Mid-East Geography and Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mid-East Geography and Islam

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Mid-East Geography and Islam * * Area invaded by various groups Arab clans the Bedouins occupied the area Mecca = trade oasis town connected to the Bedouins ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mid-East Geography and Islam


1
Mid-East Geography and Islam
2
The crossroads of 3 continents
  • Trade
  • Invasion
  • Cultural diffusion

3
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4
Resources of the Middle East
  • Textiles
  • Metals
  • Water
  • Oil
  • Natural Gas

5
The Arabs
  • Arabs are Semitic-speaking nomadic peoples living
    on the Arabian Peninsula
  • Sheikhs are Arabs leaders elected by the village
    council of elders
  • Worked as farmers and sheep herders
  • Polytheistic beliefs with Allah being the supreme
    god
  • Arabian Peninsula more important when trade
    routes shifted to area due to dangers in Egypt
    and Mesopotamia which allowed the area to prosper!

6
Important Cities
  1. Mecca
  2. Medina
  3. Jerusalem home of sites holy to Jews,
    Christians, and Muslims

7
Personal Information
  • Born in Mecca, 570 CE
  • Father died before birth and his mother died at
    age 6
  • Raised by grandfather and then uncle
  • Worked as a shepherd and trader

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9
Personal Information
  • Called al-Amin meaning the trustworthy man
  • Became a caravan trader with the Bedouins
    (leading group)
  • Married widow Khadija at age 25 (she had employed
    him)

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11
The Prophecy
  • Muhammad is frustrated by lack of charity and
    false worship in his community so he goes to
    meditate
  • 610 CE the angel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad
    and proclaimed him to be the messenger of god
    while meditating
  • Muhammad began to preach to a small group
    including his wife

12
Muhammad
  • Muhammad preached Islam (peace through surrender
    to God) to his followers
  • Monotheistic faith
  • Conflicted with priests and wealthy traders in
    Mecca

13
The Hijra
  • 622 CE - Muhammad was forced to leave Mecca (life
    threatened)
  • Welcomed in Medina
  • 630 CE - returns to Mecca with army
  • Destroys icons in the Kaaba except the Black Stone

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15
Muhammad
  • Mecca becomes spiritual center of Islam
  • Muhammad died in 632 CE
  • Succeeded as Islamic leader by his father in law
    Abu Bakr

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17
The Koran or Quran
  • Holy book of Islam
  • Written down after Mohammads death
  • Means recite

18
The Five Pillars
19
1. Shahada
  • Faith There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is
    his prophet

20
2. Salaat
  • Prayer said five times each day, facing Mecca,
    in Arabic

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3. Zakat
  • Charity Give to those in need and in turn
    receive purity and growth
  • Creates an economic balance in Islamic society
    in theory no overly poor and/or starving
    population

23
4. Ramadan
  • Fasting no food, drink, or sexual relations
    during this month from sun up to sundown
  • It brings self-purification and discipline to the
    individual

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5. Haj
  • A pilgrimage to Mecca that every Muslim should
    attempt once in his or her lifetime (as long as
    he/she is physically and financially able to make
    the trip)

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30
Islam..
  • Religion is a way of life
  • Role of women
  • Islamic Law shariah

31
Islamic Worship
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