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The Effects of Multicultural Education on Literacy


Title: The Effects of Multicultural Education on Literacy Author: Ramona Fabian Last modified by: Windows User Created Date: 3/21/2012 1:24:44 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Effects of Multicultural Education on Literacy

The Effects of Multicultural Education on Literacy
  • Ramona Fabian
  • Education 7202
  • Professor Oconnor- Petruso
  • Spring 2012

Table of Contents
  • Abstract
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Review of Literature
  • Research Design
  • Threats to Internal
  • Threats to External Validity

Table of Contents Continued
  • Proposed Data
  • Pre-Test Post-Test Data Results
  • Survey Data Analysis and Correlation
  • Discussion/Implication
  • Refrences

  • This action research study investigates a
    possible correlation between multicultural books
    and literacy levels. This action research is
    based on the Quasi-Experimental Design
    Non-equivalent control group. Participants
    include eight-second grade students from the same
    classroom they will be divided into two groups
    of four (the controlled group and the
    non-controlled group). A post-test will be
    administered at the end of the five-week period.
    This post-test will be a running record. Using
    the pretest, post-test and surveys there will be
    an examination of the correlation between
    multicultural books and literacy levels. 

Statement of the Problem
  • The problem that we are currently facing is that
    literacy is a number one problem in the United
    States. According to the 2009 United Nations
    Development Programme Report, the United States
    is number forty-five on the list and number
    twenty in rank. Based on the results of the
    standardized tests, new instructional methods
    both for the teacher and the students are needed.
    The United States is a very diverse country and
    the educational system needs to meet everyones
    needs in order to reach high literacy achievement
    rates (McIntyre, Hulan, Maher, 2010).
    Supporting theorists shed a light into the world
    of multicultural literacy.

Review of Literature
  • Multicultural literature plays a significant role
    in the development of children's cross-cultural
    understanding (Harper Brand, 2010 Hinton
    Berry, 2004).
  • As human beings evolve, the network of
    understanding becomes more and more complex
    therefore we need to educate our children with an
    integration of ethnic texture (Dooley, 2008 Lim,
    2004 Randencinch, 1998)
  • Multicultural books promote positive attitudes
    towards literacy and helps improve reading
    comprehension, writing quality and vocabulary. It
    is essential for academic advancement of all
    students particularly for at risk students
    (Harper Brand, 2010 Schaedel Lazarowitz,
    2005/2006 Smolen, Collins, Still, 2008).

Research Design
  • Quasi-Experimental Design
  • Non- equivalent control group
  • Two groups
  • Groups are randomly assigned but individuals are
  • Individuals based on reading level H/I
  • Symbol Design O X O, O X O
  • (O) Pre-test, (X) Tratment for Group 1, (X)
    Treatment for Group 2, (O) Post-test

Threats to Internal Validity
  • History
  • Maturation
  • Testing/Pretesting
  • Instrumentation
  • Morality
  • Statistical Regression
  • Selection- Maturation Interaction

Threats to External Validity
  • Ecological Validity
  • Generalizable Conditions
  • Multiple Treatments
  • Reactive Arrangements/Participants Effects
  • Novelty Effect

Proposed Data
  • Pre- Test Post Tests
  • Running Record
  • Student Surveys
  • Demographics, Frequency, Attitudes, Short
  • Teacher Survey
  • Demographics, Frequency, Attitudes, Short Response

Pre- Test/ Post- Test Results
Average of Pre-Test 97.5 Average of Post-Test
97 Difference .5 Decrease
Average of Pre-Test 96.3333333 Average of
Post-Test 98 Difference 3 Increase
Survey Analysis and Correlation
Group 1 Student Surveys/Pre-Test
Correlations (Treatment Group) Survey Question
I enjoy reading.
Group 1 Student Surveys/Post-Test
Correlations (Treatment Group) Survey Question
I read books about different cultures.
rxy 1
rxy 0.866025
  • The action research indicates that there is a
    positive correlation between the frequency in
    which students read about different cultures and
    their reading levels. In addition research
    indicates that there is no correlation between
    the enjoyment of reading and their reading
  • The research demonstrated that using
    multicultural books promotes higher reading level
    scores. After intervention students reading
    level increased from a set one to a set two
    while students who were not in the treatment
    group did not improve and most scored less in set

  • Abraham, L. (2000). Visual literacy in a
    multicultural environment Integrating
  • aesthetic with critical visual awareness. Journal
    of Visual Literacy, 20, 1, pp. 9 18.
  • Barksdale, M., Richards, J., Fisher, P.,
    Wuthrick, M., Hammons, J., Grisham, D.,
  • Richmond, H. (2002). Perceptions of preservice
    elementary teachers on multicultural issues.
    Reading Horizons, 43(1), 27-48. 
  • Bruna, K. R. (2007). Finding new words How I use
    critical literacy in my
  • multicultural teacher education classroom.
    Journal of education for Teaching, 33, 1, pp.
  • Canen, A. (2003). Child education and literacy
    learning for multicultural
  • societies The case of the Brazilian national
    curricular references for child education (NCRs).
    Compare, 33,2.

  • Dooley, C. M. (2008). Multicultural literacy
    teacher education Seeking micro-transformations.
    Literacy Research and Instruction, 47 55-75. 
  • Eldering, L. (1996). Multiculturalism and
    multicultural education in an international
    perspective. Anthropology Education Quarterly,
    27, 3, pp. 315-330.
  • Ernst, S.B., Mathis, J.B. (2007). Multicultural
    literature Reading within a new literacy
    context. Journal of childrens literature, 34,1.
  • Gibson, M. A. (1984). Approaches to multicultural
    education in the United States Some concepts and
    assumptions. Anthropology Education Quarterly,
    15, 1, pp. 94-120. 
  • Harper L. J., Brand S. T. (2010). More alike
    than different Promoting respect through
    multicultural books and literacy strategies.
    Childhood Education 86,4 pp.224-233. 
  • Harris, Joyce L. (2003). Toward an understanding
    of literacy issues in multicultural
    school-age populations. American
    speech-language-hearing association, 34, 80-82.

  • Hayden, R., Anderson, J., Gunderson, L. (1997).
    Literacy learning outside the classroom Literacy
    learning from a multicultural perspective. The
    Reading Teacher, 50,6, pp. 514-516. 
  • Hinton, K.V., Berry, T. (2004). Literacy,
    literature, and diversity. Journal of Adolescents
    and Adult Literacy, pp. 284-288. 
  • Hirsch, E.D., JR. (1988). Cultural literacy What
    every American needs to know. Vintage Books. A
    Division of Random House, New York.  
  • Lim, B. (2004). Aesthetic discourses in early
    childhood settings Dewey, Steiner, and Vygotsky.
    Early Childhood Development and Care,174(5), pp.
  • Locke, T., Cleary, A. (2011). Critical literacy
    as an approach to literary study in the
    multicultural, high school classroom. English
    Practice Practice and Critique. 10 (1), pp.
  • May, L. A. (2011). Situating Strategies An
    examination of comprehension strategy instruction
    in one upper elementary classroom oriented toward
    culturally relevant teaching. Literacy Research
    and Instruction, 50 pp. 31-43.

  • McIntyre, E., Hulan, N., Maher, M. (2010). The
    relationship between literacy learning and
    cultural differences A study of teachers
    disposition. Journal of Reading Education, 35
    (3), p. 19-25.
  • McMunn Dooley, C. (2008). Multicultural literacy
    teacher education Seeking micro-transformations.
    Literacy Research and Instruction, 47 55-75.
  • Modla, v. B., Wake, D. G. Using a
    culturally-responsive approach to multicultural
    iterature Preparing pre-service teachers to work
    with all students. College Reading Association,
    pp. 293-311. 
  • Norton, D. E. (1990). Teaching multicultural
    literature in the reading curriculum.
    International Reading Association, 44, 1, pp.
  • Randencinch, M. C. (1998). Multicultural
    education for literacy in the year 2000
    Traversing comfort zones and transforming
    knowledge and action. Peabody Journal of
    Education, 73 (34), p. 178-201 Literacy Research
    and Instruction, 47 55-75.

  • Schaedel, B., Lazarowitz, R., H. (2005/2006).
    Literacy development in a
  • multicultural city. International Journal of
    Learning, 12, 7.
  • Smolen, L. A., Collins, L, J., Still, K, L.
    (2008). Enhancing cultural understanding and
    respect with multicultural text sets in the K-8
    classroom. Ojela, 48, 2.
  • St. Amour, M. J. (2003). Connecting childrens
    stories to childrens literature Meeting
    diversity needs. Early childhood journal, 31, 1.
  • Thomas, S., Vanderhaar. J. (2008). Negotiating
    resistance to multiculturalism in a teacher
    education curriculum A case study. The Teacher
    Educator, 43173-197. 
  • Towell, J., Similan, C. (2009). Teaching
    literacy through the visual arts in a
    multicultural world. Journal of reading
    education, 35, 1.
  • Yoon, B., Simpson, A., Haag, C. (2010).
    Assimilation ideology Critically examining
    underlying messages in multicultural literature.
    Journal of Adolescents and Adult Literacy, 54(2),
    p. 109-118.