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An Introduction to the stuff you will be learning this year.

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Heath Kaplan Last modified by: Robin Joseph Created Date: 8/26/2009 2:25:16 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to the stuff you will be learning this year.


1
  • An Introduction to the stuff you will be learning
    this year.

2
Psychology
  • What is it?

Do our feelings always match our behaviors?
But I will still act tough. (even though I will
be crying on the inside, so be gentle).
If you call me stupid, I may feel sad or insecure
3
Psychologys History Prescientific Psychology
  • Socrates
  • Plato dualism -
  • - some ideas
  • Aristotle monism -
  • - knowledge results from
    memories of
  • past
    experiences
  • - mind is a

4
Psychologys Roots Prescientific Psychology
  • Rene Descartes
  • Francis Bacon
  • John Locke
  • Empiricism

5
Psychologys Early Debates
  • Mind and Body Connect v. Separate
  • Nature v. Nurture
  • Innate v. Learned

6
Think Pair Share
  • Which of the early thinkers of psychology do you
    think had the greatest effect on todays
    psychology? Why?

7
History of Psychology
  • Psychology has gone through 5 different
    historical eras or changes in how scientists view
    the mind and behavioraka
  • Psychological Perspectives a mental view of how
    scientists explain the mind and behavior

8
5 Historical Periods of Psychology
  • Introspection
  • Structuralism
  • Functionalism
  • Gestault
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behaviorist
  • Biopsychosocial -

9
One Introspection
  • 2 schools - Structuralism and Functionalism
  • Structuralism
  • Explored structural elements
  • Introspection -
  • to study inner sensations and mental images
  • Example

10
IA Structuralism
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • Experiment
  • G. Stanley Hall (Baltimore)
  • Edward Titchner (Cornell)
  • Student of Wundt
  • Example

11
IB Functionalism
  • Functionalism
  • Emphasized the purpose or function of mental
    processes
  • added the importance of the environment
  • Wm. James
  • Mary Calkins
  • Margaret Floy Washburn

12
Think Pair Share
  1. With your table, discuss the limitations of
    introspection and explain why current
    psychological researchers would be unlikely to
    use introspection to gather data.
  2. William James developed his theory of
    functionalism around the same time Charles Darwin
    was developing the theory of evolution. How do
    you think Darwin's theory influenced James'
    theory of functionalism?

13
Two Gestalt Psychology
  • Focused on human perceptions of the world
  • Led by Max Wertheimer

Rules for how we organize what we see
This may seem like one picture, but it can be
perceived as 2 different faces. Can you find
them?
14
Three Psychoanalysis
  • Psychoanalysis - Freuds theory of personality
    development and also his treatment of disorders
  • Behavior is driven by
  • Unconscious
  • defense mechanisms tactics that reduce anxiety
    by distorting reality

15
Four Behaviorism
  • Behaviorism
  • Ignored Introspection and psychoanalysis and all
    mental process
  • Believe behavior is
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Pavlov experiments on dogs learning to salivate
    at sound of a bell
  • John B. Watson experimented on Little Albert
    learned that emotions (fear) can be learned
  • Operant Conditioning voluntary learning
  • B.F. Skinner experimented on pigeons and rats,
    learned that animals learn from reinforcements
    and punishments
  • Observational Learning
  • Bandura animals learn by watching others

16
Five Eclectic Biopsychosocial Approach
  • We are now in the 5th era..which is about
    variety.
  • Psychologists pick and choose what theories to
    use depending on the situation and the client.

Kind of like a smorgasbord..lots of variety, you
pick what you want to eat
17
Modern Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
  • Levels of Analysis
  • Biological
  • Psychological
  • Social-cultural
  • Biopsychosocial Approach - integrated approach
    that incorporates biological, psychological, and
    social-cultural levels of analysis.
  • Evaluates both
  • Evaluates both

18
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
19
Wave 5 -Biopsychosocial Approach is made up of 7
different perspectives.
  • Psychologists today, pick and choose from about 7
    schools or perspectives of thought to help you
    with your problems.
  • Thus we have
  • THE SEVEN MODERN SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY

20
Biopsychosocial Approach
  • 7 MODERN SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY
  • Biological/Neuroscience
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behaviorist
  • Cognitive
  • Evolutionary
  • Humanist
  • Social-Culture

21
1. Biopsychology (Neuroscience) Perspective
  • View of Mind and/or Behavior
  • Biological basis
  • To change behavior

Lets say you are 100lbs over weight. What would
a psychologist from this perspective say was the
cause of your obesity? What kind of treatment
would they recommend?
22
2. Evolutionary Perspective
  • View of Mind and/or Behavior
  • Driven by
  • Over time, we adapt to our environment, we change
  • Based on the ideas of

How could this behavior ensured Homers ancestors
survival?
Charles Darwin Natural Selection
23
3. Psychodynamic Perspective
Same scenarioyou are 100lbs overweightwhat
would Freud say was the cause of your
problem? How would he treat you?
  • View of Mind and/or Behavior
  • Influenced by
  • To change behavior

24
4. Behavioral Perspective
  • View of Mind and/or Behavior
  • Learned
  • No focus on mind. Why?
  • To change behaviors

Pretend that you fail psychology class. You
become depressed. In turn, you begin to binge and
gain weight.
What do you think a behaviorist may do?
They would probably ignore the fact that you are
depressed and just focus on your overeating.
Maybe make you run a mile every time you eat over
2000 calories.
25
5. Humanist Perspective
  • View of Mind and/or Behavior
  • Driven by objective to get to the next level on
  • ultimately self actualization
  • Our ideal self (the person we want to be) not
    matching our actual-self (the person we really
    are)
  • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
  • emphasizes
  • To change behavior

What would a humanist say was the cause of your
obesity?
How would they Treat your obesity?
26
6. Cognitive Perspective
  • View of Mind and/or Behavior
  • Influenced by the way
  • Focuses on how we
  • To Change Behavior

What would a cognitive psychologist say was the
cause of your obesity?
How would they treat Your obesity?
27
7. Social-Cultural Perspective
  • View of the Mind and/or Behavior
  • culture and society influence behavior
  • dictated by
  • Focus on universal traits and behaviors or how
    they vary
  • To change behavior

What would someone from this perspective say was
the cause of the behavior?
How would they treat this disorder?
28
Psychologys Big Debate
  • Nature Versus Nurture
  • Are our behaviors/traits influenced more by our
    genes (nature) or by our experiences (nurture)
  • Examples

29
Fields of Psychology Applied V. Basic Research
  • Basic Research goal is to increase knowledge of
    field.
  • Example
  • Applied Research goal is to solve practical
    problems
  • Example

Theory that depression is caused by, among other
things, chemical imbalances in the brain
Research on drug therapies to treat depression
30
Psychologys Subfields
  • Psychometrics measurement of human abilities.
  • Ex. Creates aptitude tests like SAT, personality
    questionnaires
  • Basic Research research in psychology to
    increase our knowledge of the field.
  • Examples
  • Developmental psychology- change throughout the
    human life span (develop, grow, age)
  • Educational psychology how psych processes
    affect teaching and learning
  • Personality psychology individual traits
  • Social psychology - how humans relate to one
    another

31
Psychologys Subfields
  • Applied Research using what youve learned to
    help others
  • Examples
  • Industrial/organizational psychology
  • Human factors psychology
  • Counseling psychology
  • Clinical psychology
  • Psychiatry
  • Community Psychology

32
Psychologys Subfields
  • Applied Research using what youve learned to
    help others
  • Examples
  • Community Psychology
  • Forensic Psychology
  • School Psychology
  • Sports Psychology
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