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Byzantine Empire and Orthodox Christianity

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Byzantine Empire and Orthodox Christianity Europe During Post-Classical Period Following fall of Roman Empire, 2 Christian societies emerged in Europe Western Europe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Byzantine Empire and Orthodox Christianity


1
Byzantine Empire and Orthodox Christianity
2
Europe During Post-Classical Period
  • Following fall of Roman Empire, 2 Christian
    societies emerged in Europe
  • Western Europe Roman Catholicism
  • Eastern Europe Orthodox Christianity
  • The religion and culture of Eastern Europe was
    largely shaped by the Byzantine Empire.

3
Map of Byzantine Empirehttp//guide-martine.com/i
mages/history_byzantine3.jpg
4
Origins of the Byzantine Empire
  • Late in the Classical Period, Rome established an
    eastern capital at Constantinople (formerly
    Byzantium)
  • Attempt to keep empire from collapsing
  • Roman Empire eventually split into eastern and
    western halves
  • East began to thrive, west experienced decline

5
Byzantine Empire
  • Both empires were hit hard by foreign invasion
    and disease in the late-classical period.
  • BUT, Byzantine Empire survived, the Roman Empire
    did not
  • Why was the Byzantine Empire stronger than that
    of Rome????
  • Thrived on trade
  • Trade with Rome in decline
  • Military derived from Middle Eastern provinces
  • Rome hired foreign mercenaries
  • Strong political and religious leadership in form
    of the Byzantine Emperor
  • Roman Emperor and Pope competed for power

6
Emperor Justinian
  • Byzantine Empire flourished under Justinians
    rule
  • Art, architecture, construction projects
  • Hagia Sophia- church with worlds largest dome
    (at the time)
  • Engineering marvel
  • Created standardized system of law codes
    (Justinian Law Code)
  • Maintain stability, unity, consistency
  • Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire extended
    its influence
  • 533 Emperor Justinian attempted to reunite
    eastern and western halves of the old Roman
    Empire
  • Failed
  • Gained territory in N. Africa and Italy
  • However, the Muslim empires will later conquer
    about half of the territory once controlled by
    the Byzantine Empire

7
Mosaic of Emperor Justinian http//en.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/ImageMeister_von_San_Vitale_in_Ravenna_004
.jpg
8
Byzantine Society
  • Emperor was ordained by God to be head of Church
    and state
  • Patriarchal rule, but some women were able to
    hold throne temporarily
  • In early days, women enjoyed some freedom, but
    became more restricted as time passed
  • Practiced veiling and confinement of women
  • Muslims later adopt these practices

9
Religion in Byzantine Empire
  • Initially, the Byzantines were under the
    authority of the Pope
  • Over time, conflict arose between the Pope in
    Rome and the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople
  • Began to develop differences in religious
    practices
  • 1054 Great Schism
  • Official split in Church
  • Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox

10
Government Under Byzantine Empire
  • Complex centralized bureaucracy
  • Mostly aristocrats in power positions
  • Possible for other social classes to hold office
  • Bureaucrats had to be well educated
  • Most positions that were closest to the Emperor
    were held by eunuchs
  • Provincial governors and spy network to maintain
    order
  • Close tie between church and state

11
Government Under the Byzantine Empire
  • Focus on military
  • Recruited local troops
  • Exchanged military service for land that could be
    passed on to children
  • Military helped fend off foreign invasions
  • Regulation of the economy
  • Controlled food prices
  • Adopted silk making from China, allowing them to
    compete in luxury markets
  • Government Sponsored trade with Europe, Asia,
    Arab Muslims, India
  • Role of merchant class was diminished due to
    govt. involvement in trade

12
Art and Architecture
  • Strong Hellenistic Influence
  • Domed buildings (adopted from Rome)
  • Mosaics use of small, colored pieces of glass,
    tile, stone to create an image
  • Icon Painting paintings of religious figures
  • Often used rich colors such as blue and gold to
    signify the purity and brilliance of heaven

13
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Architectur
e
Mosaic of Christ from Hagia Sophia http//en.wikip
edia.org/wiki/Byzantine_art
14
Hagia Sophia
http//www.wayfaring.info/wp-content/uploads/2006/
11/copy-of-hagia-sophia-west-view.jpg
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageHagia_Sophia_in
terior_March_2008.jpg
15
(No Transcript)
16
Decline of Byzantine Empire
  • Long decline
  • Muslim Invasions
  • Turkish Troops seized territory in Asia
  • Slavic peoples rebelled and created independent
    kingdoms in Balkan Peninsula
  • Crusaders
  • 1453 Turkish Sultan and his army attacked
    Constantinople and seized the city
  • Established the Ottoman Empire under Muslim
    control

17
STOP
  • PREPARE
  • FOR
  • QUIZ !!!!!!!!!

18
Legacy of the Byzantine Empire
  • Although the Byzantine Empire fell to Muslims in
    1453, it left behind a cultural legacy in Eastern
    Europe
  • Sent missionaries into Eastern Europe
  • Conversions to Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  • Taught the Slavic peoples a written language
    called Cyrillic
  • Still used by many cultures of Eastern Europe

19
Russia
  • 6th-7th Centuries ppl. From Scandinavia
    navigated the rivers of Russia on their way to
    trade with the Byzantine Empire
  • Known as Varangians
  • Established cities along major rivers
  • Most important city was Kiev
  • Legend states it became a monarchy in 855
  • First ruler was Viking named Rurik
  • Became ruler of kingdom known as Keivan Rus

20
Kievan Rus
  • Kiev maintained close ties to the Byzantine
    Empire
  • Adopted many cultural practices from the
    Byzantines
  • Adopted use of Cyrillic alphabet (created by
    Byzantine Missionaries)
  • 988 Vladimir I converted to Orthodox
    Christianity
  • Most Russians were polytheistic before this
    conversion
  • Went from polygamy to monogamy
  • Began to model their art architecture after
    those of Byzantine Empire
  • Used wood rather than stone in most buildings

21
Government in Kievan Rus
  • Series of independent, rival kingdoms
  • Local, decentralized rule
  • Most people lived on communes, very little
    private ownership of land
  • Created strong sense of community
  • Kiev most powerful city, but did not create a
    centralized bureaucracy to unite all of Russia
  • Close tie between church and state after the
    conversion to Orthodox Christianity

22
Kievan Rus
  • Religion became the center of life for people of
    Kievan Rus
  • King of Kiev played major role in church
  • Church was center of life in Russian towns and
    villages
  • Scientific thought was overshadowed by the
    teachings of religious leaders
  • Art was centered around religious figures

23
Decline of Kievan Rus
  • Over time, Kievan Rus went into decline
  • Rivalry among various kingdoms
  • Decline of Byzantine Empire affected the Russians
  • 1240 Kiev and Russia fell under Mongol rule
  • Russia forced to take orders from and pay tribute
    to the Mongol rulers (known as the Golden Horde)
  • Mongols maintained rule until mid-1400s

24
Ivan the Great
  • Under the rule of Ivan III, Moscow began campaign
    to end Mongol rule in Russia
  • Quit paying tributes in mid-1400s
  • Conquests in Russia to unite major cities under
    Muscovite rule
  • Mongol rule over by end of 1400s
  • More on Russia in next unit!
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