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The United States in the 1920s Prosperity and Decline

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The United States in the 1920s Prosperity and Decline 1919-1929 Turning Points in the war El Alamein (November, 1942)- North Africa Germans driven out of Egypt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The United States in the 1920s Prosperity and Decline


1
The United States in the 1920s Prosperity and
Decline
  • 1919-1929

2
  • Prosperity and Purchasing Power in the U.S.
  • Expansion of the auto industry
  • Expansion of construction
  • New consumer products
  • Electrification of America
  • Durable Products
  • Non-durable products
  • Introduction of mass advertising
  • Americas increasing literacy
  • Proliferation of radios
  • Creation of new industries
  • Installment buying
  • Efficiency of production
  • Transition from steam power to electric power
  • Decrease in per-unit cost of manufactured items

3
  • The Coming of the Great Depression
  • Poor Distribution of Income
  • 1929 1 of U.S. pop. 60 of nations wealth
  • Low wages? Corporate profit?
  • Corporate profits spent on speculative buying
  • Decline in auto production and construction
  • Technological unemployment
  • Increased production but no pay increases
  • Weaknesses in corporate structure
  • 8,000 businesses disappeared
  • Defects in the banking system
  • Agricultural depression
  • overproduction
  • 1919-1929 income for farmers decline
  • inability to pay debts foreclosures

4
  • Sick Industries
  • Textiles, coal, railroads
  • Stock Market Crash
  • bull market- prices are rising
  • bear market- prices are falling
  • marginal buying- 5-10 down on stock
  • confidence lost
  • All of these factors contributed to a major
    loss in consumer purchasing power, facilitating
    low economic activity and rising unemployment
    (economic depression).

5
The Rise of Totalitarian Regimes in Europe
  • 1919-1939

6
The United States
  • Woodrow Wilsons League of Nations
  • Republican opposition in the House and Senate
  • The United States came out of the war in better
    condition than its allies.
  • No battles on American soil
  • Fewer casualties than its allies
  • The war and U.S. economy
  • The U.S. economy remained strong until 1929
  • Debtor to Creditor status
  • 1920s prosperity and production in the U.S.
  • Stock Market Speculation

7
  • Stock Market Crash
  • Tuesday, October 29, 1929
  • Business and bank failures
  • Drop in sales and production
  • Wages fell and workers were cut
  • Massive unemployment
  • By 1933, ¼ of nations workforce unemployed
  • Dawes Plan
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal
  • 1932, elected on the promised that he would
    provide a new deal for the American people.
  • First Hundred Days
  • Restored the nations confidence

8
Great Britain
  • Britains loss of economic status
  • Britain lost its status in world trade
  • British colonies
  • Creditor to Debtor status
  • U.S. and Japan
  • Britains factories were outdated
  • U.S. and Japan
  • 1926 General Strike
  • 1932 ¼ of British were unemployed

9
France
  • After the war, France was in worse shape than
    Britain
  • Loss of farmland and forests
  • Destruction of villages and cities
  • Tremendous casualties
  • Severe Economic Problems
  • High unemployment and inflation
  • Government on the verge of bankruptcy
  • Inability to rebuild economic infrastructure
  • Bleak Political Picture
  • Desire to prevent another war
  • Locarno Agreements (1925)
  • Maginot Line

10
Fascist Dictatorship in Europe
  • Benito Mussolini and the Fascist Party in Italy
  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in Germany

11
Fascism in Italy
  • Post-war Dissatisfaction
  • Empty Allied promises
  • Economic Problems
  • High debts incurred during the war
  • Few jobs for returning soldiers
  • Lack of industrial resources
  • No markets for products
  • Benito Mussolini
  • b. 1883
  • Working-class background
  • Worked as a journalist
  • Formed the Fascist Party (Fasci di Combattimento)
    in 1919

12
  • Fascism- political philosophy that advocates
    glorification of the state, a single-party
    system, and an aggressive form of nationalism.
  • Totalitarian- of or relating to a political
    regime based on subjugation of the individual to
    the state and strict control of all aspects of
    the life and productive capacity of the nation
    (often by coercive means such as censorship and
    terrorism)

13
  • Fascism was a totalitarian form of government.
  • The state had absolute power
  • Defended private property and class structure
  • The cause of the nation was most important
  • War and conquest were considered essential to
    achieving nationalistic goals
  • Mussolinis rise to power
  • Steady degradation of Italys economy after the
    war
  • Widespread social unrest throughout Italy (urban
    and rural)
  • Middle-class worries?
  • Mussolini offered reforms to appease all groups

14
  • Mussolinis promises
  • To landowners and the middle-class he promised to
    end social unrest and protect private property.
  • To workers he promised full employment and
    workers benefits.
  • To nationalists he promised to restore Italy to
    its former greatness.
  • Fascism was a major force in Italy by 1921
  • The Blackshirts were Mussolinis followers they
    used violence to deter political opponents and
    promote the Fascist Partys policies
  • In 1922, the Fascists invaded Rome
  • King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

15
  • Dictatorship- a form of government in which
    absolute power is concentrated in a dictator (one
    enjoying complete autocratic control) of a small
    regime.

16
  • Dictatorship in Italy
  • The end to democratic rule in Italy
  • 1924 Elections
  • Mussolini (Il Duce)
  • Government reorganization
  • Banned non-fascist parties
  • Formed syndicates
  • Fascist Opposition and Support
  • The masses must obey. They cannot afford to
    waste time searching for the truth.

17
  • Mussolini and Italy
  • Reduced Italian unemployment through a military
    rebuilding program
  • Renewed Italian spirit of nationalism and
    patriotism
  • Vowed to recapture for Italy the former glory of
    ancient Rome

18
Nazi Germany
19
  • The Weimar Republic
  • Germany elected delegates to a national assembly
    in 1919
  • The assembly drafted a constitution that provided
    for a democratic republic
  • The republic was called the Weimar Republic
    (1919-1933)
  • Opposition to the newly formed republic?
  • Reparations and the Treaty of Versailles
  • France and Great Britain demanded payment
  • Allied bill for the cost of the war- 35 billion
  • Economic problems in Germany. In 1922, Germany
    announced that it could not pay.
  • French occupation of Germanys Ruhr Valley (1923)
  • German workers went on strike (paid by
    government)

20
  • How did Germanys government (the Weimar
    Republic) plan to meet its growing expenses?
  • Inflation (printing large quantities of money)
  • 1914, 1 U.S. Dollar 4 German Marks
  • 1924, 1 U.S. Dollar 4 trillion German Marks
  • Dawes Plan (1924)
  • Compromise with Allies that eased Germanys
    reparations payments
  • American loans ushered in a 5-year period of
    relative prosperity ( but also created a German
    economy dependant on foreign markets)
  • Nevertheless, discontent still loomed overhead.

21
The German People and the Nazis
  • What problems did your person face during the
    1920s and 1930s in Germany? What sort of regime
    or governmental system would seem most likely to
    solve his or her immediate problem?
  • Herman Struts
  • Karin Hauptmann
  • Eric von Ronheim
  • Karl Schmidt
  • Lotte von Kohler
  • Wilhelm Schultz
  • Gerda Munchen
  • What problems did the Weimar Republic face? How
    might these problems have aided the rise of
    Hitler?

22
  • The Rise of Nazism
  • The National Socialist German Workers Party
    (NSDAP) or Nazi Party
  • Adolf Hitler
  • b. 1889 in Austria
  • Early life of Hitler
  • Veteran of the First World War
  • Moved to Munich, Germany, after the war and
    joined in what became the Nazi Party
  • Formed the Brownshirts (Storm Troopers or SA)
  • The Beer Hall Putsch (Nov. 8-9, 1923)
  • Radical Revolution
  • Munich, Germany
  • The Revolution has begun!
  • The coup failed but brought attention to the
    Nazis

23
  • Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison but
    served only nine months
  • Mein Kampf
  • Denied Germanys fault in losing the war
  • Declared the Germans to be a master race
    (Aryans) with a destiny to dominate and rule the
    world
  • Hitler as leader of a unified Germany
  • After the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch Hitler
    sought the achieve revolution through legal means
    (gaining Nazi votes in the Reichstag)
  • Resurge in Nazi popularity in 1929
  • 1932, Nazi Party gained a majority of votes in
    the Reichstag
  • January, 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg
    appointed Hitler his chancellor (reluctantly)
  • The Nazis and Hitler began to rise to power
    through legal means

24
  • Hitlers Rise to Power
  • Hitler desired Germany to become a totalitarian
    state
  • Hitler called a new election
  • The Burning of the Reichstag Building (blamed on
    the Communists)
  • 1933 Election
  • The Jews
  • Jews in Germany suffered bitter attacks
  • Nuremberg Laws, September 15, 1935
  • Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938
  • Concentration Camps

25
  • Hitler as Dictator (Der Führer)
  • The Third Reich
  • Germanys rearmament
  • The provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were
    ignored
  • German factories began to manufacture guns,
    ammunition, airplanes, tanks and other weapons
  • The press was used (propaganda) to retain support
    for the Nazi cause
  • Propaganda emphasized a strong military and
    devotion to the nation and its leader

26
Territorial Expansion-Japan, Italy, and Germany
The Second World War, Cold War, and the Conflict
in Vietnam 1939-1990
  • Japan
  • Japans dependence on foreign resources
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria (Sept. 1931)
  • Failure of the League of Nations
  • The East Indies and oil reserves
  • South China?
  • Summer of 1937, Japan launched a full-blown
    invasion of China

27
  • Italy
  • Dispute between Italy and Ethiopia
  • Italian invasion of Ethiopia (October 1935)
  • Ethiopias appeal to the League of Nations
  • The League condemned Italys actions and imposed
    economic sanctions. However, the sanctions did
    not include coal, iron, or oil.
  • Failure of the League of Nations
  • Italy annexed the African nation of Ethiopia in
    1936.

28
  • Spanish Civil War
  • 1930s, King Alfonso III of Spain abdicated the
    throne and Spain became a republic
  • Social reforms
  • Eliminated the role of the Catholic Church in
    educating the youth
  • Redistributed the land from the nobles to the
    peasants
  • Conservative opposition and civil war (1936)
  • Conservative Spanish Nationalists v. Republican
    Spanish Loyalists
  • The Soviets aided the Loyalists Italy and
    Germany supported the Nationalists
  • U.S., Great Britain, and France?
  • International Brigade
  • The Nationalists, led by fascist dictator
    Francisco Franco, took control of Spain in 1939.

29
  • Germany
  • Hitler believed that Germany needed more living
    space (lebensraum) for its growing population.
    Germany needed more land to become a great power.
  • The Rhineland (March of 1936)
  • The Rome-Berlin Axis (Germany and Italy, October
    1936)
  • Anti-Comintern Pact- anti-communist alliance
    between Italy, Germany, and Japan
  • Anschluss (March 1938) Germany annexed Austria
  • Czechoslovakia was taken in 1939.
  • Czechoslovakias ethnic composition?
  • Hitler demanded the German-dominated Sudetenland
    (northwestern Czechoslovakia) in September of
    1938.
  • Neville Chamberlain (British Prime Minister)
  • The Munich Conference
  • Peace for our time
  • The British policy of appeasement
  • On March 15, 1939, Hitler seized Czechoslovakia.

30
  • Germany and eastern Europe
  • Poland
  • Great Britain and France?
  • The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
  • Hitler and Stalin agreed upon mutual
    nonaggression.
  • Stalin knew that war with Germany was inevitable
    but realized the pact would provide time to
    prepare for war.
  • Britain and France outraged?
  • No barrier existed to prevent war.
  • Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939.
  • Two days later Great Britain and France declared
    war on Germany.
  • The Second World War (World War II) had begun.

31
The War in Europe
  • September 1, 1939, the Germans launched an attack
    on Poland using a new military strategy.
  • blitzkrieg- lightning war an attack strategy
    of speed and efficiency using armored tank
    divisions (panzers) and airplanes
  • Polands quick defeat
  • Meanwhile, the Soviet Union occupied the eastern
    half of Poland and subjugated the Baltic
    republics of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and
    Finland.

32
  • The phony war or Sitzkrieg (winter and spring
    of 1939-1940)
  • Hitler demanded that Denmark and Norway accept
    Germanys protection.
  • April of 1940, Germanys occupation of Norway b
  • Great Britain, May 10, 1940-Winston Churchill was
    appointed prime minister

33
  • The Fall of France
  • A flaw in the impenetrable Maginot Line
  • Germans advance through the Ardennes Forest
  • May 1940, the German air assault (Netherlands)
  • Britain and France moved into Belgium but were
    encircled by the German army
  • Meanwhile, other German tanks moved to France
  • German troops invaded Paris on June 14, 1940.
  • The French were forced to sign an armistice, and
    the Germans occupied France.
  • Dunkirk (May 1940)
  • Belgian, French, and British forces were forced
    to the coast by German troops.
  • Over 300,000 Allied soldiers were rescued by the
    military and courageous civilians.

34
  • The Battle of Britain (1940)
  • Great Britain was Hitlers last obstacle in
    gaining complete German domination of western
    Europe.
  • Hitler expectations?
  • Winston Churchills resolve
  • Hitlers Operation Sea Lion
  • The German Luftwaffe and massive air attacks all
    over southern England
  • British losses?
  • Never in the field of human conflict was so much
    owed by so many to so few.

35
  • U.S. Cooperation
  • The U.S. Congress enacted laws designed to keep
    Americans out of the war.
  • Neutrality Acts (1937)- prohibited arms shipments
    and loans to belligerent nations.
  • President Roosevelt, however, realized that
    German expansion threatened American security and
    that Britain and France would not be able to stop
    Hitler without U.S. assistance.
  • cash-and-carry policy- the U.S. traded supplies
    that Britain needed for cash, provided that
    Britain use its ships to transport the supplies.
  • lend-lease policy- the president was authorized
    to lend war equipment to any country whose
    defense he deemed vital to U.S. national
    security.
  • The Atlantic Charter (August 9, 1941)- Churchill
    and Roosevelt (freedom of self-determination,
    freedom of trade, and destruction of Nazi
    tyranny)

36
  • Cold War (1949-1990)
  • Cold War- post-WWII relationship between the
    Soviet Union (USSR) and the Western nations
    (principally the USA) characterized by tension
    and hostility bringing the two powers to the
    brink of war (cold war) without actually going to
    war (hot war).
  • Tension between the USA and USSR was at its
    greatest during the intensification of the
    nuclear arms race in the 1960s.
  • The Cold War ended in 1990 after twenty years of
    arms reduction and control negotiations.
  • Why did tension exist between the USSR and the
    USA?

37
  • Prelude to the Cold War (1945- )
  • Soviet liberation of Eastern Europe from Nazi
    control (1945)
  • Civil war in Greece (1946)
  • Communist Peoples Liberation Army
  • Anti-communist forces supported by Great Britain
  • The Truman Doctrine (1947)- US foreign policy
    that provided for military and economic aid to
    countries threatened by communist expansion.
  • Marshall Plan (1947)
  • COMECON (1949)
  • The Berlin Crisis (1961)
  • Division of Germany and Berlin (p.851)
  • Great Britain, France, the United States, and the
    Soviet Union
  • The Berlin Blockade
  • Federal Republic of Germany (west) and German
    Democratic Republic (east)

38
  • The arms race and the reemergence of hostile
    alliance systems
  • NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)-
    mutual defense agreement between Western nations,
    including the Belgium, Great Britain, the USA,
    Norway, Canada, and Portugal.
  • Warsaw Pact (1955)- mutual defense agreement
    between Eastern European nations, including
    Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East
    Germany, Poland, and Romania.
  • Hungary (1956)
  • Czechoslovakia (1968)

39
  • The Korean War (1950-1953)
  • Communists gained control of China (1949)
  • Communist North Korea allied with Communist China
    and the Soviet Union and attacked the pro-Western
    Republic of South Korea
  • The Wests new perspective on Communism
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  • Fidel Castro (1959)
  • Bay of Pigs
  • John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev
  • The superpowers on the verge of nuclear war
  • 1963- direct telephone link between Washington
    D.C. and Moscow
  • Treaty banning the testing of nuclear weapons in
    the atmosphere

40
The Second World War
  • Failure of collective security and peace after
    the First World War
  • Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Article 231
  • League of Nations
  • Paper Agreements of the 1920s
  • Locarno Agreement, 1925
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928

41
  • Post-war failures at securing peace
  • Great Depression and the rise of fascism
  • London Economic Conference (1933)
  • Japans Expansion
  • Japans dependence on foreign resources
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria (Sept. 1931)
  • Effectiveness of the League of Nations?
  • The East Indies and oil reserves
  • South China?
  • Summer of 1937, Japan launched a full-blown
    invasion of China
  • Impact on Europe? Germany? Italy?
  • Stresa Front, 1935

42
  • Italian Aggression
  • Dispute between Italy and Ethiopia, 1934
  • Italian invasion of Ethiopia (October 1935)
  • Ethiopias appeal to the League of Nations
  • The League condemned Italys actions and imposed
    economic sanctions (limitations?)
  • Effectiveness of the League of Nations?
  • Italy annexed the African nation of Ethiopia in
    1936.
  • Hitlers reaction?

43
  • Spanish Civil War
  • 1930s, King Alfonso III of Spain
  • The Spanish Republic, 1931
  • Social reforms
  • Conservative opposition and civil war (1936-1939)
  • Conservative Spanish Nationalists v. Republican
    Spanish Loyalists
  • Communists, Fascists, and Nazis
  • Germany and Italy
  • U.S., Great Britain, and France?
  • International Brigade
  • The Nationalists, led by fascist dictator
    Francisco Franco, took control of Spain in 1939.
    Spain remained a dictatorship until 1975.
  • The Rome-Berlin Axis (Germany and Italy, October
    1936)
  • Anti-Comintern Pact- anti-communist alliance
    between Italy, Germany, and Japan (November 1936)

44
Picassos Guernica (1937)
45
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46
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47
Hitler at Nuremberg Stadium
48
  • Hitler as Dictator (Der Führer)
  • The Third Reich
  • Germanys rearmament after 1933
  • The provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were
    ignored
  • Conscription was reinstituted
  • German factories began to manufacture guns,
    ammunition, airplanes, tanks and other weapons
  • Luftwaffe and a stronger navy established
  • Germanys economic recovery
  • The press was used (propaganda) to retain support
    for the Nazi cause
  • Propaganda emphasized a strong military and
    devotion to the nation and its leader

49
  • German Aggression and Expansion
  • The Rhineland (March of 1936)
  • Hitlers gamble and the uneasiness of the German
    military command
  • Why did France not act?
  • British pacifism
  • League of Nations?
  • Anschluss (March 1938) Germany annexed Austria
  • Britain (PM Neville Chamberlain) rejected an
    alliance with France and Russia, and the
    international community did nothing in response
    to Hitlers actions
  • Czechoslovakia was taken in 1939
  • Czechoslovakias ethnic composition?
  • Hitler demanded the German-dominated Sudetenland
    (northwestern Czechoslovakia) in September of
    1938.
  • Neville Chamberlain and the Munich Conference
  • The British policy of appeasement
  • Czechoslovakia was compelled to give away the
    Sudetenland
  • Peace for our time
  • On March 15, 1939, Hitler seized Czechoslovakia.

50
Ethnic Composition of Eastern Europe, 1936
51
  • Germanys Invasion of Poland
  • Hitler believed that Germany needed more living
    space (lebensraum) for its growing population.
    Germany needed more land to become a great power.
  • Only one week after taking Czechoslovakia, Hitler
    demanded the port city of Danzig
  • Britains threat of war
  • Germanys fear of a two-front war
  • German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, August 1939
  • Stalin and Hitler
  • Public provisions
  • Secret agreement
  • How long could such an agreement last?

52
  • September 1, 1939, the Germans launched an attack
    on Poland using a new military strategy.
  • This event marked the beginning of the Second
    World War
  • On September 3, Britain and France declared war
    on Germany
  • blitzkrieg- lightning war an attack strategy
    of speed and efficiency using armored tank
    divisions (panzers) and airplanes
  • Polands quick defeat (4 weeks)
  • Equal in manpower but technologically mismatched
  • Fate of the Jews, Gypsies, and Poles
  • Meanwhile, the Soviet Union occupied the eastern
    half of Poland and subjugated the Baltic
    republics of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and
    Finland. Stalins intent was to create a buffer
    zone against Germany.

53
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54
Blitzkrieg
Einsatzgruppen
55
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56
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57
  • The phony war or Sitzkrieg (winter and spring
    of 1939-1940)
  • April of 1940, Hitler demanded that Denmark and
    Norway accept Germanys protection.
  • Germanys occupation of Norway
  • Great Britain, May 10, 1940-Winston Churchill was
    appointed prime minister
  • May 1940- German invasion of Netherlands,
    Belgium, and France
  • A flaw in the impenetrable Maginot Line
  • German advance through Belgium
  • German air assault (Netherlands)
  • Britain and France moved into Belgium but were
    encircled by the German army
  • Dunkirk (May 1940)
  • Belgian, French, and British forces were forced
    to the coast by German troops.
  • Civilian rescue of Allied troops

58
  • The Fall of France
  • While the France and Britain were scrambling at
    Dunkirk, German tanks moved on to Paris, France
  • German troops invaded Paris on June 14, 1940.
  • German occupation of northern France
  • Henri Philippe Petain, Vichy Government
  • Resistance and Free France
  • General Charles de Gaulle
  • Tripartite Pact (1940)- Japan joined the
    Rome-Berlin Axis

59
A divided France
Henri Petain
60
  • The Battle of Britain (August 1940)
  • Hitlers last obstacle and Operation Sea Lion
  • Hitlers offer
  • Germanys Luftwaffe and Britains Royal Air Force
  • Britains use of radar (new technology)
  • Germanys change in strategy- military to
    civilian casualties, Hitlers mistake?
  • The Blitz on London
  • In September, Operation Sea Lion was halted
    indefinitely
  • The Blitz continued until May of 1941, but the
    RAF ultimately defeated the Luftwaffe
  • Never in the field of human conflict was so much
    owed by so many to so few.

61
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62
  • War on the Eastern Front- Germanys invasion of
    the Soviet Union
  • Germanys Operation Barbarossa
  • Quite possibly Hitlers greatest blunder
  • Invasion of Russia, June 1941
  • Soviet- Russias use of scorched earth tactics
  • The Soviet Union was now poised for an alliance
    with Britain and France

63
  • U.S. Cooperation
  • Neutrality Acts (1937)
  • President Roosevelts view
  • cash-and-carry
  • lend-lease policy
  • Atlantic Charter (August 9, 1941)- Churchill and
    Roosevelt (freedom of self-determination, freedom
    of trade, and destruction of Nazi tyranny)
  • Japan and the United States
  • Hirohito
  • Hideki Tojo
  • December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor
  • What were they thinking?!!
  • Hitlers mistake?
  • assumptions
  • Germanys declaration of war

64
  • The Grand Alliance (1942)
  • United States, Soviet Union, and Britain
  • Big Three- Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill

65
  • The Nazi Empire in Europe
  • Territories controlled by the end of 1941
  • Spain?
  • Germanys allies?
  • Britain was isolated
  • The Nazi New Order
  • Nordic people
  • French and other Latin peoples
  • Slavic peoples
  • Genocide
  • Jews, Gypsies, Jehovahs Witnesses, Communists
    and other groups that dissented from the Nazi
    ideology
  • The Nazis Final Solution to the Jewish Question
  • Wannsee Conference (1942)
  • Extermination/ Death camps
  • 6 million Jews killed
  • 5-6 million others also killed in what became
    known as the Holocaust

66
  • Turning Points in the war
  • El Alamein (November, 1942)- North Africa
  • Germans driven out of Egypt
  • Operation Torch- General Rommels troops defeated
    by Allies by May 1943
  • Opened the way for an Allied invasion of southern
    Europe through Italy
  • Consequence of Hitlers decision to focus on
    Russia?
  • Stalingrad (Nov 1942-Feb 1943)
  • Hitler sought the citys industry and nearby oil
    fields
  • German forces were surrounded and destroyed
  • German were subsequently pushed back to Berlin
    (over 2 years)
  • D-Day- Operation Overlord (June 6, 1944)
  • Amphibious assault on German-occupied France
  • Western Front established
  • Signified the end of Nazi domination of Europe
    (3-front war)
  • Battle of the Bulge (December 1944)
  • Germanys final offensive along its western
    border
  • Massive casualties on both sides
  • On May 8, 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies

67
Battle of Stalingrad
68
  • End of the war with Japan (August 1945)
  • U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and
    Nagasaki
  • With the intervention of Emperor Hirohito, Japan
    finally surrendered

69
  • Diplomacy during the War
  • Casablanca Conference (January 1943)
  • FDR and Churchill
  • unconditional surrender for all enemies
  • Italian invasion first problem for Russia?
  • Tehran Conference (December 1943)
  • First meeting of the Big Three
  • Invasion of Western Europe decided (Europe then
    Japan)
  • Stalins demands in E. Europe and Germany after
    the war?
  • Churchills demands? Roosevelt as mediator?
  • Yalta Conference (February 1945)
  • Second meeting of the Big Three
  • Stalin agreed to free elections in the areas
    liberated from Nazi Germanys control
    (Declaration of Liberated Europe)
  • United Nations meeting called for April 1945
  • Germany to be divided into occupied zones
  • Territorial concessions made to the Soviet Union

70
  • Diplomacy during the War
  • Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
  • Stalin, H. Truman, C. Atlee
  • Japan warned to surrender or face total
    devastation
  • Stalin and free elections in E. Europe?
  • Decision made for war-crimes trials and the
    de-Nazification of Germany
  • Reparations?

71
  • Significant Results of the War
  • Devastating loss of life
  • Holocaust
  • Forced relocation
  • Changing role of women in society
  • Two new dominant world powers US and Soviet
    Union
  • Why did Germany lose the war?
  • Three-front war
  • France, Italy, and Russia
  • Major Blunders
  • Failure of the Battle of Britain
  • Invasion of the Soviet Union (and the siege of
    Stalingrad)
  • Hitlers declaration of war against the U.S.
  • Industrial Capacity
  • The U.S. alone vs. the Axis powers combined
  • Allied bombing of German factories

72
  • Why did Germany lose the war?
  • Three-front war
  • France, Italy, and Russia
  • Major Blunders
  • Failure of the Battle of Britain
  • Invasion of the Soviet Union (and the siege of
    Stalingrad)
  • Hitlers declaration of war against the U.S.
  • Industrial Capacity
  • The U.S. alone vs. the Axis powers combined
  • Allied bombing of German factories
  • Weakness of the Axis alliance
  • Italys failures in Greece and Yugoslavia
  • Japans attack on U.S.
  • Strength of the Grand Alliance

73
  • Cold War (1949-1990)
  • Cold War- post-WWII relationship between the
    Soviet Union (USSR) and the Western nations
    (principally the USA) characterized by tension
    and hostility bringing the two powers to the
    brink of war (cold war) without actually going to
    war (hot war).
  • Tension between the USA and USSR was at its
    greatest during the intensification of the
    nuclear arms race in the 1960s.
  • The Cold War ended in 1990 after twenty years of
    arms reduction and control negotiations.
  • Why did tension exist between the USSR and the
    USA?

74
  • Prelude to the Cold War (1945- )
  • Soviet liberation of Eastern Europe from Nazi
    control (1945)
  • Civil war in Greece (1946)
  • Communist Peoples Liberation Army
  • Anti-communist forces supported by Great Britain
  • The Truman Doctrine (1947)- US foreign policy
    that provided for military and economic aid to
    countries threatened by communist expansion.
  • Marshall Plan (1947)
  • COMECON (1949)
  • The Berlin Crisis (1961)
  • Division of Germany and Berlin (p.851)
  • Great Britain, France, the United States, and the
    Soviet Union
  • The Berlin Blockade
  • Federal Republic of Germany (west) and German
    Democratic Republic (east)

75
  • The arms race and the reemergence of hostile
    alliance systems
  • NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)-
    mutual defense agreement between Western nations,
    including the Belgium, Great Britain, the USA,
    Norway, Canada, and Portugal.
  • Warsaw Pact (1955)- mutual defense agreement
    between Eastern European nations, including
    Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East
    Germany, Poland, and Romania.
  • Hungary (1956)
  • Czechoslovakia (1968)

76
  • The Korean War (1950-1953)
  • Communists gained control of China (1949)
  • Communist North Korea allied with Communist China
    and the Soviet Union and attacked the pro-Western
    Republic of South Korea
  • The Wests new perspective on Communism
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  • Fidel Castro (1959)
  • Bay of Pigs
  • John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev
  • The superpowers on the verge of nuclear war
  • 1963- direct telephone link between Washington
    D.C. and Moscow
  • Treaty banning the testing of nuclear weapons in
    the atmosphere
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