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Title:

The Fish Immune System

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Title: No Slide Title Author: Andy Goodwin Last modified by: UAPB UAPB Created Date: 11/13/2001 10:25:53 PM Document presentation format: Custom Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Learn more at: http://aqfi.uaex.edu
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Tags: cell | fish | immune | killer | natural | system

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Title: The Fish Immune System


1
The Fish Immune System
2
What does the immune system do?
War Fish vs. Everything
3
Enemy Pathogens
Front Lines
Home
4
Foreign
  • Self

Vs.
The good bits that are supposed to be there
The bad stuff bacteria, fungi, viruses, cancer
5
Planes, Ships Tanks, and Ammunition
  • (Planes, Ships, Tanks) White blood cells
  • Lymphocytes
  • Neutrophils
  • Macrophages
  • Eosinophils
  • (Mines and Booby Traps) Blood Proteins
  • Complement
  • Lysozyme
  • Antibodies
  • Many more

6
Mines
7
Inside the Liver
8
Complement
  • Gee Adjwoa, I really like the bling on your cell
    phone

9
Complement
  • A defensive protein made by the liver and
    secreted into the blood. Primary target Gram
    negative bacteria.

10
Gram Neg Gram Pos
Membrane bi-layer Peptidoglycan layer
11
Complement
Complement molecules begin to assemble a complex
on the membrane of Gram (-) bacteria
Complement forms a channel through the cell wall
12
Complement
  • Recognizes Gram (-) bacteria

13
Lysozyme
14
Lysozyme
  • Dissolves Gram () bacterial cell walls
  • Found in
  • Blood
  • Mucus
  • Eggs

L
15
Other Mines.
  • Proteases Damage pathogens
  • Protease inhibitors Block invasion
  • Histones Antibacterial
  • Iron-sequestering proteins Starve bacteria.
  • Lactoferrin disrupts outer membrane on Gram negs
    (helps lysozyme)
  • C-reactive protein Recognizes bacteria, triggers
    complement

16
Mines
  • Blood Proteins
  • Always there and ready
  • Work in complexes
  • Identify foreigners
  • Destroy or disable

17
Tanks and Planes
18
Lymphocyte
Antibodies
19
Antibodies Blood proteins that bind to
foreigners. Made by lymphocytes
20
Antibody Anatomy
Variable Binding Region
Antibody Molecule
21
Antibodies bind all over a Rhabdovirus and block
it from infecting a cell.
22
Antibodies recognize foreign antigens on an ich
parasite and mark it for destruction.
23
Antibodies Designate Targets
24
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25
What about lymphocytes that recognize "self"?
26
The thymus kills the self-reacting thymocytes
27
Location of the Thymus in a Grass Carp
28
Life and Death in the Thymus
Lymphocyte Must Die
Thymocyte
Self Antigen
29
Two Kinds of Lymphocytes
30
B
31
More Identical B-Cells
Antigen
Memory Cell
B-Cell
Plasma cell
32
Memory cells The Lymphocyte Barracks
33
T
34
T-Lymphocyte
Cell Killing Chemicals from the T-cell
Viral Proteins (antigens)
Virus-infected cell
35
More Identical T-Cells
Antigen
Memory Cell
T-Cell
T
36
Memory cells The Lymphocyte Barracks
37
B-cells Secrete antibodies that bind to
antigens on foreign things
  • T-cells Attach to and kill infected cells with
    foreign antigens

38
Lymphology
  • Self reacting lymphocytes weeded out by thymus
  • Lymphocytes proven useful proliferate to make
    more highly trained fighter pilots (BT), and
  • Copies of useful lymphocytes are put in the
    barracks in case the same enemy attacks again.

39
Macrophages Big Eaters"
40
Macrophage
USS Macrophage
41
Macrophages
42
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43
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44
Macrophages as Big Eaters
45
Macrophage Diets
Bacterial Cell Walls
Cell with Compliment
Cells with Antibody Flags
46
Vacuoles containing bleach (brown) and peroxide
(green) fuse with a vacuole containing a live
bacterium
47
More Tricks Macrophages Searching out Foreigners
48
A roving macrophage detects a parasite trying to
hide among a layer of fish cells.
Normal cells with MHC locks
Parasite with fake lock
49
Macrophages Even Run a School for Lymphocytes
50
2
1
Macrophage
Macrophage eating a bacterium
3
4
Macrophage using bacterial bits to educate
lymphocytes.
Macrophage digesting a bacterium
51
Macrophage Functions
  • Eat and kill bad cells
  • Check cell codes (MHC)
  • Run a lymphocyte school

52
Eosinophils
53
Eosinophils
54
The worm has been flagged by antibody molecules
Eosinophils
The eosinophil dumps parasite-killing chemicals
on a parasitic worm somewhere inside of a fish.
55
Neutrophils
56
Neutrophils
57
Neutrophils
  • Dump toxins on flagged cells
  • (chemical weapons!)

58
Neutrophils
  • Mediate immune responses

59
Other Tanks and Planes
  • Neutrophils Chemical warfare, generals
  • Eosinophils Chemical warfare on parasites

60
Natural Killer Cells (NK)
Foreign cells Virus infected cells Protozoa
61
Armed Checkpoints
62
The Spleen
63
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64
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65
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