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L i t e r a r y T e r m s

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L i t e r a r y T e r m s G e n e r a l - M i s c . T e r m s ALLEGORY: a story in verse or prose with a double meaning: a primary surface meaning and a secondary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: L i t e r a r y T e r m s


1
L i t e r a r y T e r m s
2
G e n e r a l - M i s c . T e r m s
3
ALLEGORY
  • a story in verse or prose with a double meaning
    a primary surface meaning and a secondary or
    under-the-surface meaning
  • A system of comparisons rather than one
    comparison
  • Differs from symbolism in that it puts less
    emphasis on the images for their own sake and
    more on their ulterior meanings and the meanings
    are more fixed meanings do not ray out from
    allegory as they do from symbols
  • Example the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice is an
    allegory for redemption and salvation
  • Example Moby-Dick is an allegory for mans quest
    to understand his existence

4
ALLEGORY
METAPHOR
SYMBOL
SYMBOL
METAPHOR
METAPHOR
SYMBOL
METAPHOR
SYMBOL
SYMBOL
5
Aesthetic
  • the study or philosophy of beauty in art,
    literature, and nature

6
ALLUSION
  • a reference to another work of art, a piece of
    literature especially The Bible, mythology,
    person, or event
  • An appeal to the reader to share an experience
    with the writer
  • Example In Heart of Darkness, Conrad makes an
    implicit reference to the myth of Orpheus and
    Eurydice

7
Anachronism
  • Placing something in a time where it does not
    belong to underline a universal verisimilitude
    and timelessness
  • Example the clock in Shakespeares Julius Caesar

8
Analogy
  • the comparison of two things alike in some
    respects

9
ANALYSIS
  • a detailed separation and examination of a work
    of literature into its important parts and a
    discussion of their significance
  • A close study of the various elements and the
    relationship between them

10
Antihero
  • a non-hero or the antithesis of a hero of the
    old-fashioned kind who was capable of heroic
    deeds, who was dashing, strong, brave, and
    resourceful
  • Example Don Quixote-Holden Caulfield

11
Antithesis
  • contrasting ideas sharpened by the use of
    opposite or noticeably different meanings
  • Example Crafty men contemn studies simple men
    admire them and wise men use them ?Bacon

12
Aphorism
  • a short witty statement of dogma or truth
  • Example Early to bed, early to rise, makes a
    man healthy, wealthy, and wise. ?Benjamin
    Franklin
  • Example Mans main task in life is to give
    birth to himself. ?Erich Fromm

13
ARCHETYPE
  • an image, story-pattern, or character type which
    recurs frequently and evokes strong, often
    unconscious, associations in the reader
  • Symbols existing universally and instinctively in
    the collective unconscious of the human race
  • Example the wicked witch-light
    hope-renewal-intellectual illumination vs.
    darkness ignorance-unknown-despair

14
Connotation
  • the suggestion or implication evoked by a word or
    phrase, over and above what they mean or actually
    denote
  • Example cockroach fear-derision and scientific
    meanings

15
Diction
  • the vocabulary or word choice of a writer

16
Didactic
  • a teaching type of tone, usually lesson-like or
    boring in nature

17
Deductive
  • logical reasoning from the general to the specific

18
Denotation
  • the most literal and limited meaning of a word,
    regardless of what one may feel about it or the
    suggestions and ideas it connotes

19
Deus Ex Machina
  • literally god in the machine
  • Greek idea from when the gods would come on stage
    to rescue the hero
  • Applies to anytime the hero is saved by a
    miraculous event

20
Ellipsis
  • the omission of one or more words with the use of
    the symbol . . .

21
Epigram
  • a short, witty statement in verse or prose which
    may be complimentary, satiric, or aphoristic
  • Example We think our fathers fools, so wise we
    grow,/Our wiser sons, no doubt, will think us
    so. ?Alexander Pope

22
Epiphany
  • In its simplest terms, the epiphany is a
    revelation of such power and insight that it
    alters the entire world-view of the thinker who
    experiences it. In this sense, it is similar to
    what a scientist might call a "paradigm shift."
  • Another definition proffered by Shelley, in his
    Defense of Poetry (1821), describes epiphany as
    the best and happiest moments . . . arising
    unforeseen and departing unbidden, visitations of
    the divinity which poetry redeems from decay.
  • James Joyce brought the term to modern art and
    literature when he used it to designate an event
    in which the essential nature of something?a
    person, a situation, an object?was suddenly
    perceived. It is thus an intuitive grasp of
    reality achieved in a quick flash of recognition
    in which something, usually simple and
    commonplace, is seen in a new light, and, as
    Joyce says, its soul, its whatness leaps to us
    from the vestment of its appearance. This
    sudden insight is the epiphany.

23
Ethos
  • the character, emotions, disposition, and-or
    attitude of the writer reflected in the speech or
    writing

24
Figurative language
  • language that uses figures of speech any way of
    saying something other than the ordinary way
    metaphor-simile-alliteration-symbol-etc.

25
GENRE
  • A fancy word for literary type or class
  • Major genres
  • epic
  • tragedy
  • lyric
  • comedy
  • satire
  • novel
  • short story

26
Homeric epithet
  • joining of adjectives and nouns to make compound
    adjectives
  • Use by Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Example wine-dark sea and rosy-fingered lawn

27
Hyperbole-overstatement
  • to overstate or exaggerate an issue for emphasis
  • Example AP English is the most difficult and
    boring class ever

28
IMAGERY
  • the use of language to represent objects,
    actions, feelings, thoughts, ideas, states of
    mind and any sensory or extra-sensory experience
  • Example Robert Browning, "Meeting at Night"

29
  • Meeting at Night
  • The gray sea and the long black land
  • And the yellow half-moon large and low
  • And the startled little waves that leap
  • In fiery ringlets from their sleep,
  • As I gain the cove with pushing prow,
  • And quench its speed i the slushy sand.
  • Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach
  • Three fields to cross till a farm appears
  • A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch
  • And blue spurt of a lighted match,
  • And a voice less loud, through its joys and
    fears,
  • Than the two hearts beating each to each!
  • ?Robert Browning

30
Inductive
  • reasoning from the specific to the general

31
IRONY
  • a mode of expression, through words verbal
    irony or events irony of situation, conveying
    a reality different from and usually opposite to
    appearance or expectation
  • The ability to detect irony is sometimes heralded
    as a test of intelligence and sophistication

32
  • Techniques for creating irony are to
  • say the opposite of what one means
  • create a reversal between expectation and its
    fulfillment
  • give the audience knowledge that a character
    lacks

33
  • Verbal irony
  • the writers meaning or even his attitude may be
    different from what he says
  • Example after Mr. Rishel gives a very hard and
    very unfair exam, the students proclaim as they
    walk out Have a nice weekend Mr. Rishel!

34
  • Situational irony
  • a situation in which there is an incongruity
    between actual circumstances and those that would
    seem appropriate or between what is anticipated
    and what actually comes to pass
  • Example if a professional pickpocket had his own
    pocket picked just as he was in the act of
    picking someone elses pocket

35
  • Dramatic irony
  • where the audience has knowledge that gives
    additional meaning to a characters words
  • Example In Oedipus the King, King Oedipus, who
    has unknowingly killed his father, says that he
    will banish his fathers killer when he finds him

36
HAROLD BLOOMS DEFINITIONS OF IRONY
  • When a writer or character says one thing and
    means another, often the opposite of what was
    explicitly stated
  • Juxtaposition of antithetical ideas or ideas
    that are in direct opposition to one another
  • Multiple, and sometimes differing, definitions of
    a single subject
  • The imaginative ideas that spark our interests
    and curiosities as a reader Remember Thoreaus
    free and wild thinking?

37
Literal
  • taking the meaning of a word in its primary and
    nonfigurative sense
  • an exact rendering of something

38
Lyrical
  • maintaining the qualities of song or poetry
  • Example So we beat on, boats against the
    current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.
    ?F. Scott Fitzgerald

39
METAPHOR
  • a figure of speech in which an implicit
    comparison is made between two things essentially
    unlike
  • Differs from a symbol because it represents a
    single object or idea
  • Example Life's but a walking shadow a poor
    player,/That struts and frets his hour upon the
    stage. ?Shakespeare, Macbeth
  • Example Frances Cornford, "The Guitarist Tunes
    Up"

40
The Guitarist Tunes Up With what attentive
courtesy he bent Over his instrument Not as a
lordly conqueror who could Command both wire and
wood, But as a man with a loved woman
might, Inquiring with delight What slight
essential things she had to say Before they
started, he and she, to play. ?Frances
Cornford
41
Mood-atmosphere
  • the emotional feeling of the setting, something
    like tone but specifically related to the
    setting
  • Example the use of the color yellow in the
    various settings of St. Petersburg to produce a
    feeling of despair-sorrow-decay in Crime and
    Punishment

42
Oxymoron
  • a self-contradictory combination of words
  • Example jumbo shrimp
  • Example In Paradise Lost, Milton describes hell
    as No light, but rather darkness visible

43
Parable
  • a short, simple story related to allegory and
    fable, which points to a moral

44
PARADOX
  • an apparently self-contradictory, even absurd,
    statement which, on closer inspection, is found
    to contain a truth reconciling conflicting
    opposites
  • Example I must be cruel only to be kind
    ?Shakespeare, Hamlet

45
Parallelism
  • the coordination of sentence syntax, word order,
    and ideas used for effect and emphasis
  • Example The people that walked in darkness have
    seen a great light they that dwell in the land
    of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light
    shined. ?Isaiah

46
Parody
  • the imitative use of the words, style, attitude,
    tone and ideas of an author in such a way as to
    make them ridiculous

47
Personification
  • the attribution of human qualities to an
    inanimate object
  • Example In To Autumn, Keats describes autumn
    as a harvester sitting careless on a granary
    floor

48
POINT OF VIEW
  • the position of the narrator in relation to his
    story thus the outlook from which events are
    related
  • Four (4) variations of point of view
  • Omniscient
  • Third person narrators knowledge is unlimited
  • Narrator can reveal as much or as little as they
    please
  • Most flexible and permits the widest scope

49
  • Limited omniscient
  • Third person viewpoint of one character
  • Approximates more closely than the omniscient the
    conditions of real life
  • First person
  • Author disappears into one of the characters
  • Offers no opportunity . . . for direct
    interpretation by the author
  • Offers excellent opportunities for dramatic irony
  • Must question narrator reliability
  • Objective
  • Narrator disappears into a kind of roving sound
    camera . . . the camera can go anywhere but can
    only record what is seen and heard
  • Readers are merely spectators

50
Rhetoric
  • the art of persuasion and employing the devices
    to persuade

51
SATIRE
  • a technique used to expose, censure, and ridicule
    the mistakes and vices of society in an attempt
    to help people understand civilized, moral values
  • Swift defined satire as a sort of glass wherein
    beholders do generally discover everybodys face
    but their own, which is the chief reason for that
    kind of reception it meets in the world, and that
    so very few are offended with it
  • Example In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,
    Mark Twain satirizes the contradictions of
    religion and slavery in Southern society

52
SETTING
  • the combination of place, historical time, and
    social environment
  • Provides the general background for character and
    plot
  • Determines the atmosphere of the text
  • Can symbolize whole ways of life or value systems

53
Simile
  • an explicit comparison between two objects using
    the words like, as, than, similar to, resembles,
    or seems
  • Example The great blast furnaces of Liège rose
    along the line like ancient castles burning in a
    border raid. ?Graham Greene, Stamboul Train

54
Stream of consciousness
  • writing that reflects a characters flow of
    perceptions, thoughts, memories and feelings
    exemplifies the way the modern mind attempts to
    make meaning in a fragmented world
  • Example I AM BELOVED and she is mine. I see
    her take flowers away from leaves she puts them
    in a round basket the leaves are not for her she
    fills the basket she opens the grass . . . ?Toni
    Morrison, Beloved

55
Structure
  • The arrangement of ideas, images, and thoughts

56
Syllogism
  • a form of deductive reasoning consisting of a
    major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
  • Example All men are mortal. Greeks are men.
    Therefore, all Greeks are mortal.

57
SYMBOL
  • from the Greek meaning to throw together and
    mark-emblem-token-sign
  • Something that means more than what it is an
    object, animate or inanimate, which represents or
    stands for something else
  • Suggests a great variety of specific meanings
    meanings ray out from a symbol
  • Differs from allegory in that it has a real
    existence, whereas an allegorical sign is
    arbitrary
  • Differs from metaphor in that it represents
    multiple objects and-or ideas, whereas a metaphor
    represents a single object and-or idea
  • Example The Road Not Taken, Robert Frost
  • Example the green light in The Great Gatsby, F.
    Scott Fitzgerald

58
Syntax
  • the physical arrangement of words in a sentence
    or a line of verse

59
THEME
  • the controlling idea or its central insight a
    unifying generalization about life stated or
    implied by the story
  • Readers must understand what view of life the
    text supports or what insight into life it
    reveals
  • To state the theme a reader must select the
    central insight and explain the greatest
    number of elements
  • the function of interpretive writers is not to
    state a theme but to vivify it

60
  • We may know in our minds, for instance, that
    War is horrible or that Old age is often
    pathetic and in need of understanding, but these
    are insights that need to be periodically
    renewed. Emotionally we may forget them, and if
    we do, we are less alive and complete as human
    beings. Story writers perform a service for
    use?interpret life for us?whether they give us
    new insights or refresh and extend old ones.
  • Readers must value and weigh all themes?even
    themes that appear irrelevant to us
    personally?because we can benefit from other
    perspectives

61
  • To determine theme focus on
  • Changes in main character
  • Knowledge gained by main character
  • The nature of the central conflict and its
    outcome
  • The title
  • Important words

62
  • Important principles for theme
  • Theme should be expressible in the form of a
    statement with subject and predicate
  • Theme should be stated as a generalization about
    life
  • Do not make broad generalizations (avoid terms
    like every, all, always, etc.)
  • Theme is the central and unifying concept of a
    story
  • There is not one way of stating the theme of a
    story
  • Avoid any statement that reduces the theme to
    some familiar saying-cliché

63
Thesis
  • an attitude or position taken by the speaker or
    writer
  • Example Dostoevsky communicates that Hegel and
    Nietzche were not exactly correct in their
    philosophical stances

64
TONE-attitude
  • the reflection of a writers attitude, manner,
    mood, and moral outlook in her work even the way
    his personality pervades the work

65
  • P r o s e
  • T e r m s

66
Anadiplosis
  • the repetition of the last word of one clause at
    the beginning of the following clause to gain a
    special effect
  • Example Labour and care are rewarded with
    success, success produces confidence, confidence
    relaxes industry, and negligence ruins the
    reputation which diligence had raised. ?Dr.
    Johnson, Rambler No. 21

67
Anaphora
  • a rhetorical device involving the repetition of a
    word or group of words in successive clauses
  • Example Said Sir Ector . . . Sir Lancelot . . .
    thou wert never matched of earthly knights hand
    and thou wert the courteoust knight that ever
    bare shield and thou wert the truest friend to
    thy lover that ever bestrad horse . . . ?Malory,
    Le Morte Darthur

68
ANTAGONIST
  • the force acting against the protagonist
  • Example In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,
    Huck opposes his moralistic society

69
Asyndeton
  • a rhetorical device where conjunctions, articles
    and even pronouns are omitted for the sake of
    speed and economy
  • Example
  • The first sort by their own suggestion fell
  • Self-tempted, self-depraved man falls, deceived
  • By other first man therefor shall find grace
  • The other none . . .
  • ?Milton, Paradise Lost

70
Bildungsroman
  • a novel about upbringing, education, or
    coming-of-age
  • Deals with the youthful development of a hero or
    heroine
  • Describes the processes by which maturity is
    achieved through various ups and downs of life\
  • Example Jane Austen, Emma
  • Example Charles Dickens, David Copperfield

71
Chiasmus
  • a reversal of grammatical structures in
    successive phrases or clauses
  • Example His time a moment, and a point his
    space. ?Alexander Pope, Essay on Man Epistle 1

72
Confidante
  • a character who has little effect on the action
    but whose fuction is to listen to the intimate
    feelings and intentions of the protagonist
  • Confidant male
  • Confidante female
  • Example Horatio in Shakespeares Hamlet

73
CONFLICT
  • the tension in a situation between characters, or
    the actual opposition of characters
  • Conflicts can be external and internal
  • Example Hamlet predicament of wishing to avenge
    his father and yet knowing when and how to do it

74
Epigraph
  • a quotation on the title page of a book
  • Example from The Great Gatsby
  • Then wear the gold hat, if that will move her
  • If you can bounce high, bounce for her too,
  • Till she cry Lover, gold-hatted, high bouncing
    lover,
  • I must have you!
  • ?Thomas Parke DInvilliers

75
Epistrophe
  • a figure of speech in which each sentence or
    clause ends with the same word

76
Flashback
  • derives from the cinema, which is now also used
    to describe any scene or episode in a play,
    novel, story, or poem that show events that
    happened at an earlier time

77
FORESHADOWING
  • the technique or arranging of events and
    information in a narrative in such a way that
    later events are prepared for or shadowed forth
    beforehand

78
Hubris
  • the shortcoming or defect in a Greek tragic hero
    that leads him to ignore the warnings of the gods
    and to transgress their laws and commands

79
Litotes-understatement
  • a figure of speech which contains an
    understatement for emphasis, and is therefore the
    opposite of hyperbole
  • Example not bad usually means good

80
MOTIF
  • one of the dominant ideas in a work of literature
    that recurs throughout the work a part of the
    main theme
  • May consist of a character, a recurrent image, or
    a verbal pattern
  • Example cars in The Great Gatsby
  • Example music in Invisible Man

81
Polysyndeton
  • the repetition of conjuctions
  • Example Hemingway is addicted to the use of the
    word and to create psuedo-biblical rhythms

82
PROTAGONIST
  • the principal character in a work of literature
    and equivalent to the hero

83
Zeugma
  • a figure of speech in which a verb or an
    adjective is applied to two nouns, though
    appropriate only to one of them
  • Example Kills the poys and the luggage.
    ?Shakespeare, Henry V

84
Rhetorical Approaches
Logos Pathos Inductive Deductive Conversational Fo
rmal Instructive
  • Chronological
  • Anachronistic
  • Comparative
  • Persuasive
  • Frame story
  • Cause and effect
  • Propaganda technique
  • Ethos


85
Prose Style Analysis
  • Idiom a form of expression, construction or
    phrase peculiar to a writer
  • Major elements of style analysis
  • diction
  • point of view
  • tone
  • organization
  • narrative pace
  • imagery
  • shape of sentences
  • shape of paragraphs

86
  • Vocabulary
  • tone
  • attitude
  • diction
  • language
  • figurative lang.
  • detail
  • imagery

point of view organization structure irony senten
ce structure syntax phrasing
FORM REFLECTS CONTENT
87
P o e t r y T e r m s
88
Accent-stress
  • a syllable given more prominence in pronunciation
  • Example re-hearse

89
APOSTROPHE
  • a figure of speech in which a thing, a place, an
    abstract quality, an idea, a dead or absent
    person, is addressed as if present and capable of
    understanding
  • Example Milton! Thou shouldst be living at
    this hour . . .

90
Ballad
  • a fairly short narrative poem written in a
    songlike stanza form
  • Example John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci

91
Caesura
  • a break or pause in a line of poetry, dictated,
    usually, by the natural rhythm of the language
  • Example
  • With hinm ther was his sone, ?? a yong Squier
  • A lovyere ?? and a lusty bacheler,
  • With lokkes crulle ?? as they were leyd in
    presse.
  • ?Chaucer, Prologue to The Canterbury Tales

92
Conceit
  • a fairly elaborate figurative device of a
    fanciful kind which often incorporates metaphor,
    simile, hyperbole, or oxymoron

93
COUPLETS
  • two successive lines, usually in the same meter,
    linked by rime
  • Example
  • Whilom ther was dwellynge in Lumbardye
  • A worthy knyght, that born was of Pavye,
  • In which he lyved in greet prosperitee
  • And sixty yeer a wyflees man was hee,
  • And folwed ay his bodily delyt
  • On wommen, there as was his appetyt
  • ?Chaucer, The Merchants Tale

94
Dramatic monologue
  • a poem in which there is one imaginary speaker
    addressing an imaginary audience
  • Example Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

95
Elegy
  • a poem of mourning for an individual or a lament
    for some tragic event

96
Enjambment
  • running on of the sense beyond the second line of
    one couplet into the first line of the next
  • Example
  • Who, of men, can tell
  • That flowers would bloom, or that green fruit
    would swell
  • To melting pulp, that fish would have bright
    mail,
  • The earth its dower or river, wood, and vale,
  • The meadows runnels, runnels pebble-stones,
  • The seed its harvest, or the lute its tones,
  • Tones ravishment, or ravishment its sweet
  • If human souls did never kiss and greet?
  • ?John Keats, Endymion

97
EPIC
  • a long narrative poem, on a grand scale, about
    the deeds of warriors and heroes
  • A polygonal, heroic story incorporating myth,
    legend, folk tale, and history
  • Often of national significance in the sense that
    they embody the history and aspirations of a
    nation in a lofty or grandiose manner
  • Example Anonymous, Beowulf
  • Example Homer, Odyssey

98
Heroic couplets
  • comprises rimed decasyllables, nearly always in
    iambic pentameters rimed in pairs
  • Example All humane things are subject to
    decay,/And, when Fate summons, Monarchs must
    obey ?Dryden, Mac Flecknoe

99
Metonymy
  • a figure of speech in which some significant
    aspect or detail of an experience is used to
    represent the whole experience
  • Example we refer to the leadership of our nation
    as The White House
  • Example Robert Frost in his poem Out, Out ?
    describes an injured boy holding up his cut hand
    as if to keep/The life from spilling, which
    literally means keep the blood from spilling.

100
Ode
  • a lyric poem with an elaborate stanza-structure,
    a marked formality and stateliness in tone and
    style, and lofty sentiments and thoughts
  • Example John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

101
SONNET
  • a fixed form of fourteen lines, normally iambic
    pentameter, with a rime scheme conforming to or
    approximating on of two main types

102
  • ENGLISH-SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
  • a sonnet riming ababcdcdefefgg
  • The content or structure usually parallels the
    rime scheme, falling into three quatrains a
    four-line stanza and a concluding couplet two
    successive lines, usually in the same meter,
    linked by rime
  • The units marked off by the rimes correspond to
    the development of thought
  • Three quatrains present three examples or
    metaphorical statements of an idea and the
    couplet a conclusion or application
  • The principal break in thought usually comes at
    the end of the eighth line
  • Example William Shakespeare, That Time of year

103
  • ITALIAN-PETRARCHAN SONNET
  • a sonnet consisting of an octave an eight-line
    stanza riming abbaabba and of a sestet a
    six-line stanza using any arrangement of two or
    three additional rimes, such as cdcdcd or cdecde
  • The division in rime scheme corresponds to a
    division of thought the octave presents a
    situation and the sestet a comment, or the octave
    an idea and the sestet an example
  • Example John Keats, On First Looking into
    Chapmans Homer

104
STANZA
  • a group of lines whose metrical pattern and
    usually its rime scheme is repeated throughout
    the poem

105
Synecdoche
  • a figure of speech in which a part is used for
    the whole
  • Example Give us this day, our daily bread
    where bread daily meals
  • Example In Terence, this is stupid stuff, A.
    E. Housmans narrator explains malt does more
    than Milton can/To justify Gods ways to man,
    where malt beer

106
Villanelle
  • a poem consisting of five three-lined stanzas or
    tercets and a final quatrain
  • Example Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into
    That Good Night

107
  • P o e t r y T e r m s -
  • M e t r i c a l T e r m s

108
ALLITERATION
  • the repetition at close intervals of the initial
    consonant sounds of accented syllables or
    important words
  • Example map-moon, kill-code, preach-approve

109
ASSONANCE
  • the repetition at close intervals of the vowel
    sounds of accented syllables or important words
  • Example hat-ran-amber-vein-made

110
BLANK VERSE
  • unrimed iambic pentameter
  • Example Shakespearean tragedies

111
CONSONANCE
  • the repetition at close intervals of the final
    consonant sounds of accented syllables or
    important words
  • Example book-plaque-thicker

112
Continuous form
  • The element of design is slight
  • Lines follow each other without formal grouping
  • There are different degrees of pattern

113
End-stopped line
  • a line that ends with a natural speech pause,
    usually marked by punctuation

114
Feminine rime
  • a rime in which the repeated accented vowel is in
    either the second or third last syllable of the
    words involved
  • Example ceiling-appealing, hurrying-scurrying

115
Fixed form
  • A traditional pattern that applies to a whole
    poem
  • Example limerick, sonnet, haiku, lyric, terza
    rima

116
FOOT
  • the basic unit used in the scansion or
    measurement of verse
  • Usually contains one accented syllable and one or
    two unaccented syllables
  • Example The dew?shall weep?they fall?to night

117
Names of feet-meter
  • Iamb iambic in - ter'
  • Trochee trochaic en' - ter
  • Anapest anapestic in - ter - vene'
  • Dactyl dactylic en' - ter - prise
  • Spondee spondaic true' - blue'

118
Free verse
  • nonmetrical verse contains no fixed metrical
    pattern

119
IAMB
  • a metrical foot consisting of one unaccented
    syllable followed by one accented syllable
  • Example re-hearse

120
Internal rime
  • a rime in which one or both of the rime-words
    occur within the line
  • Example Surely, said I, surely that is
    something at my window lattice / Let me see,
    then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore?
    ?Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven

121
Masculine rime
  • a rime in which the repeated accented vowel sound
    is in the final syllable of the words involved
  • Example dance-pants, scald-recalled

122
Meter
  • regularized rhythm an arrangement of language in
    which the accents occur at apparently equal
    intervals in time

123
Onomatopoeia
  • the use of words that supposedly mimic their
    meaning in their sound
  • Example boom-click-plop

124
Rhythm
  • any wavelike recurrence of motion or sound

125
Stanzaic form
  • A series of stanzas repeated units having the
    same number of lines, usually the same metrical
    pattern, and often an identical rime scheme

126
Terza rima
  • an interlocking rime scheme with the pattern aba
    bcb cdc, etc.

127
D r a m a T e r m s
128
FREYTAGS PYRAMID
  • the structure of most five-act plays follows this
    pattern

129
CATHARSIS
  • Aristotle in Poetics explains that Tragedy
    through pity and fear effects a purgation of such
    emotions

130
HAMARTIA
  • an error of judgement which may arise from
    ignorance or some moral shortcoming
  • Aristotle explains that a tragic hero comes to
    misfortune through no vice or depravity, but some
    error usually in judgement

131
TRAGEDY
  • In his Poetics, Aristotle defined tragedy as
  • The imitation of an action that is serious and
    also, as having magnitude, complete in itself in
    language with pleasurable accessories, each kind
    brought in separately in the parts of the work
    in a dramatic, not in a narrative form with
    incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to
    accomplish its catharsis of such emotions.

132
SOLILOQUY
  • a speech in which a character alone on the stage
    expresses his thoughts and feelings

133
ASIDE
  • a few words or a short passage spoken in an
    undertone or to the audience

134
Schools of Literary Criticism
135
Basic perspectives
  • Textual
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Topical

136
Textual perspective
  • New Critical Approach
  • Focus on literary form text only
  • Focus strictly on what the text is
  • Question the form?arrangement, purpose, voice,
    syntax, tone and audience
  • Compare to other texts of similar genre
  • Build an understanding of a genre, which helps to
    develop a set of expectations and also informed
    interpretations

137
Textual perspective
  • Focus on how separate parts relate to the overall
    form (analysis)
  • Involves a careful examination of literary
    elements and devices
  • Excludes factors outside of the text (i.e.
    authors background/reader response)
  • Intentional fallacy it is impossible/irrelevant
    to determine an authors intention
  • Affective fallacy readers feelings are
    irrelevant to the meaning
  • Important to place your reading of a particular
    text within a network of previous reading
    readers can accomplish this by examining the
    following elements
  • Roles prototypical figures (i.e. western
    cowboy)
  • Settings social or cultural world
  • Problems typical conflicts characters deal with
  • Storyline manner in which the problem is solved

138
Social perspective
  • a.k.a. Reader response criticism
  • Focus on what we experience
  • Our own personal experience of the subject being
    addressed
  • Readers test an artists ideas against personal
    experience and review the validity of the
    argument-theme
  • Encourages personal connections with text
  • Important to seek to expand social attitudes
  • Important to imagine an implied audience (e.g.
    Huck Finn)

139
Social perspective
  • Methods of formulating an informed social
    response
  • Map relationships to characters-implied
    audience
  • Examine character dialogue use the following
    questions
  • Is the dialogue relevant to the topic of
    conversation?
  • Does the character provide enough information?
  • If not, then what are the consequences?

140
Cultural perspective
  • Marxist-socialist examine social-economic
    hierarchies in a text
  • Feminist explore gender roles in a text
  • Psychoanalytic text as record of author
    psychology
  • Pop culture influence of popular culture on
    texts
  • Multicultural examine perspective of
    marginalized cultural groups
  • Postcolonial literature of formerly colonized
    peoples locate texts in a global sense

141
Cultural perspective
  • Focus on who we are as a culture and how we came
    to be
  • Readers explore the affects of a texts cultural
    environment
  • Focus on the influence of peer groups, mass
    media, family, school, religion, historical
    period, and religious/social/political group
  • Examine the affects of cultural institutions on
    the world the author creates

142
Topical perspective
  • Historical text as historical document
  • Biographical emphasis on author background
  • Literary tradition texts as representative of
    ideological movements

143
Topical perspective
  • Focus on what we know
  • Individual readers contribute personal
    perspectives/knowledges in order to create
    larger, composite meanings
  • Responses differ because of interest and
    background knowledge of readers
  • Readers can carry away part of what the text
    means
  • Apply background knowledge of different academic
    fields?math, science, etc.
  • Important to identify areas of expertise and
    contribute to an open discourse
  • Most important areas?history, art, music and
    science

144
WORKS CITED
  • Perrine, Laurence and Thomas A. Arp. Sound and
    Sense.
  • Cuddon, J.A. Dictionary of Literary Terms and
    Literary Theory, 3rd ed.
  • Potter, Nancy. "Bellevue High School Advanced
    Placement Institute."
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