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E-Learning Survival, E-Learning Success: You Can Do It!


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Title: E-Learning Survival, E-Learning Success: You Can Do It!

E-Learning Survival, E-Learning Success You Can
Do It!
  • Curt Bonk, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare.com
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk
  • http//CourseShare.com

Exponential Growth of the Web
A Vision of E-learning for Americas Workforce,
Report of the Commission on Technology and Adult
Learning, (2001, June)
  • A remarkable 84 percent of two-and four-year
    colleges in the United States expect to offer
    distance learning courses in 2002 (only 58 did
    in 1998) (US Dept of Education report, 2000)
  • Web-based training is expected to increase 900
    percent between 1999 and 2003. (ASTD, State of
    the Industry Report 2001).

To Cope with the Explosion, We Need Instructor
E-Learning Support!!!
Problems Faced
  • Administrative
  • Lack of admin vision.
  • Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that
    they do not understand the time needed.
  • Lack of system support.
  • Little recognition that this is valuable.
  • Rapacious U intellectual property policy.
  • Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.
  • Pedagogical
  • Difficulty in performing lab experiments
  • Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.
  • Time-related
  • More ideas than time to implement.
  • Not enough time to correct online assign.
  • People need sleep Web spins forever.

Best of Online Pedagogical Strategies
Changing Role of the TeacherThe Online Teacher,
TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • From oracle to guide and resource provider
  • From providers of answers to expert questioners
  • From solitary teacher to member of team
  • From total control of teaching environment to
    sharing as a fellow student
  • From provider of content to designer of learning

Online Teaching SkillsThe Online Teacher, TAFE,
Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Technical email, chat, Web development
  • Facilitation engaging, questioning, listening,
    feedback, providing support, managing discussion,
    team building, relationship building, motivating,
    positive attitude, innovative, risk taking
  • Managerial planning, reviewing, monitoring, time

Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)The Online
Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86)
  • Ability to engage the learner (2.84)
  • Ability to provide direction and support (2.82)
  • Skills in online listening (2.76)
  • Ability to use email effectively (2.70)
  • Ability to motivate online learners (2.66)
  • Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66)
  • Skills in effective online questioning (2.65)

Less Impt Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)The
Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April,
  • Higher-level Web page development (.606)
  • Use of video/audioconferencing (1.06)
  • Ability to develop simple Web pages (1.45)
  • Skills in using online chat (1.84)
  • Ability to build online teams (2.10)
  • Skills in planning, monitoring trng (2.20)

Ability to say dumb things. Ability to offend
people. Ability to sleep 24 X 7. Ability to get
The Web Integration Continuum (Bonk et al., 2000)
  • Level 1 Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
  • Level 2 Web Resource for Student Exploration
  • Level 3 Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
  • Level 4 Course Resources on the Web
  • Level 5 Repurpose Web Resources for Others
  • Level 6 Web Component is Substantive Graded
  • Level 7 Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
  • Level 8 Entire Web Course for Resident Students
  • Level 9 Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
  • Level 10 Course within Programmatic Initiative

Study of Four Classes(Bonk, Kirkley, Hara,
Dennen, 2001)
  • TechnicalTrain, early tasks, be flexible,
    orientation task
  • ManagerialInitial meeting, FAQs, detailed
    syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign
    e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates
  • PedagogicalPeer feedback, debates, PBL, cases,
    structured controversy, field reflections,
    portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios
  • SocialCafé, humor, interactivity, profiles,
    foreign guests, digital pics, conversations,

Technological Hat
  • Address tool/system familiarity
  • Require early assignment to test technology
  • Have orientation task, early training
  • Be flexible, smooth out problems
  • Plan, test, support

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Social Hat
  • Create community, set tone, motivate
  • Welcome, thank, invite, reinforce positives
  • Foster shared knowledge
  • Support humor and conversational tone
  • Use tools such as cafes, profiles, pictures
  • Invite to be candid

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Managerial Hat
  • Set agenda, timetable/calendar, assignment page
  • Set objectives, clear times, due dates,
  • Explain rules, assignments, intended audiences
  • Assign teams and coordinate meeting times
  • Monitor discussions and track logins
  • Provide weekly feedback and class updates
  • Manage gradebooks
  • Post grading rubrics

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Pedagogical Hat
  • Use PBL or inquiry environment
  • Refer to outside resources and experts
  • Coordinate student interaction, team
  • Assign roles, set goals, foster peer feedback
  • Ask probing questions, refocus, nudge, instruct
  • Scaffold, give advice, mentor
  • Weave, synthesize, link ideas, provide overviews
  • Know when to intervene and when to leave alone

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Review Four Key Instructor Hats
  • Technicaldo students have basics? Does their
    equipment work? Passwords work?
  • ManagerialDo students understand the assignments
    and course structure?
  • PedagogicalHow are students interacting,
    summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a
    human side to this course? Joking allowed?
  • Other firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor,
    conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor,
    facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge,
    marketer, assistant, etc.

How to Combine these Roles/Hats?
  • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role.
    Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting
    or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it
    means more than that. It is all roles
    combinedto hold meetings, to encourage, to
    provide information, to question, to summarize,
    etc. (Collins Berge, 1997 Gilly Salmon, 2000)
    see http//www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml.

Other Hats
  • Weaverlinking comments/threads
  • Tutorindividualized attention
  • Participantjoint learner
  • Provocateurstir the pot ( calm flames)
  • Observerwatch ideas and events unfold
  • Mentorpersonally apprentice students
  • Community Organizerkeep system going

Still More Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

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2. Questioning "What is the name of this
concept...?," "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,""What else might be
important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How
might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem
here...?," "How is this related to...?,, "Can
you justify this?"
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
Converting a Class to the Web
The First Week Dos and Donts
  • DONT
  • Count on students to be ready to go on day one
  • Start content-based work until everyone is ready
    to start
  • Communicate in a manner that you do not wish the
    learners to adopt
  • DO
  • Encourage introductions
  • Use icebreaker activities
  • Help learn the tool
  • State expectations up front
  • Allow buffer for late starters

Selecting Instructional Media
  • Determine, as best you can, the technology that
    learners will be using
  • Only use that media which will truly enhance the
    instruction (or, dont use media for medias
  • Make configuring computers (plug-ins, etc.) as
    easy as possible
  • Provide transcripts of media elements for
    learners without plug-ins or with slow connections

Assignment Guidelines
  • Be as explicit as possible regarding expectations
  • Provide a model whenever possible
  • State how to turn assignments in
  • Include file saving and uploading directions as
  • State when to turn in assignments (may need to
    include time zone)

Designing Discussion
  • Remember, discussion is a generic title given
    to a complex activity
  • Discussion can take on many formats
  • Discussion doesnt just happen -- it must be
    carefully designed and facilitated

Common Instructor Complaints
  • Students dont participate
  • Students all participate at the last minute
  • Students post messages but dont converse
  • Facilitation takes too much time
  • If they must be absent, the discussion dies off

More Reasons Why...
  • Students post messages but dont converse,
  • They must post a min of messages
  • They think the instructor wants to see how much
    they know
  • Not been taught to value conversation
  • They dont know how to have an online
  • Need modeling, good discussion prompts, clear
    expectations, multiple answers.

Redirect Off-Task Students
Dealing with Difficult Learners (Barbazette, Feb
  • Confront known disruptive participants and ask
    for help before the event
  • Know who question askers are and ask for their
    help before they interrupt
  • Ask direct questions of talkers and
  • Ask each person to make a summary of the learning
  • Acknowledge various pts of view.
  • thats an interesting question, how have you
    handled similar situations?
  • how do others of you view this issue?

Guide Behavior With Questions and Info
Reducing Online Problems or Disruptions
  • Ask yourself, why are they off task? Look at the
  • Do they value the assignment?
  • Are tasks relevant, challenging, current?
  • Are ideas valued and woven into the discussion?
  • Are you organized?
  • Are students in the right class or level?

What to do? Keep it Human Jennifer Hoffman,
Learning Circuits Jan. 2000. Judith Smith,
August, 2001 Clive Sheperd, Jan 2002)
  • Keep the learning process social
  • Design breaks
  • Have agenda or structure establish
  • Call on by first names
  • Point to role models, archives, or course alumni
  • Ask about interests
  • Include anecdotes and examples
  • Provide consistent feedback
  • Allow or foster learning communities

If cant control, then what to do?
  • Join up
  • Give up
  • Commit suicide
  • Find a new job
  • Protest e-learning

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Is it that simple?
There is a Problem
But How Avoid Shovelware???This form of
structure encourages teachers designing new
products to simply shovel existing resources
into on-line Web pages and discourages any
deliberate or intentional design of learning
strategy. (Oliver McLoughlin, 1999)
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How Bad Is It?
  • Some frustrated Blackboard users who say the
    company is too slow in responding to technical
    problems with its course-management software have
    formed an independent users group to help one
    another and to press the company to improve.
  • (Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher

Intrinsic Motivation
  • innate propensity to engage ones interests and
    exercise ones capabilities, and, in doing so, to
    seek out and master optimal challenges
  • (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings,
    and personal curiosity for growth)

See Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic
motivation and self-determination in human
behavior. NY Plenum Press.
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Motivational Terms?See Johnmarshall Reeve
(1996). Motivating Others Nurturing inner
motivational resources. Boston Allyn Bacon.
  1. Tone/Climate Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
  2. Feedback Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
  3. Engagement Effort, Involvement, Excitement
  4. Meaningfulness Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
  5. Choice Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
  6. Variety Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
  7. Curiosity Fun, Fantasy, Control
  8. Tension Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
  9. Interactive Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
  10. Goal Driven Product-Based, Success, Ownership

Encourage activities that motivate
thinking.(Sheinberg, April 2000, Learning
Tone/ClimateIce Breakers
  • A. Eight Nouns Activity
  • Introduce self using 8 nouns
  • Explain why choose each noun
  • Comment on 1-2 peer postings
  • B. Coffee House Expectations
  • Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
  • Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
    might be met
  • (or make public commitments of how they will fit
    into busy schedules!)

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1. Tone/ClimateIce Breakers
  • C. Favorite Web Site Have students post the URL
    of a favorite Web site or URL with personal
    information and explain why they choose that one.
  • D. Two Truths, One Lie
  • Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
  • Class votes on which is the lie
  • E. Chat Room Bud Create a discussion prompt in
    one of X number of chat rooms. Introduce
    yourself in the chat room that interests you.

1. Tone/ClimateIce Breakers
  • F. Storytelling Cartoon Time Find a Web site
    that has cartoons. Have participants link their
    introductionsor stories to a particular cartoon
    URL. Storytelling is a great way to communicate.
  • G. Public Commitments
  • Have students share how they will fit the
    coursework into their busy schedules.

2. FeedbackRequiring Peer Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • A. Require minimum of peer comments and give
    guidance (e.g., Read 3-4 articles and respond to
    3-4 peers)
  • B. Peer Feedback Through Templatesgive templates
    to complete peer evaluations.
  • C. Have e-papers contest(s)

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2. FeedbackD. Self-Testing and Self-Assessments
2. Feedback (Instructor)E. Reflective Writing
  • Alternatives
  • Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
  • PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
  • Summaries
  • Pros and Cons
  • Email instructor after class on what learned or
    failed to learn
  • (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23
  • October 2001, p. 18)

2. Feedback (Instructor)F. Anonymous Suggestion
  • George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and
    Electronics for Engineers
  • Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
    forms or email)
  • Submission box is password protected
  • Instructor decides how to respond
  • Then provide response and most or all of
    suggestion in online forum
  • It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor
    views, and justified actions publicly.
  • Caution If you are disturbed by criticism,
    perhaps do not use.

2. FeedbackG. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
  • Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to
    Management of Info Systems
  • Students take objective quiz (no time limit and
    not graded)
  • Submit answer for evaluation
  • Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz
    returns a compelling probing question, insight,
    or conflicting perspective (i.e., a counterpoint)
    to force students to reconsider original
  • Students must commit to a response but can use
    reference materials
  • Correct answer and explanation are presented

3. Engagement Questioning(Morten Flate Pausen,
1995 morten_at_nki.no)
  • A. Shot Gun Post many questions or articles to
    discuss and answer anystudent choice.
  • B. Hot Seat One student is selected to answer
    many questions from everyone in the class.

3. EngagementC. Annotations and Animations
MetaText (eBooks)
3. EngagementA. Electronic Voting and Polling
  • 1. Ask students to vote on issue before class
    (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
  • 2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
  • 3. Discuss with majority pt of view
  • 4. Repoll students after class
  • (Note B. Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique
    anonymous input till a due date
  • and then post results and
  • reconsider until consensus
  • Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

3. EngagementC. Survey Student Opinions (e.g.,
InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
4. Meaningfulness A. Perspective Taking Oral
History or Expert Interview
  • 1. Perspective sharing discussions Have learners
    relate the course material to a real-life
  • Example In a course on Technology Culture,
    students freely shared experiences of visiting
    grandparents on rural farms. The discussion led
    to a greater interest in the readings.

4. Meaningfulness B. Job or Field Reflections
  • 1. Field Definition Activity Have student
    interview (via e-mail, if necessary) someone
    working in the field of study and share their
  • As a class, pool interview results and develop a
    group description of what it means to be a
    professional in the field

4. MeaningfulnessC. Case Creation and
  • Model how to write a case
  • Practice answering cases.
  • Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field
  • Link to the text materialrelate to how how text
    author or instructor might solve.
  • Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
  • Summarize the discussion in their case.
  • Summarize discussion in a peer case.
  • (Note method akin to storytelling)

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4. Meaningfulness D. Perspective Taking
Foreign Languages
  • Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU and Jennifer
    Liu, East Asian Languages and Cultures at IU
  • Have students receive e-newsletters from a
    foreign magazine as well as respond to related
  • Students assume roles of those in literature from
    that culture and participate in real-time chats
    using assumed identity.

4. MeaningfulnessE. Authentic Data Analysis
  • Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins
    Components From CD to Web
  • A set of research qs and problems that
    archaeologists have posed about the site (a set
    of Web-based activities)
  • A complete set of data from the site and
    background info (multimedia data on sites from
    all regions and prehistoric time periods in
  • A set of methodologies and addl background info
    (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize and
    explore space/time dimensions)
  • Students work collaboratively to integrate
    multidisciplinary data interpret age of site
  • Interpret evidence for sites ancient
  • Analyze info on artifacts and fossils from the

5. ChoiceA. Multiple Topics
  • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask
    students to participate in 2 out of 3
  • Provide different discussion tracks (much like
    conference tracks) for students with different
    interests to choose among
  • List possible topics and have students vote
    (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
  • Have students list and vote.

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5. ChoiceB. Discussion Starter-Wrapper (Hara,
Bonk, Angeli, 2000)
  • Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and
    others participate and wrapper summarizes what
    was discussed.
  • Start-wrapper with roles--same as 1 but include
    roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's
  • Alternative Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
  • Instead of starting discussion, student acts as
    moderator or questioner to push student thinking
    and give feedback

6. VarietyA. Just-In-Time-Teaching or Syllabus
  • Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches
    teamwork, collaboration, and effective
  • Lectures are built around student answers to
    short quizzes that have an electronic due date
    just hours before class.
  • Instructor reads and summarizes responses before
    class and weaves them into discussion and changes
    the lecture as appropriate.

B. Variety The Virtual Classroom
  • Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
    Warehousing and Decision Support
  • Voice annotated slides on Web 7 course modules
    with a number of 15-30 minutes units
  • Biweekly QA chat sessions moderated by students
  • Bulletin Board class discussions
  • Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
  • Exam Qs posted to BB answers sent via email
  • Team projects posted in a team project space
  • Addl Web resources are structured for students
    (e.g., white papers, reports, project and product
    home pages)
  • Email is used to communicate with students

7. CuriosityA. Electronic Seance
  • Students read books from famous dead people
  • Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
  • Present present day problem for them to solve
  • Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
    read direct quotes from books or articles)
  • Invite expert guests from other campuses
  • Keep chat open for set time period
  • Debrief

7. Curiosity
  • B. Online Fun and Games
  • (see Thiagi.com
  • Or deepfun.com)
  • Puzzle games
  • Solve puzzle against timer
  • Learn concepts
  • Compete
  • Get points

7. Curiosity C. Electronic Guests Mentoring
  • Find article or topic that is controversial
  • Invite person associated with that article
    (perhaps based on student suggestions)
  • Hold real time chat
  • Pose questions
  • Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change
    their minds?)
  • (Alternatives Email Interviews with experts
  • Assignments with expert reviews)

D. Peer Questions Team Meeting Moderated
8. TensionRole Play
  • A. Role Play Personalities
  • List possible roles or personalities (e.g.,
    coach, optimist, devils advocate, etc.)
  • Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key
  • Reassign roles if someone drops class
  • Perform within rolesrefer to different
  • B. Assume Persona of Scholar
  • Enroll famous people in your course
  • Students assume voice of that person for one or
    more sessions
  • Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
  • Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to

8. Tension.C. Six Hats (from De Bono, 985
adopted for online learning by Karen Belfer,
2001, Ed Media)
  • White Hat Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
  • Red Hat Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage
  • Yellow Hat Positive, sunshine, optimistic
  • Black Hat Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
  • Green Hat New ideas, creativity, growth
  • Blue Hat Controls thinking process
  • Note technique used in a business info systems
    class where discussion got too predictable!

8. TensionD. Instructor Generated Virtual
Debate (or student generated)
  1. Select controversial topic (with input from
  2. Divide class into subtopic pairs one critic and
    one defender.
  3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
  4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
  5. Rebut person in ones pair
  6. Reply to 2 positions with comments or qs
  7. Formulate and post personal positions.

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9. Interactive A. Critical/Constructive
Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies
  • Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on
  • Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders
    of due dates, help where needed.
  • Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong
    and weak, whats missing, what hits the mark) as
    well as suggestions for strengthening.
  • In effect, critical friends do not slide over
    weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
  • Reflect on experience.

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9. InteractiveB. Symposia, Press Conference, or
Panel of Experts
  1. Find topic during semester that peaks interest
  2. Find students who tend to be more controversial
  3. Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme
  4. Have them prepare statements
  5. Invite questions from audience (rest of class)
  6. Assign panelists to start

(Alternative Have a series of press conferences
at the end of small group projects one for each
10. Goal DrivenA. Gallery Tours
  • Assign Topic or Project
  • (e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study
    Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers)
  • Students Post to Web
  • Experts Review and Rate
  • Try to Combine Projects

Motivational Top Ten
  • 1. Tone/Climate Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing
  • 2. Feedback Self-Tests, Reading Reactions
  • 3. Engagement Questioning, Polling, Voting
  • 4. Meaningfulness Job/Field Reflections, Cases
  • 5. Choice Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper
  • 6. Variety Brainstorming, Roundrobins
  • 7. Curiosity Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors
  • 8. Tension Role Play, Debates, Controversy
  • 9. Interactive E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels
  • 10. Goal Driven Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours

Pick One??? (circle one)
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