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EE 6332, Spring, 2014 Wireless Telecommunication Systems

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EE 6332, Spring, 2014 Wireless Telecommunication Systems Zhu Han Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Class 1 Jan. 13rd, 2014 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EE 6332, Spring, 2014 Wireless Telecommunication Systems


1
EE 6332, Spring, 2014Wireless Telecommunication
Systems
  • Zhu Han
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • Class 1
  • Jan. 13rd, 2014

2
Outline
  • Instructor information
  • Motivation to study wireless communications and
    networks
  • Course descriptions and textbooks
  • What you will study from this course
  • Objectives
  • Coverage and schedule
  • Homework, projects, and exams
  • Other policies
  • Reasons to be my students
  • Introduction to wireless networks

3
Instructor Information
  • Office location Engineering Building II W302
  • Office hours Mon. 100pm - 400pm, or by
    appointment
  • Email zhan2_at_uh.edu hanzhu22_at_gmail.com
  • Phone 713-743-4437(o) /301-996-2011(c)
  • Course website
  • http//www2.egr.uh.edu/zhan2/ECE6332
  • TA ???
  • Research interests
  • Wireless Networking, Signal Processing and
    Security
  • http//wireless.egr.uh.edu/

4
Motivations
  • Recent Development
  • Cellular system 3G, 4G, video, game,
  • WIFI everywhere
  • WIMAX, next generation metropolitan web for
    business
  • UWB, no cables
  • Bluetooth, small devices connections
  • Job Market
  • Probably one of most easy and high paid majors
    recently
  • Many companies in town or Dallas/Austin
  • Research Potential
  • One-to-one communication has less room to go, but
    multiuser communication is still an open issue.

5
Course Objective
  • Past decade has seen a surge of research
    activities in the field of wireless
    communication.
  • Emerging from this research thrust are new points
    of view on how to communicate effectively over
    wireless channels.
  • The goal of this course is to study in a unified
    way the fundamentals as well as the new research
    developments.
  • The concepts are illustrated using examples from
    several modern wireless systems (GSM, IS-95, CDMA
    2000 1x EV-DO, Flarion's Flash OFDM, ArrayComm
    systems.)

6
Course Descriptions
  • What is the wireless communication system?
  • What are the wireless channels?
  • What are the theorems?
  • What are the major components and techniques?
  • How is the information transmitted?
  • What are the current industrial standards?
  • What are the state-of-art research?
  • Can I find a job by studying this course?
  • Can I find research topics?

7
Textbook and Software
  • Require textbook
  • Andrea Goldsmith, Wireless Communication.
    Cambridge Univ. Press 2005.
  • Optional testbook
  • David Tse and Pramod Viswanath, Fundamentals of
    Wireless Communication. Cambridge University
    Press, 2005
  • Require Software MATLAB
  • Recommended readings
  • Digital communications J. Proakis, Digital
    Communications
  • Random process G.R. Grimmett and D.R. Stirzaker,
    Probability and Random Processes
  • Estimation and detection H.V. Poor, An
    introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation
  • Information theory T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas,
    Elements of Information Theory
  • Error correct coding P.Sweeney, Error Control
    Coding
  • Computer Networks A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer
    Networks

8
Schedule
  • Overview
  • Wireless Channel
  • Capacity (important, black board)
  • Digital Modulation
  • Coding (important black board)
  • Adaptive modulation and coding
  • Diversity and MIMO
  • Equalization
  • OFDM
  • CDMA
  • Wireless Networking
  • Slides and black board
  • For unimportant chapters, might not fully follow
    the book.

9
Homework, Project, and Exam
  • Homework
  • 34 sets
  • Rules 50 off if late. 0 is 2 week late
  • Exams
  • Two exams
  • Team Project
  • 23 people, related topics, presentation, and
    term paper
  • Schedule next week
  • Participations
  • Attendance and Feedback
  • Invited Talks for 2 missing class due to
    conference
  • Votes for the percentages for homework, projects,
    and exams

10
Teaching Styles
  • black board plus Slides
  • Slides can convey more information in an
    organized way
  • Blackboard is better for equations and prevents
    you from not coming.
  • A lesson from last semester math
  • Course Website
  • Print handouts with 3 slides per page before you
    come
  • Homework assignment and solutions
  • Project descriptions and preliminary codes
  • Feedback
  • Too fast, too slow, small class advantages.
  • Presentation, English,

11
Other Policies
  • Any violation of academic integrity will receive
    academic and
  • possibly disciplinary sanctions, including the
    possible awarding
  • of an XF grade which is recorded on the
    transcript and states that
  • failure of the course was due to an act of
    academic dishonesty.
  • All acts of academic dishonesty are recorded so
    repeat offenders
  • can be sanctioned accordingly.
  • CHEATING
  • COPYING ON A TEST
  • PLAGIARISM
  • ACTS OF AIDING OR ABETTING
  • UNAUTHORIZED POSSESSION
  • SUBMITTING PREVIOUS WORK
  • TAMPERING WITH WORK
  • GHOSTING or MISREPRESENTATION
  • ALTERING EXAMS
  • COMPUTER THEFT

12
Reasons to be my students
  • Wireless Communication and Networking have great
    market
  • Usually highly paid and have potential to retire
    overnight
  • Highly interdisciplinary
  • Do not need to find research topics which are the
    most difficult part.
  • Research Assistant, Stipend
  • Free trips to conferences in China, Hawaii,
    Europe, Australia, South Africa, Miami
  • A kind of nice (at least looks like)
  • Work with hope and happiness
  • Graduate fast

13
Questions? Chapter 1 Introduction
14
History of Telecommunication
  • Prehistoric Fires, Beacons, Smoke signals
  • 6th century BC Mail
  • 5th century BC Pigeon post
  • 4th century BC Hydraulic semaphores
  • 490 BC Heliographs
  • 15th century AD Maritime flags
  • 1790 AD Semaphore lines
  • 19th century AD Signal lamps

15
History of Telecommunication
  • Audio signals
  • Prehistoric Communication drums, Horns
  • 1838 AD Electrical telegraph. See Telegraph
    history.
  • 1876 Telephone. See Invention of the telephone,
    History of the telephone, Timeline of the
    telephone
  • 1880 Photophone
  • 1896 Radio. See History of radio.
  • Advanced electrical/electronic signals
  • 1927 Television. See History of television
  • 1930 Videophone
  • 1964 Fiber optical telecommunications
  • 1969 Computer networking
  • 1981 Analog cellular mobile phones
  • 1982 SMTP email
  • 1983 Internet. See History of Internet
  • 1998 Satellite phones

16
At Home
17
At Home
Source http//teacher.scholastic.com/activities/s
cience/wireless_interactives.htm
18
At Home Last-Mile
  • Many users still dont have broadband
  • reasons out of service area some consider
    expensive
  • Broadband speed is still limited
  • DSL 1-6 Mbps download, and 100-768Kbps upload
  • Cable modem depends on your neighbors
  • Insufficient for several applications (e.g.,
    high-quality video streaming)

19
On the Move
Source http//www.ece.uah.edu/jovanov/whrms/
20
On the Move Context-Aware
Source http//www.cs.cmu.edu/aura/docdir/sensay_
iswc.pdf
21
On the Road
GSM/UMTS, cdmaOne/cdma2000,WLAN, GPS DAB,
TETRA, ...
ad hoc
road condition, weather, location-based
services, emergency
22
Example IntelliDrive (Vehicle Infrastructure
Integration)
  • Traffic crashes resulted in more than 41,000
    lives lost in 2007
  • Establishing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V),
    vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and
    vehicle-to-hand-held-devices (V2D) communications
  • safety e.g., intersection collision
    avoidance/violation warning/turn conflict
    warning, curve warning
  • mobility e.g., crash data, weather/road surface
    data, construction zones, emergency vehicle
    signal pre-emption

More info http//www.its.dot.gov/intellidrive/ind
ex.htm
23
Collision Avoidance V2V Networks
  • bland spots
  • stalled vehicle warning

http//www.gm.com/company/gmability/safety/news_is
sues/releases/sixthsense_102405.html
24
Collision Avoidance at Intersections
  • Two million accidents at intersections per year
    in US

Source http//www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/
its/ruralitsandrd/tb-intercollision.pdf
25
Mobile and Wireless Services Always Best
Connected
LAN 100 Mbit/s, WLAN 54 Mbit/s
UMTS Rel. 5 400 kbit/s
GSM 53 kbit/s Bluetooth 500 kbit/s
LAN, WLAN 780 kbit/s
UMTS, DECT 2 Mbit/s
GSM/EDGE 135 kbit/s, WLAN 780 kbit/s
UMTS Rel. 6 400 kbit/s
GSM 115 kbit/s, WLAN 11 Mbit/s
26
Disaster Recovery/Military
  • 9/11, Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, South Asian
    earthquake
  • Wireless communication andmobile computing
    capabilitycan make a difference between life
    and death !
  • rapid deployment
  • efficient resource and energy usage
  • flexible unicast, broadcast, multicast, anycast
  • resilient survive in unfavorable and untrusted
    environments

http//www.att.com/ndr/
27
Habitat Monitoring Example on Great Duck Island
A 15-minute human visit leads to 20 offspring
mortality
28
Challenge 1 Unreliable and Unpredictable
Wireless Coverage
  • Wireless links are not reliable they may vary
    over time and space

What Robert Poor (Ember) calls The good, the
bad and the ugly
29
Challenge 2 Open Wireless Medium
  • Wireless interference
  • Hidden terminals and
  • Exposed terminal
  • Wireless security
  • eavesdropping, denial of service,

R1
S1
S2
R1
S1
R1
R2
R1
S1
S2
R2
30
Challenge 3 Mobility
  • Mobility causes poor-quality wireless links
  • Mobility causes intermittent connection
  • under intermittent connected networks,
    traditional routing, TCP, applications all break
  • Mobility changes context, e.g., location

31
Challenge 4 Portability
  • Limited battery power
  • Limited processing, display and storage
  • Laptop
  • fully functional
  • standard applications
  • battery 802.11
  • Mobile phones
  • voice, data
  • simple graphical displays
  • GSM/3G

Performance/Weight/Power Consumption
32
Challenge 5 Changing Regulation and Multiple
Communication Standards
wireless LAN
cordlessphones
cellular phones
satellites
1980CT0
1981 NMT 450
1982 Inmarsat-A
1983 AMPS
1984CT1
1986 NMT 900
1987CT1
1988 Inmarsat-C
1989 CT 2
1991 DECT
1991 D-AMPS
1991 CDMA
199x proprietary
1992 GSM
1992 Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M
1993 PDC
1997 IEEE 802.11
1994DCS 1800
1998 Iridium
1999 802.11b, Bluetooth
2000GPRS
2000 IEEE 802.11a
analogue
2001 IMT-2000
digital
Fourth Generation (Internet based)
33
Wireless Technologies
WAN (Wide Area Network)
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
LAN (Local Area Network)
PAN (Personal Area Network)
PAN LAN MAN WAN
Standards Bluetooth/UWB802.15.3 802.11 802.11802.16802.20 GSM, CDMA, Satellite
Speed Bluetooth lt 1 Mbps UWB lt480Mbps b 11 to g 54 Mbps 10-100 Mbps 10 Kbps2 Mbps
Range Short Medium Medium-Long Long
Applications Peer-to-PeerDevice-to-Device Enterprise Networks Last Mile Access Mobile Data Devices
34
Evolution of Mobile Systems to 4G
35
Mobile Station
  • MP3, GPS, vending machine UMPC

36
Base Station
Cheaper, denser, smaller
37
WMAN/WiMax Structure
  • Replace cable or low speed fiber in the last mile

38
Comparison of 802.11 Standards
  • g is back compatible with b. but b is supported
    by Intel
  • CDMA vs. OFDM
  • Free WIFI in SF
  • Contention based multiple access
  • 802.11AC

39
Personal Area Networks
  • 802.15 4m-10m
  • Master-slave piconets
  • Capable of connecting a mix of multiple piconets
    into scatternet
  • Service discovery protocol allows invisible
    interaction of various trusted devices
  • Less susceptible to interference

40
Bluetooth
  • Wireless PAN
  • 2.4GHz band with 1Mbps speed
  • Spread spectrum frequency-hopping
  • always on user-transparent cable-replacement
  • Combination of packet-switching
    circuit-switching (good for data voice)
  • 3 voice channels - 64Kbps each
  • Low power, low cost
  • Transparently connects office devices
  • Laptop, Desktop, PDA, Phone, printer
  • Bridging capability network-pda-phone
  • Zigbee low power devices

41
Ultra Wide Band
  • High speed at short range
  • 480 Mb/s at 3m. Does not penetrate walls
  • Bandwidth
  • gt500MHz
  • Very low power
  • density
  • Wireless USB
  • HDTV connection
  • CDMA vs. OFDM

42
Comparison
  • Speed and Range

43
Ad Hoc Network
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
  • An autonomous collection of mobile users that
    communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained
    wireless links.
  • Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology
    may change rapidly and unpredictably over time.
  • The network is decentralized, where all network
    activity including discovering the topology and
    delivering messages must be executed by the nodes
    themselves. MANETs need efficient distributed
    algorithms to determine network organization,
    link scheduling, and routing.
  • The set of applications for MANETs is
    heterogeneous, ranging from small, static
    networks that are constrained by power sources,
    to large-scale, mobile, highly dynamic networks
  • In a military environment, preservation of
    security, latency, reliability, intentional
    jamming, and recovery from failure are
    significant concerns

44
MANET Examples
  • Ad hoc mode of WIFI
  • Military
  • Infrastructure-less

45
Wireless Sensor Networks
46
Cognitive Radio
  • Software radio
  • Can change modulation
  • carrier frequency to
  • different service
  • providers
  • Cognitive radio
  • with cognitive
  • ability

47
The Layered Reference Model
Application
Application
Transport
Transport
Network
Network
Data Link
Data Link
Data Link
Data Link
Physical
Physical
Physical
Physical
Medium
Radio
Often we need to implement a function across
multiple layers.
48
GPS Orbits
49
GPS Position
  • By knowing how far one is from three satellites
    one can ideally find their 3D coordinates
  • To correct for clock errors one needs to receive
    four satellites
  • Differential GPS local FM

50
Type of waves
51
Radio Frequency Bands
Classification Band Initials Frequency Range Characteristics
Extremely low ELF lt 300 Hz Ground wave
Infra low ILF 300 Hz - 3 kHz Ground wave
Very low VLF 3 kHz - 30 kHz Ground wave
Low LF 30 kHz - 300 kHz Ground wave
Medium MF 300 kHz - 3 MHz Ground/Sky wave
High HF 3 MHz - 30 MHz Sky wave
Very high VHF 30 MHz - 300 MHz Space wave
Ultra high UHF 300 MHz - 3 GHz Space wave
Super high SHF 3 GHz - 30 GHz Space wave
Extremely high EHF 30 GHz - 300 GHz Space wave
Tremendously high THF 300 GHz - 3000 GHz Space wave
52
Satellite Communications
  • Large communication area. Any two places within
    the coverage of radio transmission by satellite
    can communicate with each other.  
  • Seldom effected by land disaster ( high
    reliability)
  • Circuit can be started upon establishing earth
    station (prompt circuit starting)
  • Can be received at many places simultaneously,
    and realize broadcast, multi-access communication
    economically( feature of multi-access)
  • Very flexible circuit installment , can disperse
    over-centralized traffic at any time.
  • One channel can be used in different directions
    or areas (multi-access connecting).

53
Rain Attenuation
54
Channel, Bandwidth, Spectrum
  • Bandwidth the number of bits per second is
    proportional to B
  • http//www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.pdf
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