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CHAPTER 28 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA

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Title: CHAPTER 9 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA Last modified by: tnassivera Created Date: 12/18/2004 5:35:59 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 28 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA


1
CHAPTER 28 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
  • AMERICA SEEKS REFORMS IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
  • 1890-1920

2
ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM
  • The Progressives had their roots in the Greenback
    Labor Party of the 1870s and 1880s, the Populist
    Party of the 1890s and the Social Gospel.
  • Though the Populists failed at supplanting one of
    the major political parties, their legacy lived
    on in the growth of the Progressives

3
PURPOSE OF PROGRESSIVISM
  • The strong progressive movement demanded that
    the powers of government be applied to solving
    the political, economic and social problems of
    industrialization.

4
FOUR GOALS OF REFORMERS
  • 1) Protect Social Welfare
  • 2) Promote Moral Improvement
  • 3) Create Economic Reform/Foster Efficiency
  • 4) Reform Government

5
1.PROTECT SOCIAL MORAL WELFARE
  • Some reformers felt that the answer to societies
    problems was personal behavior
  • They proposed such reforms as prohibition
  • Groups wishing to ban alcohol included the
    Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  • Saloons became seen as a vice instead of a social
    place
  • Carrie Nation was a leader of the Temperance
    Movement

6
3. CREATE ECONOMIC REFORMFear of the Power of
Monopolies
  • The Panic of 1893 prompted some Americans to
    question the capitalist economic system
  • As a result some workers embraced socialism
    (Communal ownership of universal goods and
    services)
  • Eugene Debs organized the American Socialist
    Party in 1901

Debs encouraged workers to reject American
Capitalism
7
MUCKRAKERS CRITICIZE BIG BUSINESS
  • Though most progressives did not embrace
    socialism, many writers saw the truth in Debs
    criticism
  • Journalists known as Muckrakers exposed
    corruption in business
  • make society efficient, not reject capitalism
  • Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil Companys
    cut-throat methods of eliminating competition

Ida Tarbell
Some view Michael Moore as a modern muckraker
8
FOSTERING EFFICIENCY
  • Many Progressive leaders put their faith in
    scientific principles to make society better
  • In Industry, Frederick Taylor began using time
    motion studies to improve factory efficiency
  • Taylorism became an Industry fad as factories
    sought to complete each task quickly

9
REGULATING BIG BUSINESS
  • Under the progressive Republican leadership of
    Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in
    regulating big business
  • Direct Taxes on Corporations
  • Regulated railroads

10
PROTECTING WORKING CHILDREN
  • Keating-Owen Act - As the number of child workers
    rose, reformers worked to end child labor
  • Children were more prone to accidents caused by
    fatigue
  • Nearly every state limited or banned child labor
    by 1918

11
EFFORTS TO LIMIT HOURS
  • Progressives succeeded in winning workers
    compensation to aid families of injured workers
  • The Supreme Court and the states enacted or
    strengthened laws reducing womens hours of work

12
4. CLEANING UP LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  • Efforts at reforming local government stemmed
    from the desire to make government more efficient
    and responsive to citizens
  • Some believe it also was meant to limit
    immigrants influence in local governments

13
Progressivism first gained strength at the city
and state level
  • Urban issues become center of reform
  • City is perceived as a social menace full of
    disorder
  • Overcrowded, pollution, illness, poor sanitation
  • Immigrants settle in core of city while the rich
    move out to the suburbs

14
Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • An early Progressive action passed in order to
    take corruption from patronage out of government
    and promote efficiency

15
Honest Graft and Dishonest Graft Problems in the
City
  • Early public welfare system - If you lose your
    job and place to live, you go to the Boss for
    help in return you vote for whomever the Boss
    tells you to vote
  • Widespread fraud and inefficiency
  • Someone can rise from humble origins to powerful
    positions, but often through graft and bribery
  • Cities are not organized well to handle the new
    issues facing the modern cities
  • Early solution was the Boss system (Boss Tweed,
    Plunkett, etc.) that had begun in establishing
    political machines in response to the earlier
    influx of immigration of the 1840s

16
Strengthening the government because they can do
it more efficiently
  • Detroit Mayor Pingrey changes the way contracts
    are awarded
  • Instead of bribe and patronage established a bid
    system
  • Puts them in a place where they will be decided
    for the common good
  • Takes it out of politics
  • Ex. Utility rates, studies and discovers Detroit
    pays more compared to other cities
  • Bargains with utility companies (monopoly) for
    lower rates
  • When they wont he starts a public utility to
    fund at lower rates
  • Ex. Does this with streetcars as well, as
    advocate for the people of the city, he wants a
    .03 cent rate takes over street cars
  • Eventually, Street Car companies gave in

Appointing of city managers begins or
commissioners to run different aspects, takes
away power from the concentration in a boss.
17
Tenement Housing
  • Jacob Riis, a photographer
  • Documented life of the lower class in the cities
    in his book How the Other Half Lives

18
Dont stop restrict immigration
  • Employers felt little responsibility toward their
    workers, especially immigrants
  • As a result Settlement homes, like Jane Addams
    Hull House, and churches served the community
  • Also the YMCA and Salvation Army took on service
    roles

Instead find a better way to assimilate
immigrants into our society.
19
Fighting Robert La Follette
  • Election
  • Reform
  • Citizens fought for, and won, such measures as
    secret ballots, referendum votes (legislative
    acts could be approved by people), and the recall
    (removal of a public official, often deemed
    corrupt,from office by a vote of the people )
  • Citizens could petition and get initiatives on
    the ballot
  • Direct Primary voters vote directly on
    candidate for the political party
  • Makes government power more responsive to the
    people

20
Accidents Prompt ReformThe Triangle Shirtwaist
Factory Fire
  • Prompts NY to pass labor law reforms safety
    standards, inspectors
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