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I. Cold War (1945-1991)

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I. Cold War (1945-1991)-WWII? KABOOM!-Arms Race began in 1945 Soviet Influence: USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) took control of many Eastern European ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: I. Cold War (1945-1991)


1
I. Cold War (1945-1991)
  • -WWII?
  • KABOOM!
  • -Arms Race
  • began in 1945

2
Soviet Influence
  • USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) took
    control of many Eastern European countriesbehind
    the Iron Curtain.

3
  • Truman Doctrine (1947)U.S. provided aid to
    Greece Turkey to prevent Soviet takeover (both
    jointed NATO in 1952)
  • Marshall Plan (1947-1951)
  • U.S. gave 13 billion to rebuild Europe
  • COMECON
  • Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

4
  • U.S. containment policy (1950s) to prevent
    communism from spreading any further!
  • COLD WAR
  • The struggle between the U.S. USSR
    following WWII that was determined by their
    differing political systems (democracy vs.
    totalitarianism), differing economic systems
    (capitalist system of free enterprise vs.
    communist system of govt.-owned directed means
    of production)political conflict w/no open
    warfare

5
  • Berlin Airlift
  • Soviets tried to force W. Allies out of Berlin
  • Allies airlifted/dropped food/supplies into
    Berlin
  • Allies determined to oppose Soviets extension of
    control

6
  • NATO (1949)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization mutual
    defense pact between Western allies.
  • Warsaw Pact
  • mutual defense pact between USSR nations of
    Eastern Europe.

7
Whos who
8
Indirect Conflicts (proxy wars)
  • 1) Korean War (1950 1953)
  • 2) Vietnam War (1964 1975)
  • 3) Afghanistan (1979 1989)

9
  • 1960Soviets shot down U2 spy plane
  • Francis Gary Powers
  • 1961Berlin Wall (to keep E. Germans in)
  • 1962Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Closest we came to nuclear war!

10
The Nuclear Arms Space Race
  • 1952- U.S. detonated H-bomb
  • 1953- Russians produce H-bomb
  • 1957- Soviets launched Sputnik
  • ICBMs Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile
  • MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)

11
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12
  • 1960s Space Race
  • Yuri Gagarin (1961)first man in space
  • Neil Armstrong (1969)first man on the moon

13
  • Early 1980s Reagan era in U.S.
  • --Most tense times of Cold War since Cuba
  • Soviet downing of S. Korean airliner
  • U.S. invasion of Grenada
  • Boycotting of Olympics (US 80, USSR 84)
  • Soviet support of Sandinistas in Nicaragua
  • 1981 US had 8,000 ICBMs USSR had 7,000
  • US defense spending (1981) 178 billion
  • (1986) 367 billion

14
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15
The Gradual Fall of the USSR
  • 1960s USSR economy was struggling
  • Conflict in Middle East caused oil prices to soar
  • 1973-74 Oil Embargo oil prices rose
  • 1979 Oil Crisis
  • USSR imported more food, consumer goods,
    developed oil/natural gas
  • DID NOT DEVELOP REAL INDUSTRY!
  • 1986 global oil prices fell 46

16
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17
The Iron Curtain falls!
  • Development of military technology space
    exploration left little for consumer goods
    human services in the USSR.
  • --could not give aid to poorer satellite
    nations of E. Europe
  • Ronald Reagans speech at
  • Brandenburg Gate, West Germany,
  • June 12, 1987

18
  • Mikhail Gorbechev (1985) Pres. of Soviet Union
  • sought reconciliation betw. U.S. USSR
  • perestroika restructuring the economy
    govt. (to become more Western)
  • glasnost openness discussion of political
    social issuesmove towards democracy

19
  • Late 1980s early 1990s one by one, eastern
    Euro. countries were granted self-determinationco
    llapse of Warsaw Pact
  • 1989 Berlin Wall falls
  • 1990 Germany is reunited
  • 1991 Soviet Union collapses Cold War is over!
  • USSR broke into 15 independent republics
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