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From Elitism To Inclusion Developing an Inclusive Curriculum through an Appreciative Inquiry Approach


From Elitism To Inclusion Developing an Inclusive Curriculum through an Appreciative Inquiry Approach Learning and Teaching Conference June 2008 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From Elitism To Inclusion Developing an Inclusive Curriculum through an Appreciative Inquiry Approach

From Elitism To Inclusion Developing an Inclusive
Curriculum through an Appreciative Inquiry
  • Learning and Teaching Conference
  • June 2008

Dr Val Chapman (NTF) and Will Bowen Jones
Political, social and educational change
  • Post war comprehensive education
  • Mainstreaming increased number of disabled
    children in non-specialised schools
  • Raised aspirations
  • Elite education traditional methods of
  • Staff with little/no personal experience of
    working with disabled students

As a result of engaging with this session you
will be able to
  • Appreciate the legal and political context of the
  • Understand the philosophy underpinning the
    project and the adopted research approach
  • Describe the activities undertaken in the
    Institute of Sport and Exercise Science in
    implementing the Appreciative Inquiry approach
  • Make use of the web-based resource, SCIPS
  • Discuss the issues and opportunities arising from
    the project

Increased diversity in HE
  • 1960s less than 10 population in HE
  • Governments agenda target 50 18-35 year olds
    in HE by 2010
  • Massification of HE
  • Widening Participation
  • Legislation
  • Disability Funding (funded projects Disabled
    Students Allowance (DSA) Mainstream funding
    capital funding for HEIs)

Inclusive Learning and Teaching (LT)
  • .An inclusive approach to learning and teaching
    avoids a point of view that locates difficulty or
    deficit within the student and focuses instead on
    understanding and responding to individual
    learners' needs. (Tomlinson, 1996)
  • Aligned with social model of disability
  • Flexible
  • Meets needs of all learners

Medical Model of Disability
Lupton, D. (2008) Evil in the Eye, Crip Zone, p
12, Reprint
  • Im looking for a villain, a real nasty piece of
  • someone wholl make the public want to scream.
  • Hes got to be so gruesome, not at all like you
    and me,
  • so bad, theyll even see him when they dream.
  • Our hero gets to battle him, so hes got to be
    quite small,
  • in fact an evil dwarf could play the role.
  • Or he could be in a wheelchair, or maybe use a
  • or with mental illness blackening his soul.
  • And could you make him hunch-back, with maybe
    just one eye,
  • or perhaps youve got a black one on your books?
  • With our hero tall and handsome, and most
    definitely white,
  • wed want to make the most of how he looks.
  • Forget about equality, its not what people want,
  • distorting how we think is still the game.
  • Were very good at stereotypes, reinforcing the
  • that you must be evil if youre not the same.

(No Transcript)
Social model
  • Disability is defined as a social construct
  • Disabling factors are located in social,
    educational, and working practices and in
    physical environments
  • Example a wheelchair user may have a physical
    impairment, but it is the absence of a ramp that
    prevents them from entering a building - the
    disabling factor is the inaccessible environment

Social model of disability
  • UN Convention (2006) promotes a universal
    inclusive language emphasising rights for all,
    and is based upon the principles of justice,
    respect, dignity, non-discrimination, equality
    and accessibility
  • The Disability Discrimination Act (aka SENDA,
    2001, UK) brought all education provision under
    the Act

Higher Education Academy (UK) Project
  • Project title
  • Developing Inclusive Curricula in Higher
  • Key features
  • Innovative staff development package
  • Supplementary resources to support academics
  • Embedding in institutional policy and practice

Project research question
  • How can we engage the interest and commitment of
    staff to further develop their inclusive practice
    in learning and teaching?
  • Selection of an Appreciative Inquiry approach
  • AI has 4 phases
  • Discovery phase
  • Dream phase
  • Design phase
  • Destiny phase

Appreciative Inquiry (AI) process
Briefing on inclusion and AI
Students interviews (VI)
Pre-workshop activity
Generation of adjectives
AI workshop (students)
Roll out model to additional departments
Students Post-it activity
Student presentation
Generation of propositional statements
Focus group interview questions
Focus group interview
Staff development
Further planning embedding
Inaugural ISES staff/student research summit
Staff response
Prioritisation meeting
Inclusion survey
Appreciative Inquiry
  • Methodology developed by Professor David
    Cooperrider and his colleagues at Case Western
    Reserve University (US) in the 1980s
  • Approach has been used throughout the world for
    organisational change (in companies such as BP,
    McDonalds and British Airways) and for community
    consultation and development.
  • Conducted in 4 phases

Discovery phase (Jan/Feb 08)
  • Selection of student researchers
  • Pre-workshop activity
  • AI workshop
  • Data collection by student researchers
  • Post it exercise
  • Disabled student interview
  • Focus group interview (conducted by student
    member of project team)
  • Answers to reflective questions (pre-workshop
  • Development of propositional statements

Dream phase (Mar 08)
  • Inaugural Institute of Sport and Exercise Science
    (ISES) staff/student research summit
  • Student researchers presentation
  • Audience
  • Vice Chancellor
  • Guest speaker Chief Executive, British
    Paralympic Association
  • ISES staff
  • Departmental Learning and Teaching (LT)

Post-it data from student lectures
  • Adjectives (n265)
  • Enjoyable
  • Interesting
  • Challenging
  • Fun

Student researchers experiences of learning
  • Personal accounts
  • Inclusive practices
  • Challenges successfully overcome
  • Engagement of staff

Propositional statement 1
  • All students make a positive contribution to the
    learning of their peers.

Propositional statement 2
  • Students value the Schools strong sense of
    community and being made to feel part of it.

Propositional statement 3
  • Students love it when staff support and celebrate
    their achievements.

Propositional statement 4
  • Staff inspire students through being role models.

Propositional statement 5
  • Students really enjoy learning through doing.

Propositional statement 6
  • The Institute of Sports and Exercise Science
    (ISES) offers students a ticket to their
    future it gives them the opportunity to do
    things for themselves, become more
    independent, to reinvent themselves and be
    their own person. It offers a liberating and
    transformative experience.

Design phase (Apr 08)
  • Prioritisation meeting to determine
  • Individual priorities
  • Draft priorities for referral to departmental
    Learning and Teaching Committee
  • Staff survey staff confidence ratings in
    inclusive practice (survey monkey)
  • Analysed to determine staff development

Destiny phase (Ongoing)
  • Implementation of innovative staff development
  • Supplemental resources
  • SCIPS (Strategies for Creating Inclusive
    Programmes of Study)
  • (used 24/7, page ranked by
    Google 5/10)
  • Embedding inclusive policy and practice in
    existing departmental structures and systems e.g.
    peer observation

Opportunities (value added)
  • Provides evidence of UWs commitment to provide
    excellent, inclusive education
  • Review and revision of Open Day practice
  • Research informed teaching
  • Students as researchers
  • Raised external profile, e.g. 360 degree
    conference presentation
  • Step by Step Guide to AI for University of

  • Student involvement proved labour intensive for
    project staff
  • Pressurised timescale
  • Ethics and responsibilities
  • Associated costs
  • Alternative formats for disabled student

Further work
  • Institute of Sport and Exercise Science (ISES)
    project Disabled Students as Researchers,
    Mentors and Mentees
  • Development of generic Step by Step Guide to AI
  • Development of ISES Research Centre with focus on