Managing the Digital Firm.
    Cengage Learning. ISBN 13 978-0-133-05069-1

7
Course Description
  • Provides executive perspective on management
    information systems, systems analysis and
    database management.
  • Develops an understanding of strategic issues
    underlying information systems technical issues
    in developing systems.
  • Covers strategic issues related to critical
    business success factors.

8
Course Description (Contd)
  • Includes information's role in competition,
    industry leadership, and business planning.
  • Covers alternative development methods and
    addresses issues of databases, project
    management, and functional management.

9
Course Outcomes
  • Assess the impact of Social Media and Mobile
    Computing on both business and Information
    Technology.
  • Utilize an Information Technology Development
    model in the construction of a specific business
    web site.
  • Discuss the ethical consequences associated with
    the use of technology from a business and
    Information Technology perspective.
  • Explore the tactical and strategic contributions
    of Information Technology to business.

10
Course Outcomes (Contd)
  • Research an Emerging Technology and describe how
    that technology impacts business and Information
    Technology.
  • Explain the impact that data management, data
    security, and data access has on a business and
    Information Technology from a decision making
    perspective.
  • Design an e-Commerce site based on specific
    customer requirements.
  • Analyze the Enterprise Resource Planning Model to
    determine the impact this model has on both
    Information Technology and business.

11
Week by Week
12
Grading
13
Written Assignments
  • Individual
  • Week 2 IT and Ethics
  • Week 3 Emerging Technologies
  • Group
  • Week 2 Project Outline
  • Week 3 Project Requirements
  • Week 4 Project Budget
  • Week 5 Project Proposal and Web Design

14
Rubric
  • Refer to the rubrics in WorldClass
  • There are rubrics for
  • Discussion/Participation
  • Final Writing Assignment
  • Course Project
  • VoiceThread

15
Group Project
  • Work in a group, but only one member submits the
    assignment
  • The submission must include the names of the
    group members
  • Log on to WorldClass and review the course
    project information

16
Group Project Overview
  • Review WorldClass

17
Written Assignments
  • An important component of this course is the
    completion of written assignments
  • All written work is expected to meet
    undergraduate level standards
  • Assignments will be graded for content and for
    writing skills
  • The Publication Manual of the American
    Psychological Association (APA) is to be used for
    written work in the College for Professional
    Studies. Research papers required in this and
    other courses are expected to follow APA
    guidelines.

18
APA Format
  • The Publication Manual of the American
    Psychological Association (APA) is to be used for
    written work in the College for Professional
    Studies
  • Research papers required in this and other
    courses are expected to follow APA guidelines
  • Regis University provides APA resources
    http//www.regis.edu/regis.asp?sctnarsp1ws

19
Late work policy
  • This is an accelerated course
  • No late work is accepted unless there are special
    circumstances
  • En emergency is not lack of planning
  • If accepted late, a penalty will be assessed
  • In case of emergency, contact me as soon as
    possible
  • Group project assignments must be submitted on
    time

20
Discussions and Participation
  • To receive credit for discussion and
    participation, you must come prepared to each
    class
  • Complete the reading materials and complete the
    assigned work before class
  • You must actively participate in each class and
    must demonstrate critical thinking to receive
    credit

21
Student Introductions
  • About yourself
  • Your name, where you are from, where you live
  • About your degree
  • Your major, area of specialization, graduation
    date
  • About your work
  • Place of employment, what you do
  • About Experience
  • Thoughts on technology
  • Expectations from this course

22
Chapter 1
  • Using Technology in a business
  • Shortening Lines at Disney World Technology to
    the Rescue
  • What is the issue?
  • What solutions are identified?
  • Can we use the same technology in other
    businesses?

23
Technology impact on businesses
  • Emerging mobile digital platforms
  • Growing business use of big data
  • Cloud computing
  • Globalization
  • Global presence cost is reduced
  • Increase in foreign trade
  • Outsourcing and offshoring
  • Increased challenges and opportunities

24
US Airline industry
  • The US Airline Industry 5 Forces, by Jerron
    Thornton (From YouTube), (220 min)
    https//www.youtube.com/watch?vtQ8xdLGJPLE

25
Ethics in IT
  • In the following TED Talk, Damon Horowitz
    discusses our obligation to each other in terms
    of the data that we collect and distribute about
    each other.
  • We need a moral operating system, by Damon
    Horowitz ( min) http//www.ted.com/talks/damon_ho
    rowitz

26
How Data will transform Business
  • In the following TED Talk video Philip Evans
    discusses changing business strategies, the value
    chain, traditional business processes and how
    data is influencing and ultimately changing the
    way businesses compete.
  • How data will transform business, by Philip Evans
    (Ted Talks) (1357 min) http//www.ted.com/talks/
    philip_evans_how_data_will_transform_business

27
IT Capital Investment
Information technology capital investment,
defined as hardware, software, and communications
equipment, grew from 32 percent to 52 percent of
all invested capital between 1980 and 2009.
28
Organizations and IT Interdependency
In contemporary systems there is a growing
interdependence between a firms information
systems and its business capabilities. Changes in
strategy, rules, and business processes
increasingly require changes in hardware,
software, databases, and telecommunications.
Often, what the organization would like to do
depends on what its systems will permit it to do.
29
Operational Excellence
  • Improvement of efficiency to attain higher
    profitability and create a competitive advantage
  • What is a competitive advantage?
  • IS and Technology important tools in achieving
    greater efficiency and productivity
  • But only if properly implemented
  • Ex Walmarts Retail Link Systems links suppliers
    to stores for improved replenishment
  • Others Car manufacturers, aircraft industry

30
Process integration example
  • Boeing 777 example

31
Role of IS in Todays Business
  • Business Model describes how company produces,
    delivers, and sells product or services to create
    wealth
  • IS and technology provide major enabling tools
    for new products, services, and business models
  • Examples
  • Apples iPhone, iPad
  • Googles Android OS
  • Netflix
  • PayPay
  • eBay

32
Business Model
  • Example of a workflow

33
Customers and Suppliers
  • Great customer service leads to return sales ?
    increase in revenue and profit
  • Close supplier relationships provide vital inputs
    ? reduced costs
  • Information systems linking customers and
    suppliers with internal systems create synergy
  • Management can rely on forecasts, best guess,
    plain luck
  • Quality of information allows for better decision
    making

34
Competitive Advantage
  • What you have that the competition does not
  • What makes you superior to the competition
  • Allows you to deliver better products of services
    to your customers
  • May lower costs and increase revenue
  • Allows you to increase customer satisfaction
  • Can respond to customers and suppliers in real
    time
  • FedEx, UPS, Apple

35
Information Systems
  • System a collection of interrelated components
    that act together to accomplish a goal
  • IS Systems collect, process, store and distribute
    information
  • Support decision making, coordination and control
  • Information and Data
  • Same thing?
  • What makes them different?

36
Data and Information
Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can
be processed and organized to produce meaningful
information, such as the total unit sales of dish
detergent or the total sales revenue from dish
detergent for a specific store or sales
territory.
37
Information transformation
  • IPO Input, Process, Output
  • Input Captures raw data from forms, external
    environment, incoming requests
  • Process Receives input, processes it and
    transforms it into information
  • Its output may be the input to the next process
  • Output Transfers processed information to users
    or activities that require it

38
Information transformation (Contd)
  • Feedback Output is returned to appropriate
    elements of the organization to help evaluate of
    correct input stage
  • Computer/Computer Programs versus information
    systems
  • Computers and software are technical foundation
    tools similar to material and tools used to build
    a house
  • Like a house, blueprints are created to build
    information systems (flowcharts, diagrams,
    workflows, etc.)

39
Functions of an IS
40
IS Perspectives
  • IS is more than hardware
  • Corporate organization
  • Senior Management and Executives
  • Middle Management
  • Operational Management
  • Knowledge Workers
  • Data Workers
  • Production or Service Workers

41
Corporate Organization
Business organizations are hierarchies consisting
of three principal levels senior management,
middle management, and operational management.
Information systems serve each of these levels.
Scientists and knowledge workers often work with
middle management.
42
Separation of Business Functions
  • Sales and Marketing
  • Human Resources
  • Finance and Accounting
  • Manufacturing and Production
  • Engineering
  • Compliance and Audit
  • Information Technology
  • Security and Facilities

43
Management role in IS
  • Managers set organizational strategy to respond
    to business challenges and maintain operational
    capabilities
  • Managers study business environment and
    competition to create new or update existing
    products and services
  • If necessary, managers reorganize the business to
    quickly respond to business challenges

44
Technology role in IS
  • Technologys basic role is to support the
    business
  • Without the business, technology cannot exist by
    itself
  • Business and technology must be aligned in order
    to be productive
  • The IT infrastructure provides the platform to
    build the systems required by the business

45
Business view of IT
  • IS is an instrument for creating business value
  • Proper technology investment will return in
    superior returns
  • Productivity increases
  • Revenue increases
  • Superior long-term strategic positioning

46
Business information value chain
  • Raw data is acquired and transformed through
    stages that add value to that information
  • Value of IS is determined in part by the extent
    which it leads to better decisions, greater
    efficiency, and higher profits
  • The business perspective calls attention to
    organizational and managerial nature of IS

47
Business value chain
From a business perspective, information systems
are part of a series of value-adding activities
for acquiring, transforming, and distributing
information that managers can use to improve
decision making, enhance organizational
performance, and, ultimately, increase firm
profitability.
48
Cost of Technology
  • Investing in technology does not guarantee
    increase in profits or revenue
  • There is great variation in the return on
    investment in technology
  • To succeed, need to adopt the right business
    model for the organization and invest in
    complementary assets, both organizational and
    management capital

49
Variation in returns on IT investment
50
Complementary Assets
  • Assets required to derive value from a primary
    investment
  • Firms supporting technology investments with
    investments in complementary assets receive
    superior returns
  • Example Invest in technology and they people to
    make it work properly

51
Types of complementary assets
  • Organizational assets
  • Appropriate business model
  • Efficient business processes
  • Managerial assets
  • Incentives for management innovation
  • Teamwork and collaborative work environments
  • Social assets
  • Internet and telecommunication infrastructure
  • Technology standards

52
ITIL Example
  • Information Technology Infrastructure Library
    concentrates on service management

Source http//www.itil-officialsite.com/home/home
.aspx
53
Approaches to IS
54
Technical and Behavioral Approaches
  • Technical approach
  • Emphasizes mathematically based models
  • Computer science, management science, operations
    research
  • Behavioral approach
  • Behavioral issues (strategic business
    integration, implementation, etc.)
  • Psychology, economics, sociology

55
Management Information Systems
  • Combines computer science, management science,
    operations research and practical orientation
    with behavioral issues
  • Four main actors
  • Suppliers of hardware and software
  • Business firms
  • Managers and employees
  • Firms environment (legal, social, cultural
    context)

56
Sociotechnical perspective of IS
In a sociotechnical perspective, the performance
of a system is optimized when both the technology
and the organization mutually adjust to each
other until a satisfactory fit is obtained.
57
Chapter 2
  • Global eBusiness and Collaboration
  • Review Telus case study

58
Telus embraces social learning
  • Problem 40 of workforce nears retirement and
    want to capture knowledge
  • Solution Obtain technology for collaborative
    knowledge sharing
  • MS SharePoint Server 2010 A companywide platform
    for collaboration, knowledge acquisition and
    transfer, and social tools
  • Illustrates needs for organizational culture
    change and business processes to use IS
    effectively

59
Business Processes
  • Flows of material, information, knowledge
  • Sets of activities or steps
  • May be tied to functional area or be
    cross-functional
  • A business can be seen as a collection of
    business processes
  • Business processes may be assets or liabilities

60
Functional Business Processes
  • Manufacturing and Production
  • Creating and assembling the product
  • Sales and marketing
  • Customer identification, promoting the product,
    making the sale
  • Finance and accounting
  • Financial statements, account payable and
    receivable, general ledger
  • Human Resources
  • Hiring employees, establishing policies

61
Order fulfillment process
62
IT enhances business processes
  • Increases efficiency of existing processes
  • Automating steps that were manual
  • Enables entirely new processes
  • Change flow of information
  • Replace sequential steps with parallel steps
  • Eliminate delays in decision making
  • Support new business models

63
Transaction processing systems (TPS)
  • Serve operational managers and staff
  • Perform and record daily routine transactions
    necessary to conduct business
  • Sales, order entry, payroll, shipping
  • Allow managers to monitor status of operations
    and relations with external environment
  • Serve predefined, structured goals and decision
    making

64
Payroll TPS
65
BI Systems
  • Business Intelligence (BI)
  • Data and software tools for organizing and
    analyzing data
  • Used to help managers and uses make improved
    decisions
  • BI Systems
  • Management Information Systems
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Executive Support Systems

66
IS Types - MIS
  • Serve middle management
  • Provide reports on firms current performance
    based on data from TPS
  • Provide answers to routine questions with
    predefined procedure for answering them
  • Typically have little analytic capability

67
TPS providing data to MIS
68
Sample MIS Report
69
IS Types - DSS
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Serve middle management
  • Support non-routine decision making
  • Example what is the impact on production
    schedule if December sales doubled?
  • May use external information as well as TPS/MIS
    data
  • Model drive DSS
  • Voyage-estimating systems
  • Data driven DSS
  • Intrawests marketing analysis systems

70
Voyage-estimating DSS
71
IS Types - ESS
  • Executive Support Systems
  • Support senior management
  • Address non-routine decisions
  • Requiring judgment, evaluation, insight
  • Incorporate data about external events (net tax
    laws or competitors) as well as summarized
    information from internal MIS and DSS
  • Example digital dashboards with real-time view
    of firms financial performance (working capital,
    AR, AP, cash flow, inventory

72
IS Types Enterprise Applications
  • Systems for linking the enterprise
  • Span functional areas
  • Execute business processes across firm
  • Include all levels of management
  • Four major applications
  • Enterprise systems
  • Supply chain management systems
  • Customer relationship management systems
  • Knowledge management systems

73
Enterprise Application Architecture
74
Enterprise Systems
  • Collect data from different firm functions and
    store data in single data repository
  • Resolves problem of fragmented data
  • Enable
  • Coordination of daily activities
  • Efficient response to customer orders
    (production, inventory0
  • Help managers make decisions about daily
    operations and longer-term planning

75
IS Types - SCM
  • Supply Chain Management (SCM ) Systems
  • Manage firms relationships with suppliers
  • Share information about
  • Orders, production, inventory levels, delivery of
    products and services
  • Goal
  • Right amount of products to destination with
    least amount of time and lowest cost
  • Example HP and FedEx

76
IS Types - CRM
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems
  • Provide information to coordinate all of the
    business processes that deal with customers
  • Sales
  • Marketing
  • Customer Service
  • Helps firms identify, attract, and retain most
    profitable customers
  • Example SalesForce

77
IS Types - KMS
  • Knowledge Management Systems (KMS)
  • Support processes for capturing and applying
    knowledge and expertise
  • How to create, produce, deliver products and
    services
  • Collect internal knowledge and experience within
    firm and make it available to employees
  • Link to external sources of knowledge

78
Networks
  • Internet
  • The global network of diverse computers
  • Intranet
  • Internal network including Web sites, accessible
    to employees
  • Extranet
  • Company Web sites accessible externally to
    suppliers and vendors
  • Used typically to coordinate supply chain

79
IS Types - Commerce
  • E-Business
  • Use of digital technology and Internet to drive
    major business processes
  • E-Commerce
  • Subset of e-business
  • Buying and selling goods and services through the
    Internet
  • E-Government
  • Using Internet technology to deliver information
    and services to citizens, employees, and
    businesses

80
Collaboration and Teamwork
  • Collaboration
  • Short-lived or long-term
  • Informal or formal (teams)
  • Growing importance of collaboration
  • Changing nature of work
  • Growth of professional workinteraction jobs
  • Changing organization of the firm
  • Changing scope of the firm
  • Emphasis on innovation
  • Changing culture of work

81
Social Business
  • Use of social networking platforms, internal and
    external
  • Engage employees, customers, and suppliers
  • Goal is to deepen interactions and expedite
    information sharing
  • Conversations
  • Requires information transparency
  • Driving the exchange of information without
    intervention from executives or others

82
Collaboration and Teamwork Benefits
  • Investments in collaboration technology can bring
    organization improvements, returning high ROI
  • Benefits
  • Productivity
  • Quality
  • Innovation
  • Customer service
  • Financial performance
  • Profitability, sales, sales growth

83
Collaboration Requirements
84
Collaboration and Teamwork Systems
  • Building a collaborative culture and business
    processes
  • Command and control organizations
  • No value placed on teamwork or lower-level
    participation in decisions
  • Collaborative business culture
  • Senior managers rely on teams of employees.
  • Policies, products, designs, processes, and
    systems rely on teams.
  • The managers purpose is to build teams.

85
Tools
  • E-mail and instant messaging
  • Wikis
  • Virtual worlds
  • Collaboration and social business platforms
  • Virtual meeting systems (telepresence)
  • Google Apps/Google sites
  • Cyberlockers
  • Microsoft SharePoint
  • Lotus Notes
  • Enterprise social networking tools

86
Enterprise Social Network Tools
  • Software capabilities
  • Profiles
  • Content sharing
  • Feeds and notifications
  • Groups and team workspaces
  • Tagging and social bookmarking
  • Permissions and privacy

87
Collaboration Technologies
  • Two Dimensions
  • Space (or location)remote or co-located
  • Timesynchronous or asynchronous
  • Six steps in evaluating software tools
  • What are your firms collaboration challenges?
  • What kinds of solutions are available?
  • Analyze available products cost and benefits.
  • Evaluate security risks.
  • Consult users for implementation and training
    issues.
  • Evaluate product vendors.

88
Time/Space Collaboration Tool Matrix
89
The IS Function in Business
  • Information systems department
  • Formal organizational unit responsible for
    information technology services
  • Often headed by chief information officer (CIO)
  • Other senior positions include chief security
    officer (CSO), chief knowledge officer (CKO),
    chief privacy officer (CPO)
  • Programmers
  • Systems analysts
  • Information systems managers

90
IT Functions (Contd)
  • End users
  • Representatives of other departments for whom
    applications are developed
  • Increasing role in system design, development
  • IT Governance
  • Strategies and policies for using IT in the
    organization
  • Decision rights
  • Accountability
  • Organization of information systems function
  • Centralized, decentralized, and so on

91
Chapter 3
  • Organizations and Information Systems influence
    each other, the relationship influenced by the
    organizations
  • Structure
  • Business processes
  • Politics
  • Culture
  • Environment
  • Management decisions

92
Organization Definition
  • Technical definition
  • Formal social structure that processes resources
    from environment to produce outputs
  • A formal legal entity with internal rules and
    procedures, as well as a social structure
  • Behavioral definition
  • A collection of rights, privileges, obligations,
    and responsibilities that is delicately balanced
    over a period of time through conflict and
    conflict resolution

93
IPO
94
Behavioral View
95
Business Processes
96
Organization Issues
  • Organizational Politics
  • What are politics and what do they have to do
    with the way processes are handled?
  • Organizational Culture
  • What is a corporate culture?
  • Organizational Environments
  • Different environments provided affect how the
    organization operates

97
Organizational Structures
  • Entrepreneurial
  • Small start-up business
  • Machine bureaucracy
  • Midsize manufacturing firm
  • Divisionalized bureaucracy
  • Fortune 500 firms
  • Professional bureaucracy
  • Law firms, school systems, hospitals
  • Adhocracy
  • Consulting firms

98
Transaction cost theory
  • Firms seek to economize on transaction costs (the
    costs of participating in markets).
  • Vertical integration, hiring more employees,
    buying suppliers and distributors
  • IT lowers market transaction costs for firm,
    making it worthwhile for firms to transact with
    other firms rather than grow the number of
    employees

99
Agency Theory
  • Firm is nexus of contracts among self-interested
    parties requiring supervision.
  • Firms experience agency costs (the cost of
    managing and supervising) which rise as firm
    grows.
  • IT can reduce agency costs, making it possible
    for firms to grow without adding to the costs of
    supervising, and without adding employees.

100
Organizational/Behavioral Impacts
  • IT flattens organizations
  • Decision making is pushed to lower levels.
  • Fewer managers are needed (IT enables faster
    decision making and increases span of control).
  • Postindustrial organizations
  • Organizations flatten because in postindustrial
    societies, authority increasingly relies on
    knowledge and competence rather than formal
    positions

101
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102
Resistance to change
  • Information systems become bound up in
    organizational politics because they influence
    access to a key resourceinformation.
  • Information systems potentially change an
    organizations structure, culture, politics, and
    work.
  • Most common reason for failure of large projects
    is due to organizational and political resistance
    to change.

103
Internet and Organizations
  • The Internet increases the accessibility,
    storage, and distribution of information and
    knowledge for organizations.
  • The Internet can greatly lower transaction and
    agency costs.
  • Example Large firm delivers internal manuals to
    employees via a corporate Web site, saving
    millions of dollars in distribution costs

104
Planning new system
  • Environment
  • Structure
  • Hierarchy, specialization, routines, business
    processes
  • Culture and politics
  • Type of organization and style of leadership
  • Main interest groups affected by system
    attitudes of end users
  • Tasks, decisions, and business processes the
    system will assist

105
Competitive Forces
  • Traditional competitors
  • New market entrants
  • Substitute products and services
  • Customers
  • Suppliers
  • Source Michael Porters competitive forces model

106
Competitive Forces
107
Competition
  • Traditional competitors
  • All firms share market space with competitors who
    are continuously devising new products, services,
    efficiencies, and switching costs.
  • New market entrants
  • Some industries have high barriers to entry, for
    example, computer chip business.
  • New companies have new equipment, younger
    workers, but little brand recognition.

108
Competitive Advantage
  • Substitute products and services
  • Substitutes customers might use if your prices
    become too high, for example, iTunes substitutes
    for CDs
  • Customers
  • Can customers easily switch to competitors
    products? Can they force businesses to compete on
    price alone in transparent marketplace?
  • Suppliers
  • Market power of suppliers when firm cannot raise
    prices as fast as suppliers

109
Strategies
  • Low-cost leadership
  • Product differentiation
  • Focus on market niche
  • Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy

110
Internet impact on Advantage
  • Transformation or threat to some industries
  • Examples travel agency, printed encyclopedia,
    media
  • Competitive forces still at work, but rivalry
    more intense
  • Universal standards allow new rivals, entrants to
    market
  • New opportunities for building brands and loyal
    customer bases

111
Value Chain
  • Firm as series of activities that add value to
    products or services
  • Highlights activities where competitive
    strategies can best be applied
  • Primary activities vs. support activities
  • At each stage, determine how information systems
    can improve operational efficiency and improve
    customer and supplier intimacy
  • Utilize benchmarking, industry best practices

112
Value Chain Model
113
Homework Assignments
  • Individual
  • IT and Ethics
  • Group
  • Course Project Outline
  • Due next week
  • Make sure you review the WorldClass information
    in the course content area

114
HW 1 Emerging Technologies
  • Identify an emerging technology that has the
    potential to assist a business and IT to operate
    more efficiently and effectively.
  • Summarize the technology in a 3-5 page paper in
    APA format (title page and references do not
    count towards count)
  • You may choose to select a technology that has
    recently been implemented in your own
    organization (e.g., database, Intranet,
    application) or choose a technology that you
    believe would benefit your current organization.
  • Your technology selection should be focused on a
    business solution rather than a personal type of
    technology.

115
Group Project
116
Questions?
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