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Coffee Plant (Coffea arabica)

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Authorized User Last modified by: mcdowellr Created Date: 11/28/2006 12:57:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coffee Plant (Coffea arabica)


1
Coffee Plant (Coffea arabica)
The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen
dicotyledon that belongs to the Rubiaceae
family. 
Coffea arabica known as Arabica coffee accounts
for 75-80 of the world's production. 
The coffee plant can grow to heights of 10
meters if not pruned, but producing countries
will maintain the coffee at a height reasonable
for easy harvesting.
2
For Arabica coffee there are two optimal growing
climates
  • The subtropical regions, at latitudes of
  • 16-24.  Rainy and dry seasons must be well
  • defined, and altitude must be between
  • 1800-3600 feet. 


2. The equatorial regions at latitudes lower than
10 and altitudes of 3600-6300 feet.  Frequent
rainfall causes almost continuous flowering,
which results in two harvesting seasons. 

3
Coffee Growing Regions Worldwide
4
Germinating Coffee Seeds
Coffee Seedlings
5
Coffee fruit, both ripe (red) and unripe
(green).
6
A Typical Sun Coffee Plantation
7
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8
Ecological Consequences of Coffee Farming
Typical coffee plantations are often
monocultures of coffee plants.
These plantations are designed with the idea
that the maximum number of plants will maximize
the production of coffee beans/acre of ground.
Because they are monocultures, they are
very devastating to the ecosystem. There is
virtually no diversity or good habitat for
animals.
9
Sun coffee requires large amounts of weed killers
and other pesticides because they need to be
maintained as a monoculture.
The rainforest naturally wants to revert back
to its natural state, so expensive treatments
are needed to keep it from going through its
pattern of ecological succession.
10
Shade Coffee An Environmental Solution
The coffee plant evolved in Africa under the
rainforest canopy and grows best in the shade.
A traditional coffee farm can provide habitat to
varied birds, mammals, reptiles and
amphibians, insects, trees and flowering plants.
About 200 different species of birds are known as
neotropical migrants, breeding in the habitat
and backyards of North America and migrating
south to Mexico, Central and South America, and
the Caribbean Islands for the winter.
11
Shade Coffee Plantations
Recently Planted 7-8 Years Old (2-3
years)
12
The entire hill in the background is part of a
shade coffee plantation.
13
The Baltimore Oriole, Painted Bunting, and
Yellow Warbler. Just three of many birds that
Find vital habitat in shade Coffee plantations.
14
An estimated 25 million people grow coffee, most
of them on small plots of land. Many, perhaps
most, smallholders are organic farmers by
tradition, in part because they could never
afford to purchase pesticides or fertilizers.
Consumers and CoffeeHow can we coffee lovers
know if the beans we drink come from farms that
are environmentally friendly and socially
responsible?
15
The only way to know for sure is to seek out
credible labels such as Rainforest Alliance
Certified, which guarantees that farms are on
the path toward true sustainability, and
qualified organic labels, which guarantee that
farms are not using harmful pesticides and
fertilizers.
Savoring a cup of certified sustainable coffee
can improve livelihoods for farm families and
conserve wildlife and tropical ecosystems - a
rare "win-win" opportunity.
16
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