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THE BIRTH OF JET PROPULSION

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Title: THE BIRTH OF JET PROPULSION


1
THE BIRTH OF JET PROPULSION
  • P M V Subbarao
  • Professor
  • Mechanical Engineering Department

Another Beak Through Idea by an Individual.
2
Working Principle of Propeller
3
Aerofoil Theory of Propeller
4
Anatomy of Propeller
5
Capacity of Propeller
6
Engines to drive propeller
7
Need for Alternative Propulsion Method
  • Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both
    recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet
    engine.
  • Each worked separately and knew nothing of the
    other's work.
  • Hans von Ohain is considered the designer of the
    first operational turbojet engine.
  • Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent
    for the turbojet engine in 1930.
  • Hans von Ohain was granted a patent for his
    turbojet engine in 1936.
  • However, Hans von Ohain's jet was the first to
    fly in 1939.
  • Frank Whittle's jet first flew in in 1941.

8
Parallel Invention
  • Doctor Hans Von Ohain was a German airplane
    designer who invented an operational jet engine.
  • Hans Von Ohain, started the investigating a new
    type of aircraft engine that did not require a
    propeller.
  • Only twenty-two years old when he first conceived
    the idea of a continuous cycle combustion engine
    in 1933.
  • Hans Von Ohain patented a jet propulsion engine
    design similar in concept to that of Sir Frank
    Whittle but different in internal arrangement in
    1934.
  • Hans Von Ohain joined Ernst Heinkel in 1936 and
    continued with the development of his concepts of
    jet propulsion.

9
  • A successful bench test of one of his engines was
    accomplished in September 1937.
  • A small aircraft was designed and constructed by
    Ernst Heinkel to serve as a test bed for the new
    type of propulsion system - the Heinkel He178.
  • The Heinkel He178 flew for the first time on
    August 27, 1939.
  • The pilot on this historic first flight of a
    jet-powered airplane was Flight Captain Erich
    Warsitz.

10
Think Different.
  • A Royal Air Force officer.
  • His first attempts to join the RAF failed as a
    result of his lack of height, but on his third
    attempt he was accepted as an apprentice in 1923.
  • He qualified as a pilot officer in 1928.
  • As a cadet Whittle had written a thesis arguing
    that planes would need to fly at high altitudes,
    where air resistance is much lower, in order to
    achieve long ranges and high speeds.

11
  • Piston engines and propellers were unsuitable for
    this purpose.
  • He concluded that rocket propulsion or gas
    turbines driving propellers would be required.
  • Jet propulsion was not in his thinking at this
    stage.
  • By October 1929, he had considered using a fan
    enclosed in the fuselage to generate a fast flow
    of air to propel a plane at high altitude.
  • A piston engine would use too much fuel, so he
    thought of using a gas turbine.
  • After the Air Ministry turned him down, he
    patented the idea himself.

12
  • In 1935, Whittle secured financial backing and,
    with Royal Air Force approval, Power Jets Ltd was
    formed.
  • They began constructing a test engine in July
    1936, but it proved inconclusive.
  • Whittle concluded that a complete rebuild was
    required, but lacked the necessary finances.
  • Protracted negotiations with the Air Ministry
    followed and the project was secured in 1940.
  • By April 1941, the engine was ready for tests.
    The first flight was made on 15 May 1941.
  • By October the United States had heard of the
    project and asked for the details and an engine.
  • A Power Jets team and the engine were flown to
    Washington to enable General Electric to examine
    it and begin construction.

13
  • The Americans worked quickly and their XP-59A
    Aircomet was airborne in October 1942, some time
    before the British Meteor, which became
    operational in 1944.
  • The jet engine proved to be a winner,
    particularly in America where the technology was
    enthusiastically embraced.

14
The biggest aircraft
An-225 Cossack 1,322,750 lb L 275'7"S 290'
The An-225 Cossack is the largest airplane in the world. The An-225 Cossack is the largest airplane in the world. The An-225 Cossack is the largest airplane in the world.
Powerplant 6 ZMKB Progress D-18 turbofans,
229.5 kN each
15
The popular Biggest Aircrafts in the World


Plane Max. Weight Dimensions
1. Hindenburg 484,400 lb L 804'D 135'
2. An-225 Cossack 1,322,750 lb L 275'7"S 290'
2. The An-225 Cossack is the largest airplane in the world. The An-225 Cossack is the largest airplane in the world. The An-225 Cossack is the largest airplane in the world.
3. HK-1 Spruce Goose 400,000 lb L 218'6"S 320'
3. The HK-1 Spruce Goose has the largest wingspan of all aircraft. The HK-1 Spruce Goose has the largest wingspan of all aircraft. The HK-1 Spruce Goose has the largest wingspan of all aircraft.
4. Airbus A380F 1,305,000 lb L 239'3"S 261'8"
4. The Airbus A380F is the largest passenger airliner in the world. The Airbus A380F is the largest passenger airliner in the world. The Airbus A380F is the largest passenger airliner in the world.
5. KM Caspian Sea Monster 1,080,000 lb L 348'S 131'
6. An-124 Condor 892,872 lb L 226'8.5"S 240'5.75"
7. C-5 Galaxy 840,000 lb L 247'10"S 222'9"
8. Boeing 777-300ER 775,000 lb L 242'4"S 212'7"
9. Airbus A340-600 807,400 lb L 246'11"S 208'2"
10. Boeing 747 875,000 lb L 231'10"S 211'5"
16
The world's largest aircraft engine, the GE90-115B
Max. Thrust 569kN
17
The fastest Aircraft
  • X-15 is having a 4,520 mph world speed record.
  • Fastest manned aircraft.
  • Not only is the North American X-15 the fastest
    piloted aircraft ever, it is the highest flying.
  • Thrust was obtained from one engine that produced
    313kN at maximum altitude.
  • The North American X-15 was produced to explore
    the limits of sub-orbital supersonic flight.
  • Three were produced. They flew a total of 199
    times.
  • The X-15 first took to the sky on June 8, 1959.
    The last flight took place on Oct. 24, 1968. A
    200th flight was never made, even after several
    attempts.

18
Course Overview
  • This undergraduate level course teaches the
    principles of jet propulsion.
  • The primary focus of the course is on the
    teaching of thermodynamics and Gas dynamics in
    aircraft engines.
  • The course provides information that will enable
    the engineering analysis of
  • ramjets and turbine engines and
  • its separate components including inlets,
    nozzles, combustion chambers, compressors, and
    turbines.

19
Course Objectives
  • Students successfully completing MEL 341 will
    get
  • A basic understanding of thermodynamic cycles of
    jet engines.
  • A basic understanding of the rational behind
    several types of jet engines.
  • A basic understanding of the compressible fluid
    flow in inlets and compressors and turbines.
  • A basic understanding of the combustion physics
    in combustion chambers.
  • The ability to analyze jet engines determine
    propulsion efficiency and design inlets and
    nozzles.

20
Course Contents
  • UNIT- I Propulsion
  •  Aircraft Propulsion introduction -- Early
    aircraft engines -- Types of aircraft engines --
    Reciprocating internal combustion engines -- Gas
    turbine engines -- Turbo jet engine -- Turbo fan
    engine -- Turbo-prop engine
  • Aircraft propulsion theory thrust, thrust power,
    propulsive and overall efficiencies -- Problems.
  •  UNIT- II THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF IDEAL
    PROPULSION CYCLES
  •  Thermodynamic analysis of turbojet engine
    Study of subsonic and supersonic engine models --
    Identification and Selection of optimal
    operational parameters. Need for further
    development Analysis of Turbojet with after
    burner.

21
  • Thermodynamic analysis of turbofan engine Study
    of subsonic and supersonic systems --
    Identification and selection of optimal
    operational parameters. Design of fuel efficient
    engines Mixed flow turbo fan engine Analysis
    of Turbofan with after burner.
  • Thermodynamic analysis of turbo-prop engine
    Identification and selection of optimal
    operational parameters.

22
UNIT III GAS DYNAMICS OF PASSIVE COMPONENTS OF
TURBO ENGINES
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS DYNAMICS Energy equation
    for a non-flow process -- Energy equation for a
    flow process -- The adiabatic energy equation --
    Momentum Equation --Moment of Momentum equation
    -- Stagnation Velocity of Sound --Stagnation
    Pressure -- Stagnation Density -- Stagnation
    State -- Velocity of sound -- Critical states --
    Mach number -- Critical Mach number -- Various
    regions of flow.
  • ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSERS AND NOZZLES Introduction
    study of intakes for subsonic and supersonic
    engines -- Comparison of isentropic and adiabatic
    processes -- Mach number variation -- Area ratio
    as function of Mach numbers -- Impulse function
    -- Mass flow rates -- Flow through nozzles --
    Flow through diffusers Effect of friction --
    Analysis of intakes for supersonic engines
    intakes with normal shock oblique shocks
    Study of special supersonic nozzles and
    diffusers.

23
UNIT IV STUDY OF COMPRESSORS
  • Design and Analysis of compressors
    Classification analysis of centrifugal
    compressors velocity triangles design of
    impellers and diffusers analysis of axial flow
    compressor analysis of stage characterization
    of stage design of multistage axial flow
    compressor Performances analysis of centrifugal
    and axial flow compressors.
  •  

24
  • UNIT V GAS DYNAMICS OF COMBUSTORS
  •  Stoichimetry of combustion calculation
    air-fuel ratio gas dynamics of combustors
    thermal loading factors design and selection of
    combustors.
  •  UNIT VI STUDY OF TURBINES
  • Concept of gas turbine analysis of turbine
    stage velocity triangles and characterization
    of blades and stages Design of multistage axial
    flow turbine Performance analysis of turbines.
  •  UNIT VI ADDITIONAL TOPICS
  • Thermodynamic analysis real turbo engine cycles
    performance analysis and thermodynamic
    optimization.
  •  Introduction to ramjets study of rocket
    engines study of missile engines.

25
Books References
  • Jet Propulsion
  • Flack, R.D.., Fundamentals of Jet Propulsion,
    Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Baskharone, E.A., Principles of Turbomachinery
    in Air-Breathing Engines, Cambridge University
    Press, 2006.
  • Kerrebrock J.L., Aircraft Engines and Gas
    Turbines, MIT Press, 1992.
  • Mattingly, J.D., Elements of Gas Turbine
    Propulsion, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1996.
  • Gas Dynamics
  • Anderson, J.D., Modern Compressible Flow With
    Historical Perspective, McGrawHill, 2002.
  • Zuker, R.D., and Biblarz, O.,Fundamentals of Gas
    Dynamics, John Wiley Sons Inc., 2002.
  • Thompson, P. A. Compressible Fluid Dynamics.
    Maple Press Company, 1984.
  • Saad, M.A.,Compressible Fluid Flow,
    Prentice-Hall, 1993.
  • Liepmann, H., and A. Roshko. Elements of Gas
    Dynamics. John Wiley Publishers, 1957.

26
Propulsion - Overview
  • What is propulsion?
  • The word is derived from two Latin words
  • pro meaning before or forwards and
  • pellere meaning to drive.
  • Propulsion means to push forward or drive an
    object forward.
  • A propulsion system is a machine that produces
    thrust to push an object forward.
  • On airplanes, thrust is usually generated through
    some application of Newton's third law of action
    and reaction.
  • A gas, or working fluid, is accelerated by a
    machine, and the reaction to this acceleration
    produces a force on the engine.

27
Classification of Propulsion Systems
28
Jet Propulsion
  • Operating principle based on Newtons laws of
    motion.
  • 2nd law - rate of change of momentum is
    proportional to applied thrust (i.e. F m a)
  • 3rd law - every action has an equal and opposite
    reaction.

29
Classification of Systems
  • Only the practical thermo-chemical category will
    be considered further in this Course.
  • This may be split into two main sub-categories
  • Rockets (Solid or Liquid Propellant)
  • Air Breathers (Ramjet, Turbojet , Turbofan
    Turboprop)
  • along with a Hybrid Ram rocket.
  • The fundamental operating principle common in
    all these cases is , that of jet or reaction
    propulsion, i.e. by generating high-velocity
    exhaust gases.

30
Jet Characteristics
  • Quantities defining a jet are
  • cross-sectional area
  • composition
  • velocity.
  • Of these, only the velocity is a truly
    characteristic feature and is of considerable
    quantitative significance.

31
Jet Characteristics of Practical Propulsion
Systems
System Jet Velocity (m/s)
Turbofan 200 - 600
Turbojet (sea-level, static) 350 - 600
Turbojet (Mach 2 at 36000 ft) 900 - 1200
Ramjet (Mach 2 at 36000 ft) 900 - 1200
Ramjet (Mach 4 at 36000 ft) 1800 - 2400
Solid Rocket 1500 2600
Liquid Rocket 2000 3500
32
Introduction to Rockets
33
Solid Propellant Rocket - Basic Operating Features
  • Four basic components
  • motor case, nozzle, solid propellant charge,
    igniter.
  • Propellant charge comprises combined fuel
    oxidizer.
  • Gaseous combustion products fill void at high
    pressure (70 bar typically) and sustains
    combustion.
  • Hot gases vent through convergent-divergent
    nozzle to provide high-speed (supersonic)
    propulsion jet.
  • Gases generated and escape at fixed rate for
    steady operation by maintaining constant burning
    surface area.

34
Solid Propellant Rocket for GW
Rapier
  • Jet velocity 1500-2600m/s
  • Most widely used in GW
  • Short, medium range (lt 50 km)
  • Simple, reliable, easy storage, high T/W

35
Solid Rocket Features
  • High propellant density (volume-limited designs).
  • Long-lasting chemical stability.
  • Readily available, tried and trusted, proven in
    service.
  • No field servicing equipment straightforward
    handling.
  • Cheap, reliable, easy firing and simple
    electrical circuits.
  • But
  • Lower specific impulses (compared with liquid
    rockets).
  • Difficult to vary thrust on demand.
  • Smokey exhausts (especially with composite
    propellants).
  • Performance affected by ambient temperature.

36
Liquid Propellant Rocket - Basic Operating
Features
  • Fuel and oxidant tanked separately and delivered
    to combustion chamber at specific rates and
    pressures.
  • Propellant flowrates (and hence thrust) variable
    upon demand.
  • Disadvantages compared with solid propellant
    rockets
  • increased complication
  • Storage problems (usually LOX LH2 which must be
    maintained at very low temperatures)
  • more costly
  • reduced reliability.

37
Liquid Propellant Rocket - Space
  • Jet velocity 2000 - 3500m/s.
  • Highest thrust, can be throttled.
  • Long sustained flight (5mins).

38
Space Transportation System (STS)
39
Travel Cycle of Modern Spacecrafts
40
Rentering Space Craft
41
Major Knowledge Gains Through Gas Dynamics
  • Simple principles of Gas Dynamics, it was showed
    that the heat load experienced by an entry
    vehicle was inversely proportional to the drag
    coefficient.
  • The greater the drag, the less the heat load.
  • Through making the reentry vehicle blunt, the
    shock wave and heated shock layer were pushed
    forward, away from the vehicle's outer wall.
  • Since most of the hot gases were not in direct
    contact with the vehicle, the heat energy would
    stay in the shocked gas and simply move around
    the vehicle to later dissipate into the
    atmosphere.
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