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Wavelength Routed Networks

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Wavelength Routed Networks Wavelength Assignment Wavelength Conversion Cost Implications Network Modeling Ring Network Equivalent Topology Traffic Matrix Traffic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wavelength Routed Networks


1
Wavelength Routed Networks
  • Wavelength Assignment
  • Wavelength Conversion
  • Cost Implications
  • Network Modeling

2
Ring Network
SDH equipment
WDM de-mux
3
Equivalent Topology
A
B
D
C
4
Traffic Matrix
Shows amount of traffic between two nodes. Units
here are in fibre bandwidth.
A B C D
A B C D
1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
5
Traffic Allocation
A B C D
A B C D
1 11 1 1 1 11 2 1 1 1 2 1
A
B
D
C
6
Optical Layer
SDH equipment
WDM de-mux
7
Optical Layer
HIGHER LAYER PROTOCOLS
SDH
OPTICAL PATHS
8
General Network
B
A
C
E
D
F
9
Optical Layer Issues (1)
  • Transparency
  • Format independence
  • bit rate independence
  • Wavelength reuse
  • non-overlapping paths

10
Optical Layer Issues (2)
  • Reliability
  • provision of alternate paths
  • Virtual Topology
  • Topology seen by higher layers
  • Circuit Switching
  • Dynamic topology

11
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12
Types of wavelength router
  • No wavelength conversion
  • single wavelength from transmitter to receiver
  • Fixed wavelength conversion
  • At every node the output wavelengths are a fixed
    permutation of the input wavelengths
  • Limited conversion
  • input wavelengths can be changed to a fixed
    subset of output wavelengths
  • Full conversion

13
Electronic vs Optical XC
E Regenerative O Transparent point to point
links global links fixed format format
independent bandwidth smaller bandwidth
larger routing easy routing hard (in
general) detailed monitoring low level monitoring
14
Network Design (1)
  • Optical Layer
  • Functionality
  • Protection
  • Management
  • Dimensioning
  • Physical fibre links
  • Number of wavelengths
  • Protocols

15
Network Design (2)
  • Timescales
  • slow for bandwidth management
  • fast for packet switching
  • Scaleability
  • Can we make the network N times bigger
  • Local vs Global information
  • Can the network operate without global knowledge
  • Blocking

16
Scaling
  • P vs NP vs E computations
  • Polynomial time
  • Non-deterministic Polynomial time
  • Exponential

17
Scaling examples
18
Network Design
  • Goals
  • Maximum available bandwidth
  • Minimum cost
  • Flexibility, Reliability, Upgradability.....
  • Restrictions
  • Finance
  • Node Locations
  • Physics / Engineering

19
Traffic Modeling
  • Traffic Matrix
  • difficult to predict in detail
  • can be useful in upgrading networks
  • Permutations
  • Maximum Load
  • Maximum traffic for minimum resource
  • Statistical

20
Blocking
  • To allow or not to allow
  • allow
  • more blocking means less resource needed
  • also means less network availability
  • don?t allow
  • need more network resource
  • will always allow 100 network use

21
Network Types
  • Static
  • no switching
  • initial design critical
  • Dynamic
  • incorporate switches
  • need for ?on-line? design/optimization

22
Static Networks
  • The network is defined by the set of possible
    light paths between each pair of nodes
  • In general, the network need not be symmetric
  • In order for nodes i and j to communicate we
    need to select two wavelengths, one from i to j
    and the other from j to i
  • Summarize all possibilities in connection matrix
  • Implementation details are not yet included

23
Connectivity Matrix
Receiver
1 2 3
1 2 3
1,2 2 3 1 3 2,3 2 1,3 2
Transmitter
24
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25
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26
Permutations
  • Each set of node wavelength assignments defines
    a tuning of the network
  • Because of light path collisions, not all
    tunings are legal
  • Each legal tuning enables a single permutation
  • Consider a single tuning giving two permutations
  • at least one receiver must be able to connect to
    two transmitters
  • since the receiver wavelength is fixed the two
    transmitters have the same wavelength
  • but this is a light path collision

27
Wavelength Estimate
Let W number of wavelengths n number
of nodes Then the number of possible tunings is
W2n The number of permutations is n! So W2n gt n!
or W gt(n!)1/2n Using Stirling's formula for n!
(n/e)n (2?n)1/2 this can be written (for large
n) W gt (n/e)1/2 (2?n)1/4n The simple upper bound
is W n
28
Wavelength Estimate
29
Other Results
For offline static routing
For wide-sense non-blocking
30
Blocking Estimate
31
Non-blocking Estimate
32
Siemens SURPASS
  • non-blocking 160G_at_VC-4 and 10G_at_VC-12 switching
    granularity
  • Integrated packet fabrics (RPR, MPLS)
  • Multi service platform 2M, 155M, STM-1/4/16/64,
    40Gbit/s, GFP for 10/100BT, GbE, 10GbE, SAN
    interfaces (FICON, Fi-ber Channel)
  • GFP mapping and LCAS for optimal scalability of
    Ethernet Services
  • Support of concatenated services (VC-4-4c,
    VC-4-16c, VC-4-64c)
  • A variety of STM-64 interfaces, including "WDM"
    variants
  • Extensive protection mechanisms (SNCP, MSP,
    BSHR, Hardware) including RPR traffic steering
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