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ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY SIXTH GRADE SCIENCE

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ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY SIXTH GRADE SCIENCE Earth and Space Science An Overview of Objectives Ashley Allen Oneonta High School Students Will Identify global ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY SIXTH GRADE SCIENCE


1
ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY SIXTH GRADE SCIENCE
  • Earth and Space Science
  • An Overview of Objectives
  • Ashley Allen
  • Oneonta High School

2
Students Will
  • Identify global patterns of atmospheric movement,
    including El Niño, the Gulf Stream, the jet
    stream, the Coriolis effect, and global winds
    that influence local weather.
  • Predicting local weather and weather patterns
  • Examples cold and warm fronts, high and low
    pressure areas
  • Describing the function of instruments and
    technology used to investigate Earths weather,
    including barometers, thermometers, wind socks,
    weather vanes, satellites, radar, weather
    balloons, and rain gauges
  • Using lines of latitude and longitude to locate
    areas of specific weather events
  • Interpreting weather data through observations
    collected over time
  • Example calculating annual precipitation and
    average temperature

3
Global Patterns of Atmospheric Movement
  • El Nino is a warm ocean current that develops in
    the eastern Pacific and flows north along the
    western coast of South America.
  • El Nino can cause short-term weather changes that
    are noticed globally
  • El Nino is part of the El Nino Southern
    Oscillation (ENSO) patterns of wind and water
    currents and occurs every 3 to 10 years

4
El Nino
5
Global Patterns of Atmospheric Movement
  • Gulf stream is part of a world-wide conveyor of
    ocean current.
  • Warm water circulates through the Caribbean Sea
    and the Gulf of Mexico and then Northeast along
    the coast of North America
  • This current slows down in the North Atlantic and
    becomes the North Atlantic current
  • These warm water currents have a moderating
    effect on the climate of Ireland where palm trees
    may be found growing in a surprisingly high
    latitude

6
Gulf Stream
7
Global Patterns of Atmospheric Movement
  • Jet streams are narrow bands of high speed winds
    that blow in the upper troposphere and lower
    stratosphere.

8
Global Patterns of Atmospheric Movement
  • Trade winds are prevailing winds that blow from
    east to west from 30 latitude to the equator in
    both hemispheres.

9
Global Patterns of Atmospheric Movement
  • Coriolis effect is the curving of the path of
    oceans and winds due to the rotation of the Earth.

10
Investigating Weather
  • Thermometer is an instrument used to measure
    temperature the average kinetic energy of a
    substance.
  • Barometer is an instrument used to measure
    atmospheric pressure.
  • Weather balloons can be released into the
    atmosphere that carry a variety of instruments
    that can take direct readings and transmit those
    to stations on the ground.
  • A rain gauge is a simple device that measures the
    amount of rainfall.

11
Investigating Weather
  • Wind socks are large, conical, open-ended tubes
    that indicate wind direction and relative speed.
  • Weather vane (a.k.a. wind vane) is a device used
    to indicate wind direction.
  • Satellites are now an integral part of monitoring
    and predicting weather patterns.
  • Radar is a system that uses reflected radio waves
    to determine the location and velocity of objects
    including large droplets of water in the
    atmosphere.

12
Latitude and Longitude
  • Lines of latitude are parallel to one another and
    run east and west.
  • The equator is 0 latitude N and S note northern
    or southern hemisphere
  • Lines of longitude run north and south and are
    not parallel they are closer at the poles.
  • The prime meridian is considered 0 longitude and
    the international date line is 180 longitude
  • When traveling from the prime meridian, E and W
    note eastern hemisphere and western hemisphere
  • Each degree is broken down into 60 minutes and
    each minute is divided into 60 seconds.

13
Latitude and Longitude
14
Students Will
  • Describe factors that cause changes to Earths
    surface over time.
  • Examples earthquakes, volcanoes, weathering,
    erosion, glacial erosion or scouring, deposition,
    water flow, tornadoes, hurricanes, farming and
    conservation, mining and reclamation,
    deforestation and reforestation, waste disposal,
    global climate changes, greenhouse gases
  • Comparing constructive and destructive natural
    processes and their effects on land formations
  • Examples constructivevolcanic and
    mountain-building processes destructiveerosion
    by wind, water, and ice
  • Distinguishing rock strata by geologic
    composition
  • Examples predicting relative age of strata by
    fossil depth, predicting occurrence of natural
    events by rock composition in a particular strata

15
Dynamic Earth
  • The Earths surface is constantly changing
    through time by the action of a number of agents.
  • Geological agents of change may be sudden such as
    an earthquake or volcanic eruption or gradual
    such as the erosion of mountain ranges and
    deposition of sediments in large basins
  • Meteorological agents of change can involve large
    areas of land affected by a changing climate or
    smaller regions scarred by hurricane or tornadoes
  • Anthropogenic (man-made) agents of change such as
    deforestation, agriculture, and mining are an
    increasingly powerful force of change on Earth

16
Evidence of a Dynamic Earth in Alabama
  • The fossil record shows a variety of environments
    in Alabama such as coral reefs in Colbert County,
    barrier islands with channels in Montgomery
    County, and tropical forests of Walker County.
  • Pollen samples taken from core samples in bogs
    show change over the past few thousand years even
    in the vegetation of Alabama.
  • Drill cores taken show evidence of an arid, hot
    Alabama in which evaporites were forming.
  • Atmospheric studies show increases in CO2 and
    ozone depletion over time.

17
Constructive and Destructive Natural Processes
  • Constructive forces of nature are best
    illustrated in the convergent plate boundaries
    where orogenies (mountain building episodes) take
    place and in hot spots where volcanic activity
    produces new land mass.
  • Examples.
  • Continent-continent collision Himalayas
  • Continent-ocean collision Andes
  • Ocean-ocean collision Aleutians
  • Hot spots Hawaii and Surtsey

18
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19
Constructive and Destructive Natural Processes
  • Destructive forces of nature can be illustrated
    best by the power of weathering and erosion.
  • Both physical and chemical weathering of surface
    materials takes place at variable rates.

20
Rock Strata
  • The law of original horizontality states that
    sedimentary rock strata were initially formed in
    horizontal layers as sedimentation occurred.
  • The law of superposition states that the deeper
    one goes in a sequence of sedimentary strata, the
    older the rocks.
  • The law of faunal succession states that the
    younger the fossil assemblage, the more similar
    the forms will be to modern forms in a similar
    environment.

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22
Students Will
  • Describe water and carbon biogeochemical cycles
    and their effects on Earth.

23
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24
The Carbon Cycle
25
Students Will
  • Explain the plate tectonic theory.
  • Example using terminology such as continental
    drift, seafloor spreading, lava, magma, eruption,
    epicenter, focus, seismic wave, and subduction
    zone
  • Describing types of volcanoes and faults
  • Determining energy release through seismographic
    data
  • Example using data from the Mercalli scale and
    the Richter scale

26
Tectonic Theory
  • Alfred Wegener proposed continental drift, but
    could not explain how continents moved over time.
  • Harry Hess used sonar and satellite data to
    investigate seafloor spreading and was then able
    to synthesize modern tectonic theory from
    Wegeners continental drift and the new data for
    seafloor spreading.
  • The Earths crust is made of many rigid plates
    resting somewhat buoyantly on the molten layers
    of magma within the Earth.

27
Tectonic Plates of the Earth
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31
Types of Volcanoes and Faults
  • Volcanoes
  • Shield Volcanoes are large at the base with
    gently sloping sides and eruptions are generally
    smooth lava flows
  • Cinder Cones much smaller with very steep sides
    and violent eruptions
  • Composite Volcanoes are made of alternating
    layers of hardened lava flows and pyroclastic
    material and can explode violently
  • Faults
  • Normal fault occurs when the hanging wall slips
    down relative to the foot wall due to tension
  • Reverse fault occurs when the hanging wall is
    forced up above the footwall due to compression
  • Strike-slip fault occurs when there is lateral
    movement

32
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33
Alfred Wegener (above) and Harry Hess (below)
34
The Mercalli scale goes from I to XII and
measures the destruction caused by the earthquake.
The Richter scale goes from 1 to 10 and measures
the energy released at the focus. An earthquake
of 6 releases 10 time the energy of an earthquake
of 5 an earthquake of 7 would release 100 times
the energy of the earthquake of 5.
35
Students Will
  • Describe layers of the oceanic hydrosphere,
    including the pelagic zone, benthic zone, abyssal
    zone, and intertidal zone.

36
The Hydrosphere
  • The distribution of marine life within the zones
    of the ocean is determined by amount of sunlight,
    water temperature, and pressure.
  • Benthic zone is the bottom region of a body of
    water.
  • Pelagic zone is the region of an ocean (or
    freshwater) that is above the benthic zone and
    may be divided into different categories
    according to depth.
  • Intertidal zone is the area between the highest
    high-tide and the lowest low-tide.

37
The Hydrosphere
  • The sublitoral zone is the continuously submerged
    zone located on the continental shelves and is
    heavily populated with marine life.
  • The bathyal zone begins at the continental slope
    and extends to a depth of about 4,000 m.
  • Abyssal zone occurs at a depth of 4,000 to 6,000
    meters and no sunlight penetrates.
  • Hadal zone is composed of areas deeper than 6,000
    m in depth and usually confined to ocean
    trenches.

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40
Students Will
  • Describe regions of the oceanic lithosphere,
    including the continental shelf, continental
    slope, and abyssal plain.

41
Oceanic Lithosphere
  • Oceanic lithosphere (mostly basalt) is denser and
    thinner than continental crust (mostly granite).
  • The continental shelf is the part of the
    continent that is covered by ocean and usually
    slopes gently (about 0.12 m every 100 m).
  • The continental slope is the steep slope on the
    seaward edge of a continental shelf.
  • The boundary between the continental crust and
    the oceanic crust is found at the base of the
    continental slope
  • The abyssal planes are large, flat areas (lt3m
    change over 1300 km) where the ocean is more than
    4 km deep.

42
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43
Students Will
  • Describe Earths biomes.
  • Examples aquatic biomes, grasslands, deserts,
    chaparrals, taigas, tundras
  • Identifying geographic factors that cause
    diversity in flora and fauna, including
    elevation, location, and climate

44
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45
Students Will
  • Describe how Earths rotation, Earths axial
    tilt, and distance from the equator cause
    variations in the heating and cooling of various
    locations on Earth.

46
Seasons
47
Students Will
  • Identify the moons phases.
  • Describing lunar and solar eclipses
  • Relating effects of the moons positions on
    oceanic tides

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50
Students Will
  • Describe components of the universe and their
    relationships to each other, including stars,
    planets and their moons, solar systems, and
    galaxies.
  • Identifying the impact of space exploration on
    innovations in technology
  • Examples MRI, microwave, satellite imagery, GPS
  • Mapping seasonal changes in locations of
    constellations in the night sky
  • Describing the life cycle of a star
  • Example H-R diagram

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53
Students Will
  • Describe units used to measure distance in space,
    including astronomical units and light years.

54
Astronomical Measurements
  • An astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance
    between the Earth and the Sun.
  • An astronomical unit is 149,597,870.66 km or
    about 1.5 x 108 km.
  • The speed of light is also used to express
    distance in astronomy.
  • A light-year is the distance traveled by light
    (in a vacuum) during one year, which is about
    300,000,000 m/s or 9.4607 x 1012 km in a year.
  • The closest star (other than the Sun) to the
    Earth is 4.2 light years away.

55
References
  • El Nino - http//www.meteo.physik.uni-muenchen.de/
    crewell/vorles/FE_vorles/fe_ozean_Dateien?DA
  • El Nino Ocean Thermograph - http//www.srh.noaa.go
    v/mlb/digest/issue20
  • Gulf Stream - http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explor
    ations/03titanic/rusticles/rusticles.htmlhttp//oc
    eanex/explorations/03bump/background/geology/media
    /charlestongyre_600.jpg
  • Ocean Conveyor - http//www.canadiangeographic.ca/
    Magazine/mj04/alacarte.asp?frommaps

56
References
  • Jet Stream Cross Section - http//www.srh.noaa.gov
    /jetstream/global/jet.htm
  • Jet Stream Global View - http//rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/
    Sect14/Sect14_1c.html
  • Trade Winds - http//www.satellites.co.uk/php-bin/
    forum/showthread.php?t43519
  • Coriolis Effect - http//uregina.ca/sauchyn/geog2
    21/atmos.html

57
References
  • Mobile Bay - http//www.worldhistory.com/wiki/M/Mo
    bile-Bay.htm
  • Latitude and Longitude - http//www.lakelandsd.com
    /tutorial/instructions.html
  • Island Arc Illustration - http//www.geol.ucsb.edu
    /faculty/hacker/geo102C/lectures/part13.html
  • Surtsey - http//earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroo
    m/NewImages/images.php3?img_id16551

58
References
  • Mt. Everest - http//www.kirdkao.org/education/res
    ource?CMOD
  • Soil Erosion - http//coweeta.ecology.uga.edu/cowe
    eta_photographs/erosion.htm
  • Law of Superposition - http//www.calstatela.edu/f
    aculty/acolvil/geo_time.html
  • Law of Faunal Succession - http//imnh.isu.edu/geo
    _time/geo_principles.htm

59
References
  • Hydrologic Cycle - http//www.ncar.ucar.edu/eo/bas
    ics/wx_1_c.html
  • Carbon Cycle - http//prome.snu.ac.kr/ohrora/gis/
    rs/Sect16/nicktutor_16-4.html
  • Pelagic Zones - http//web2k.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/jeffm
    s/schnably/3/2/ocean_habitat.htm
  • Ocean Zonation - http//www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/oc
    eans/introduction/zonation/zonation.htm

60
References
  • Mantle Convection - http//www.gly.fsu.edu/salter
    s/GLY1000/Chapter3/Chapter3_index.html
  • Tectonic Plates http//www2.nature.nps.gov/geolo
    gy/usgsnps/pltec/pltec2.html
  • Convergent Boundaries - http//earth.geol.ksu.edu/
    sgao/g100/plots
  • Divergent Boundaries - http//teachers.sduhsd.k12.
    ca.us/hherms/herms/GEOLOGY/boundaries/divergent_bo
    undary.htm

61
References
  • Continental Slope - http//www.harcourtschool.com/
    scienceglossary/define/gr6/cont_slope6c.html
  • Transform Boundary - http//www.gly.fsu.edu/salte
    rs/GLY1000/Chapter5/5Plate_Tectonics_index.html
  • Types of Volcanoes - http//www.geo.umn.edu/course
    s/3003/syllabus.htm
  • Types of Faults - http//3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/h
    ighlands/highlands.html

62
References
  • Alfred Wegener - http//www.stchas.edu/faculty/ewi
    lson/Photos/Plates
  • Harry Hess - http//www.websamba.com/biogeo1/tecto
    2.html
  • Mercalli and Richter Scale Comparison -
    http//imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/teach/chart.htm
  • Seismic Waves - http//www.vims.edu/physical/ms330
    /class330.htm

63
References
  • Ocean Floor - http//140.112.68.243/chap2/chap2.ht
    m
  • Earths Biomes - http//www.biologycorner.com/bio4
    /notes/biomes.php
  • Earths Seasons - http//oz.plymouth.edu/sci_ed/T
    urski/Courses/Astronomy/Notes/Chap.1.NightSky.html
  • Moon Phases - http//oz.plymouth.edu/sci_ed/Tursk
    i/Courses/Astronomy/Notes/Chap.1.NightSky.html

64
References
  • Moon and Tides - http//www.thehopewellrocks.ca/en
    glish/fundytides2.h
  • Lunar Eclipse - http//csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161
    /lect/time?CM3BOA
  • Solar Eclipse - http//csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161
    /lect/time?CM3BOA
  • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram - http//www.astro.vir
    ginia.edu/mnc3z/astro124.html

65
References
  • Galaxies - http//www.naasbeginners.freeuk.com/Abs
    oluteBeginners/Clusters_and_Galaxies.htm
  • Moon Phases - http//oz.plymouth.edu/sci_ed/Tursk
    i/Courses/Astronomy/Notes/Chap.1.NightSky.html
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