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Vocational Education and Training in India

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Title: Vocational Education and Training in India


1
Vocational Education and Training in India
  • MIT India Reading Group, 20 Feb 2010
  • Anna Agarwal
  • annaag_at_mit.edu

2
NEED
  • Low education levels in existing work force
  • 67 of the existing work force is either
    illiterate or literate up to primary level of
    education
  • High School Drop out Rate
  • Over 200 million students enroll in Class I each
    year, but only 20 million of these are able to
    finish Class XII
  • 90 of the students drop out at different stages
    before Class XII
  • 63 of the students drop out before reaching
    Class X
  • They do not have necessary education and skills
    to be employed in the industry.

3
Comparing education levels of Indias adult
population to other countries
Comparing India to countries with similar income
levels India does not underperform in primary
education but has a comparative deficit in
secondary education. These figures are from
different years between 1998 and 2003 for the
different countries
4
NEED
  • Unemployability of the Educated
  • The educated without professional skills
    constitute 69 of the total unemployed
  • NASSCOM the Indian IT industry's trade
    association reported that 75 of the fresh
    engineering grads recruited by domestic IT
    providers are unemployable.
  • Of roughly 509 million workers currently employed
    in India, only 12 are skilled.
  • Need to focus on the skills for the informal
    sector
  • The largest share of new jobs in India is
    supposed to come from the unorganized sector that
    employs up to 93 of the national workforce and
    produces 60 of GDP.
  • Informal sector has very low levels of
    productivity (incomes).
  • As per NSSO survey, large number of workers
    (around 30) are living below the poverty line.
  • Provision of appropriate skills is important to
    increase the employment prospects and
    productivity of this workforce.

5
Skill Development in India
  • Two Main Forms
  • Vocation Education
  • part of formal education system
  • vocational courses offered in school Grades 11
    and 12 under a centrally sponsored scheme termed
    Vocationalization of Secondary Education. (in
    most states vocational and general courses are
    offered by the same institution).
  • Vocational Training
  • Outside formal education system
  • It is open to students who leave school anywhere
    from Grade 8-12.

6
Skill Development in India
  • Vocational Education
  • Vocational Training

7
Vocational Education (Grade 11, 12) Some History
and Current Framework
  • The Vocational Education Program (VEP) was
    started in 1976-77 under the program of
    Vocationalisation of Higher Secondary Education
    in general education institutions.
  • The National Working Group on Vocationalisation
    of Education (Kulandaiswamy Committee, 1985 )
    reviewed VEP and its recommendations led to the
    development of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme
    (CSS) on Vocationalisation of Secondary
    Education, which started being implemented from
    1988.
  • Its purpose is to
  • enhance individual employability,
  • reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of
    skilled manpower and
  • provide an alternative for those pursuing higher
    education without particular interest or purpose.
  • Vocational education falls under the purview of
    the Ministry of Human Resources Development
    (MHRD).
  • The All-India Council for Vocational Education
    (AICVE), under MHRD, is responsible for planning,
    guiding and coordinating the program at the
    national level.
  • State Councils for Vocational Education (SCVE)
    perform similar functions at the state level.

8
Vocational Education (Grade 11, 12) Selection
Criteria
  • Students are selected into the vocational stream
    on the basis of performance in Grade 10
    examinations.
  • (belief is that students joining the vocational
    system are those who perform poorly in the Grade
    10 examination)
  • Qualifications of Teachers
  • Similar to those of general secondary school
    teachers.
  • Full-time teachers need to have a masters degree,
    and are often the same as teachers who teach
    general subjects.
  • In addition, part-time teachers are also hired by
    institutions to teach specific courses hired on
    the basis of their professional expertise in a
    particular field.

9
Vocational Education (Grade 11, 12) Courses
Offered
  • Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute for
    Vocational Education (PSSCIVE) is responsible for
    developing the courses.
  • Courses are offered in six disciplines.
  • Agriculture
  • (for example veterinary pharmacist/technician
    watershed management)
  • Business and commerce
  • (for example taxation practices stenography)
  • Humanities
  • (for example classical dance entrepreneurship)
  • Engineering and technology
  • (for example lineman cost effective building
    technology)
  • Home science
  • (for example textile design gerentology)
  • Health and para-medical skills
  • (for example x-ray technician health/sanitary
    inspector)

10
Vocational Education (Grade 11, 12) Outcomes
  • Enrollment Figures
  • The Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended that
    50 of the students going to higher secondary
    education should be diverted to the vocational
    stream. The National Education Policy (1986-92)
    re-set the target at 25, to be attained by 2000.
  • Only 6800 schools (almost all in public sector)
    received grants
  • Current Enrollment figures Less than 3!
  • 14 million students or more in Grades 11 and
    12, out of those 350,000 to 400,000 students are
    enrolled in vocational education
  • Average capacity utilization of the schools is
    about 40.
  • Vocational students appear intent on entering
    higher education rather than entering the labor
    market.

11
Skill Development in India
  • Vocational Education
  • Vocational Training

12
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Current Framework
  • It is open to students who leave school after
    completing anywhere from Grade 8-12.
  • Programs administered under the Craftsmen
    Training Scheme (CTS) are operated by two main
    types of institutions
  • Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) - financed
    and managed by state labor ministries and
    providing places for about 400,000 students in
    3,358 institutes.
  • Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) - owned,
    financed and managed by private organizations or
    NGOs and providing places for about 340,000
    students in 1,895 centers.
  • While the state governments have no direct
    control over the functioning of these
    institutions, they are accredited to either the
    NCVT or an SCVT.
  • Students who eventually complete crafts courses
    sit for an All India Trades Test, conducted under
    the aegis of the National Council for Vocational
    Training (NCVT) but administered by the States.
  • Successful students receive a National Trade
    Certificate (NTC).
  • Wikipedia mentioned that after completion of ITI
    course a person has to undergo practical training
    in his trade in an industry for a year or two
    (necessary for certificate)

13
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Selection Criteria
  • Students are admitted to ITIs/ITCs purely on the
    basis of marks secured by the candidate in the
    public examination prescribed for the individual
    trade.
  • Where ever there is no public examination,
    written examinations are conducted by the State
    Directorate of Training for the purpose of
    admission to the particular trade.
  • As is the case with vocational education, the
    students who perform relatively poorly in the
    general education stream end up joining
    vocational training.
  • Teachers are directly recruited through a
    selection process involving written examinations
    and interviews.
  • The qualifications for the posts are
  • Principal/Vice Principal Degree in Engineering
    with 5 years experience or a Diploma in
    Engineering with 8 years experience in industry
  • Superintendent/ Group Instructor Diploma with 5
    years experience in industry and
  • Instructors National Trade Certificate/National
    Apprentice Certificate/Diploma.
  • DGET operates seven Central Training Institutes
    (CTIs) to upgrade skills of instructors.

14
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Courses Offered
  • Most CTS students are in 2-year training courses
  • Although courses vary from 6 months to 3 years
    in duration, 43 of the 49 engineering trades are
    of either 1 or (mostly) 2 years duration.
  • About 80 students take admission in engineering
    courses, and the remaining in the non-engineering
    trades.
  • Most of the non-engineering trades are 1 year
    long, and enroll fewer than 20 of students.

15
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Outcomes- Karnataka 1998-2001 Study
  • Activities of 209 ITI graduates from 1998 were
    traced from 1998 to 2001.
  • The study also made a comparison with students
    who had appeared in the Grade 10 exams (SSLC) and
    Grade 12 exam (PUC) in 1998.
  • Table shows the status of these graduates in 2001
    (source WB, 2002)
  • Students in 10th or 12th Grade are significantly
    more likely to go on to further education than
    ITI graduates not surprising, as few avenues
    for further education are open to ITI graduates.
  • ITI graduates may do relatively better in the
    labor market than Grade 10 and Grade 12
    completers, BUT their labor market outcomes are
    still poor.

16
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Outcomes ILO 2003 Study
  • Evaluated employment in organized sector in 3
    states Orrisa, AP, Maharashtra
  • Labor market success rates of ITI graduates are
    somewhat better than those for ITC graduate
  • ITI may be more stringent in terms of grading
    students in their intermediate examinations so
    that the poorly performing ones drop out early.
  • It is also possible that the trades they offer
    may be more in demand in the labor market than
    the trades offered by ITCs.

17
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Employers Perspective ILO 2003 Study
Despite the relatively large number of ITI/ITC
graduates, employers in the three States still
experienced problems finding employees with the
right skills.
Employers felt that ITI graduates did not perform
well enough in the use of computers, practical
use of machines, communications and team work
practices
18
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Employers Perspective
  • A survey by the Federation of Indian Chambers of
    Commerce and Industry (FICCI) shows similar
    results.

Courses are poor quality/obsolete!
19
Vocational Training (outside formal schooling)
What about the informal sector!
  • The largest share of new jobs in India is
    supposed to come from the unorganized sector that
    employs up to 93of the national workforce and
    produces 60 of GDP.
  • Public training institutions play a limited role
    in producing skills for the informal sector.
  • While one of the mandates of ITIs is to train
    workers for the informal sector, evidence shows
    this is rarely the case.
  • Because of their educational entry requirements
    and long duration of courses, they are not
    designed to offer skills to the low-educated
    people.

20
Skill Development in India
  • Vocational Education
  • Vocational Training
  • For organized sector (ITIs and ITCs mainly
    address this)
  • For unorganized or informal sector (very
    important)

21
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Informal Sector Different Programs
  • While there are no formal training programs for
    the informal sector, a number of institutions are
    involved in providing training in the informal
    sector.
  • Community Polytechnics (to some extent part of
    formal sector)
  • There are now 675 CPs, training about 450,000
    people a year
  • Jan Shikshan Sansthan
  • offers 255 types of vocational courses to
    almost 1.5 million people (mostly women)
  • National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
  • offering 85 courses through over 700 providers
    recognized by the NIOS
  • Other Trainings for the Informal Sector
  • None of these programs has been evaluated
    rigorously.

22
Vocational Training (outside formal
schooling) Informal Sector Framework in
contrast to ITIs
  • Unlike in ITIs/ITCs, a majority of students
    enroll in non-engineering and IT-related trades.
    Only about 15 enrolled in engineering-related
    trades, compared to over 80 in ITIs and ITCs.
  • The average duration of courses is shorter than
    in ITIs
  • While the average duration of courses in ITIs is
    about 2 years,
  • close to 90 of students in private or NGO
    institutions are in courses shorter than 1 year
    with about 40 enrolled in courses shorter than
    three months. Furthermore, about 45 of students
    are enrolled in part-time courses.

23
Vocational Training (outside formal schooling)
Informal Sector - Community Polytechnics
  • There are now 675 CPs, training about 450,000
    people a year within the communities.
  • Courses are of 3 - 9 months duration and there
    are no entry pre-requisites.
  • 1 month duration courses
  • Glass painting screen printing purse making
    carving, soft toys making.
  • 3 month duration courses
  • Mobile and telephone repair helper for
    hospital and nursing homes electric motor
    winding.
  • 6 month duration courses
  • Office management electrician plumbing 2-3
    wheeler mechanic dressmaking, designing,
    embroidery and fabric painting fashion
    designing.

24
Vocational Training (outside formal schooling)
Informal Sector - Jan Shikshan Sansthan
  • JSS was launched as an adult education program
    aimed at improving the vocational skills and
    quality of life of workers and their family
    members.
  • JSS is financed by the Adult Education
    Directorate within MHRD. All the JSSs are managed
    by non-government organisations (NGOs) under
    Boards of Management that include a GoI
    representative. They must be registered under the
    Societies Registration Act, 1860, incorporating a
    Memorandum of Association, Rules and Regulations.
  • The program initially focused on adults and young
    people living in urban and industrial areas and
    on people who had migrated from rural areas.
  • The target group has since shifted to newly
    literate workers and to unskilled and unemployed
    youth in both rural and urban areas.
  • Courses range from candle and agarbatti making,
    sewing and embroidery to computer courses.
  • By the end of 2002 there were 122 JSSs offering
    255 types of vocational courses.
  • In 2001-02, almost 1.5 million people received
    vocational training or participated in other JSS
    activities.
  • Just over 60 percent of participants were women.

25
Vocational Training (outside formal schooling)
Informal Sector - National Institute of Open
Schooling
  • NIOS provides opportunities to those who would
    have otherwise missed out.
  • NIOS offers Open Basic Education (OBE) programs
    designed to bring students to Grade 3, Grade 5 or
    Grade 8 level.
  • Courses may be taken in combination with academic
    subjects at secondary and senior secondary
    levels.
  • Of the 85 course offered, only 12 are open to
    students who have less than Grade 8 completion
    54 courses (64) require at least Grade 10
    completion.
  • NIOS has accredited 731 training providers to
    deliver a vocational education programs. These
    include government financed institutions such as
    JSS, non-government providers.

26
Vocational Training (outside formal schooling)
Informal Sector Others Training Schemes
  • Training of Rural Youth for Self-employment
    (TRYSEM)
  • Established in 1979,
  • Aim to develop technical and entrepreneurial
    skills among rural youth (aged from 18 to 35)
    from families below the poverty line to enable
    them to take up income-generating activities.
  • Training is based on the needs of the area
  • Training is provided at ITIs, community
    polytechnics, extension training centres, Krishi
    Vigyan Kendras, khadi and village industry
    boards, state institutes of rural development and
    institutions run by voluntary agencies.
  • Trainees receive a stipend during their training
    which is normally for six months.
  • Entrepreneurship Development Centers/Institutes
    provide training in different fields based on the
    resource endowment of the area
  • There are many more, but no evaluation of their
    impact.

27
The Future 5050 joint venture of UK-based
Pearson with Delhi-based Educomp Solutions to
target vocational learning
  • Pearson (U.K.-based publisher of textbooks,
    Penguin books and the Financial Times newspaper)
  • will pay 17.5 million for a 50 stake in the
    vocational training business of Delhi-based
    Educomp Solutions Ltd. (India's largest publicly
    listed education company operates 26 vocational
    training centers across the country.)
  • Initiative is called IndiaCan
  • Mission is to
  • provide 500,000 persons ready to deploy to the
    industry annually by 2012
  • be the top Vocational and Skill Development
    Company in India and
  • create and deploy globally transportable skills
    sets.

Source http//online.wsj.com/article/SB1245819825
33345915.html
28
The Future Efforts by Confederation of Indian
Industry (CII)
  • CII launched the Skills Development Initiative in
    2004
  • The objective is to provide the socially and
    economically vulnerable population a chance to be
    part of the mainstream economy. To make the
    people employable for employment/self employment
    in India or abroad.

29
The Future NGOs and Private Sector Entrepreneurs
  • NGO from Madurai have started Sadhana Samudaya
    Kalloori (SSK) in Madurai.
  • Here the 10 and 12 pass students from
    economically backward families can go through
    courses that can later fetch them jobs in their
    own villages or they can set up a small scale
    industry by themselves.
  • Vocational Academy India Private Ltd.
  • aims to establish learning centers in every
    district Head Quarters across the country over
    the next 5 years. These centers will offer
    courses that create employability or give career
    enhancement for the rural and semi - urban youth.

I got information on the NGOs and Private
Enterprises mentioned in the Future section of
this presentation from Google. These are just a
subset of larger number of other organizations in
India. (I am not involved or support any of these
?)
30
References (not appropriately referenced in the
slides!)
  • World Bank Report, Skill Development in India
    The Vocational Education and Training System,
    2006
  • Report of the Working Group on Skill Development
    and Training set up for preparation of XI plan,
    Government of India, Planning Commission, New
    Delhi, 2006
  • http//online.wsj.com/article/SB124581982533345915
    .html
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