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The Preschool Years


The Preschool Years Developmentally Appropriate Practice By Carol Copple and Sue Bredekamp, Editors The National Institute for Early Education Research-NIEER (5 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Preschool Years

The Preschool Years
  • Developmentally Appropriate Practice
  • By Carol Copple and
  • Sue Bredekamp, Editors

The National Institute for Early Education
Research-NIEER (5 minutes)
  • http//
  • NIEER's five-minute video, "Growing and Learning
    in Preschool," shows the essential features of a
    high-quality preschool program. You'll see how a
    preschool curriculum based on solid research
    builds school and life-related skills, why
    well-qualified teachers are so important, and how
    play is integrated into learning.

An Overview
  • 3-5 year olds
  • More than half preschoolers enrolled
  • Important period not kindergarten but for
    preschool development
  • Optimal learning-positive caring relationships
    with adults, other children
  • Critical developmentally appropriate
  • ALL Preschoolers strengths areas to improve
  • Poverty 4-year-olds 18 months behind (43 in US
    low income 3.5 million affected
  • Poverty children vulnerable 16 have
  • Summary-magical thinking years playful,
    imaginative, delightful

Physical development
  • Preschoolers- extremely physical moving,
    jumping, running
  • Goal-quarter school day - physical activity.
  • Paper/pencil activities less useful than
  • Three-year-olds/uncoordinated
  • Four-year-olds/greater control, not fluid
  • 3 4 viewed clumsy,
  • spills (body changes)

Physical development continued
  • Girls-advanced fine gross (skipping, hopping)
  • Boys advanced force power, running, jumping
  • Nutrition-5-6 meals (energy, less headaches, more
    focused, enjoy play
  • Childhood obesity.
  • Physical growth varies (per year 3-4 in. 5-6
  • Prominent in trunk legs

Physical Development continue
  • Sensation/perception-well developed (sense of
    taste compared to adults By this age they are
    able to perform basic gross motor skills.
  • Gross motor-lowered center of gravity-hop,
    balance (referrals)
  • Fine motor still developing handedness by 4

Social Emotional Development
  • Great advances-still struggles.
  • Positive social and emotional foundation
    cognitive competence.

Social Development
  • Social interactions, relationships with teachers
    and peers, and friendships
  • 4-5 years - cooperative play-common goal-peer(s)
  • Sociodramatic play communication with peer(s)
  • Longer interactions more involvement more
    cooperation control experiences such as doctor,
    dentist, hospital visits support self-regulation
  • Development of prosocial behavior

Social Development
  • 3. Understanding others perspectives
  • Aggression physical, relational
  • Anticipate consequences of physical actions/
  • Strategies turn taking, using words, using
    empathy, self-regulation skills
  • 5. Sense of self in relation to others
  • Who are they
  • Younger-I have two fish
  • Older-Im nice to my friends
  • 6. Research Study-Supports Play
  • Free-choice activities, variety of equipment and
  • Findings better cognitive (and language)
    abilities than peers

Emotional Development
  • Positive and negative impact development domains
  • Express and talk about their emotions

Emotional DevelopmentContinued
  1. Development of emotional competence.
  2. Development of conscience.
  3. Stress, coping and resilience.

Investing in the Emotional and Behavioral
Development of Preschoolers (6 minutes)
  • http//
  • Young children who can interact well with
    teachers and peers are more likely to succeed in
    preschool and beyond. This six-minute video,
    produced by The MacArthur Foundation, profiles
    MDRCs Foundations of Learning Project, a
    demonstration in Newark and Chicago that is
    testing an innovative program that combines
    teacher training with in-class clinical
    consultation to support children's emotional and
    behavioral development in preschool.

Cognitive development
  • Important changes occur
  • Form representations world - future and past
  • Preschooler create fanciful scenes make-believe.
  • Piaget preoperational stage
  • can be illogical, egocentric
  • and one dimensional.
  • Learning interdependent-
  • Cognitive influences all
  • other domains
  • .

Cognitive development continued
  • Brain cerebral cortex functions regulate
    attention and memory not fully developed -
  • Attention short, distractible, better over time
  • Memory attention improves so does memory
    practice strategies (recall events)
  • Mental representation (internal depictions)
    mind manipulates images or mental pictures
  • Later advances use of mental representation-obje
    cts serve both as an object or as a symbol of
    something else.
  • Age 3-realization that pictures serve as
    symbols-teachers start labeling even scribbles
    worms wrestling or me and mommy playing

Cognitive development continued
  • Logic and Characteristics of thought
  • Due lack of others perspective
  • Centration
  • Reasoning
  • Limited understanding time, space, age
  • Focus on tangible, observable aspects
  • Concept acquisition and classification
  • Goal of children-organize world
  • Describe objects appearance actions (big, mean
  • Miss subtle differences
  • Why is important (story pg. 136, wugs
  • Magical thinkers animism
  • 4-5 magical beliefs lessen
  • Culture, religion, info. from adults.

Promoting cognitive development
  • Teachers can help by Cues, modeling, questions
    (open/closed), positive guidance, ample play
    time-choices, plan/review work,
  • Teachers give ideas, help with rules of pretend
    play, then back away
  • Teach math and science in preschool.

  • Best math develops language/ vocabulary
    (sequence if wear red, get coat first)
  • Promote math skills (page 139 4 bullets)
  • Different ways to solve problems (math, social
    situations share play dough on table)
  • Terms compare/contrast, more, less, tallest,

  1. Science table is a start, whole classroom has
    science possibilities
  2. Builds on childrens prior experiences,
  3. Draws on childrens curiosity, encourages
    questions, develop own ideas
  4. Engage children in in-depth exploration of topic
    over time
  5. Encourages children to reflect on, represent,
    document experiences and share/discuss ideas with
  6. Embedded in childrens daily work/play
  7. Provides access to science experiences

Language and literacy development
  • Language and communication skills grow by leaps
    and bounds.
  • Role oral language in social, emotional,
    cognitive development
  • Benefit from sustained conversations adult
    expands thoughts (Child A white bear. Adult
    Yes, theres a white mama bear with her baby-her
    little cub.)
  • Predictor-reading success (phonological
    awareness-notice sounds of spoken language,
    beginning speech sounds rhythms, rhyme, highest
    level-syllables phonemes
  • Private speech
  • English language learners

Promoting language and literacy
  • Conversations should include discussions of
    events, experiences (future or past)
  • Expanding childs vocabulary
  • Intentionally introduce describe new words
  • Reading aloud high-quality books with rich
    vocabulary (language patterns such as Brown Bear,
    Brown Bear)
  • Print and literacy rich classrooms print has to
    be used purposefully
  • Alphabet help identify, form letters, letter
    sounds, starting letter sounds fun meaningful
  • Developmental spelling bk-bike
  • Proper written formation of letters-not a
  • Although developmentally appropriate to use
    lists, dictate stories to teacher, see teachers
    write words

Examples to Consider Chapter 5
  • Creating a caring community of learners
  • Teaching to enhance development and learning
  • Planning curriculum to achieve important goals
  • Assessing childrens development and learning
  • Establishing reciprocal relationships with

Maria Montessori
  • "Never help a child with a task at which he feels
    he can succeed."