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Review Lifecourse Theories Review Sampson and Laub Moffitt

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Title: Review Lifecourse Theories Review Sampson and Laub Moffitt s Theory Author: Jeff Maahs Last modified by: Jeff Maahs Created Date: 12/9/2003 1:09:58 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Review Lifecourse Theories Review Sampson and Laub Moffitt


1
6 F 19 D 34 C 24 B 17 A
2
Developmental Criminology
  • Basic Concepts/Questions
  • Developmental Theories
  • Policy Implications

3
The Age-Crime Relationship
Arrest Rate
4000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
Property Crimes, peak age 16
Violent Crimes, peak age 18
10 20 30 40 50
Age at Arrest
4
Is the Age/Crime Curve Misleading?
  • Data is AGGREGATE
  • It could hide subgroups of offenders, or
    offending trajectories
  • Data is Cross-Sectional
  • Doesnt track stability/change over time
  • Data is OFFICIAL
  • Cannot tell us about the precursors to official
    delinquency (childhood antisocial behavior)

5
Antisocial Behavior Is Stable
  • COHORT STUDIES CHRONIC 6
  • Correlation between past and future criminal
    behavior ranges from .6 to .7 (very strong)
  • Lee Robins- Studies of cohorts of males
  • Antisocial Personality as an adult virtually
    requires history of CASB
  • CASB as early as age 6 related to delinquency
  • More severe behavior has more stability
  • Early onset delinquency powerful indicator of
    stability

6
But there is CHANGE
  • 1/2 of antisocial children are never arrested
  • The vast majority of delinquents desist as they
    enter adulthood (mid 20s)

7
New and Old Ideas
  • OLD Crime is the province of adolescents
    theories of delinquency most important
  • Easier to find/survey adolescents too!
  • New (Considering stability/development )
  • Central causes of delinquency lie in childhood
  • Theories of adolescent delinquency are at best
    incomplete
  • Lifecourse Questions
  • Why do some age out of crime while others dont?
  • Why is criminality so stable over time?
  • What causes crime at different stages of life?

8
Terminology
  • Career Criminal Paradigm
  • Early roots in criminologystudies of robbers,
    fences, and so forth
  • Crime as an occupation ? specialization,
    escalation, etc.
  • Empirical evidence little specialization, crime
    not as an occupation
  • Developmental Criminology replaces Career
    Criminal paradigm in 1980s

9
Lifecourse Theory I
  • Must explain why there is stability (continuity)
    in antisocial behavior
  • Must explain childhood precursors to offending
    (childhood antisocial behavior)
  • Severe (age inappropriate) temper tantrums
  • Deviant/criminal behavior
  • Must explain desistence, or change
  • Antisocial children, but not adults
  • Adults that age out

10
Lifecourse Theory II
  • Types of Lifecourse Theories
  • Continuity Theories (TraitGH)
  • Continuity and Change Theories (Sampson and Laub)
  • Continuity or Change Theories (Moffitt)

11
Continuity Theories
  • Some thing that is stable over time and related
    to crime
  • Gottfreson and Hirschi ? Low self-control
  • Becomes very stable by age 8
  • Causes crime and other nastiness
  • Problem?
  • Why do people desist? Explain childhood
    recoveries or adult desistence?
  • GH
  • People desist its a law or constant like
    gravity, which doesnt need explanation

12
Sampson and Laub
  • Important/Popular book Crime in the Making
    Pathways and Turning Points Through Life
  • First to fully outline lifecourse criminology
  • Put forth a lifecourse theory
  • Use Glueck data to test theory

13
Pathways and Turning Points
  • Pathways stability
  • Turning Points opportunity for change

14
Sampson and Laub
Childhood Adolescence Adulthood
  • Context
  • Poverty
  • Neighborhood
  • Others
  • Parenting
  • Supervision
  • Discipline
  • Social Bonds
  • Family
  • School
  • Delinquent Peers

Delinquency
Adult Crime
  • Social Bonds
  • Marriage
  • Good Job

Length of Incarceration
  • Individual
  • Differences
  • Temperament
  • Conduct disorder
  • diagnosis

15
Continuity
  • Stability of Trajectory
  • Individual differences (traits) possible
  • Cumulative Continuity
  • Delinquency/crime has effect on adult social
    bonds
  • Delinquency/crime can lead to incarceration,
    which also has effect on adult social bonds
  • These bonds, in turn, have effect on future crime

16
Just a little picture
Because I care
17
Change
  • Turning Points Adult Social Bonds
  • Quality Marriage
  • Quality Employment
  • Why would these things reduce crime?
  • SL they increase informal control (bind
    individuals to society, give them something to
    lose)
  • Other explanations (spend less time with criminal
    friends, etc.)

18
Sampson and Laub II
  • New Book/Articles based on follow-up data from
    Gleuck sample
  • Followed until age 70
  • Similar to original theory
  • Employment, marriage, military service
  • More complex-why a turning point?
  • Knife off past from the present/future
  • Supervision/monitoring (control) but also
    opportunities for social support/growth
  • Change to structure/routine activities
  • Opportunity for identity transformation

19
How do people desist?
  • Desistence by Default
  • No conscious decision to stop offending
  • Rather, roles, structure, social context changes
  • Human Agency
  • Vague concept that implies people have some say
    in the matter.
  • Not same as rational choice nor is it a trait
  • Interaction land a good job but still must want
    to keep
  • Theoretical Importance
  • Lives do not unfold in predictable sequences
  • Desistence more difficult to explain than onset
    or persistence

20
Terrie Moffitt
  • A Stability or Change Theory
  • Argument
  • There are 2 different kinds of offenders in the
    world
  • These types can be characterized by their unique
    offending trajectories
  • Failure of Mainstream Criminology?
  • During adolescence, these two groups look rather
    similar

21
Moffitts 2 Groups of Offenders
  • LCPs
  • Early Start, Stable over lifecourse, 5 of
    general population (small group)
  • Therefore
  • Why start so early? Why so stable?
  • ALs
  • Late starters, desist in adulthood, very
    prevalent in population
  • Therefore.
  • Why start so late? Why desist right away?

22
Explaining the LCP trajectory
  • Presence of Neuropsychological Deficits
  • Where do they come from?
  • Why do they matter?
  • INTERACTING WITH
  • Ineffective Parenting
  • Monitoring, supervision, etc.
  • This dual hazard puts them on bad pathhowever

23
Cumulative Continuity for LCPs
  • What in the environment is affected?
  • Peer Rejection
  • School Failure
  • Parenting
  • THEREFORE
  • Cumulative continuity
  • Contemporary continuity (still have N.P. Deficit,
    personality traits)

24
Explaining the ALs
  • Maturity Gap
  • Knifing off Bonds as rewarding
  • Mimic
  • Why do ALs desist?
  • However, some may exhibit continuity
  • Snares as another example of cumulative
    continuity

25
Key Moffitt Questions
  • Why do we need 2 theories?
  • How does she account for stability and change?
  • Specific explanations of LCP and AL offending

26
Policy Implications
  • The seduction of the chronic 6
  • The promise of early intervention
  • Theory Specific Implications
  • Moffitt ? causes of neurological deficits,
    effective parenting, other?
  • SL ? family context, parenting, bonds (child and
    adult)
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