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Chapter 21 Global Climate Change

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Reviewer Last modified by: Valcarcel, Anna Created Date: 5/22/2007 2:17:14 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 21 Global Climate Change


1
Chapter 21Global Climate Change
2
Climate Change Terminology
  • Greenhouse Gas
  • Gas that absorbs infrared radiation
  • Positive Feedback
  • Change in some condition triggers a response that
    intensifies the changed condition
  • Infrared Radiation
  • Radiation that has a wavelength that is longer
    than that of visible light, but shorter than that
    of radio waves
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Increase of heat in a system where energy enters
    (often as light), is absorbed as heat, and
    released sometime later

3
Introduction to Climate Change
  • "Scientific evidence for warming of the climate
    system is unequivocal." - Intergovernmental Panel
    on Climate Change

4
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Spring in N. hemisphere now begins 6 days earlier

5
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Sea level rise

6
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Global temperature rise

7
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Warming oceans

8
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Shrinking ice sheets
  • The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have
    decreased in mass. Data from NASA show Greenland
    lost 150 - 250 km3/year between 2002-2006, while
    Antarctica lost about 152 km3 of ice between
    2002-2005.

Flowing meltwater from the Greenland ice sheet
9
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Declining Arctic sea ice
  • Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice
    has declined rapidly over the last several
    decades. 9

10
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Glacial retreat
  • Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around
    the world including in the Alps, Himalayas,
    Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa.10

11
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Extreme events
  • The number of record high temperature events in
    the United States has been increasing, while the
    number of record low temperature events has been
    decreasing, since 1950. The U.S. has also
    witnessed increasing numbers of intense rainfall
    events.11

12
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Ocean acidification
  • The carbon dioxide content of the Earths oceans
    has been increasing since 1750, and is currently
    increasing about 2 billion tons/year. This has
    increased ocean acidity by about 30. 12

13
Introduction to Climate Change Mean Annual
Global Temperature 19602007

14
Causes of Climate Change
  • Greenhouse gas concentrations increasing

15
Causes of Climate Change
  • Increased concentration of CO2
  • Burning fossil fuels in cars, industry and homes
  • Deforestation
  • Burning of forests

16
Greenhouse Effect

17
Pollutants That Cool the Atmosphere
  • Atmospheric Aerosols
  • Both human and natural sources
  • Tiny particles that remain in troposphere for
    weeks or months
  • Often contain sulfur
  • Complicates models of climate change

18
Climate Models
  • Climate affected by
  • winds, clouds, ocean currents, and albedo
  • Advanced models can project future warming events
  • Models have limitations

19
Effects of Global Climate Change
  • Wildfire in California

20
Effects of Global Climate Change 1. Melting Ice
and Rising Sea Levels
  • Sea level rise caused in 2 ways
  • Thermal Expansion
  • Melting of land ice
  • Melting has positive feedback
  • Increased melting decreases ice, which decreases
    albedo leading to further warming

21
Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels

1957
1998
Glacier National Park
22
 
                                                                                                                                   
 
                                                                                                                                   
23
Impacts in Fragile Areas
  • Eskimo Inuit
  • Climate change is altering their existence
  • Wildlife displaced
  • Reduced snow cover and shorter river ice seasons
  • Thawing of permafrost (right)
  • Tuvalu- threatened by permanent flooding on their
    island

24
Effects of Global Climate Change 2. Changing
Precipitation Patterns
  • Some areas will get more water, some areas will
    have greater droughts

25
Effects of Global Climate Change 3. Effects on
Organisms
  • Zooplankton in parts of CA have decreased by 80
    since 1951
  • Effecting entire food chain
  • Decline in krill around Antarctica
  • Species have shifted their geographic range
  • Migrating birds are returning to summer homes
    earlier

26
Effects on Organisms Coral Reefs
  • Coral reefs can be bleached (right) due to
    increase in water temperature
  • Affects coral symbiotes and makes them more
    susceptible to diseases

27
Effect on Organisms Vegetation

28
4. Effects on Human Health
  • Increased number of heat-related illnesses and
    deaths

29
5. Effects on Agriculture
  • Difficult to anticipate
  • Productivity will increase in some areas and
    decrease in others
  • Rise in sea level will inundate farmland
  • Effect on pests is unknown
  • Warmer temperatures will decrease soil moisture-
    requiring more irrigation
  • Location where certain crops can be grown may
    change

30
International Implications of Climate Change
  • Developed vs. Developing countries
  • Differing self-interests
  • Differing ability to meet the challenges of
    climate change

31
Dealing with Global Climate Change
  • Two ways to manage climate change
  • Mitigation Limiting greenhouse gas emissions to
    moderate global climate change
  • Adaptation Learning to live with environmental
    changes and societal consequences brought about
    by global climate change

32
Relationship Between Mitigation and Adaptation

33
Dealing with Global Climate Change Mitigation
  • Locate/invent alternative fuels to fossil fuels
  • Increase efficiency of cars and trucks
  • Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Plant and Maintain trees to naturally sequester
    carbon

34
Dealing with Global Climate Change Adaptation
  • Rising sea levels and coastal populations
  • Move inland
  • Construct dikes and levees
  • Adapt to shifting agricultural zones
  • NYC sewer line

35
International Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas
Emission
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Legally binding
  • Provides rules on reducing greenhouse gases
  • US and Australia have not sign it - it will be
    difficult to implement without US backing

36
  • Chapter 21 Global Climate Change Climate Crisis
    Networkhttp//www.climatecrisis.net/takeaction/
  • Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface
    Temperature Analysishttp//data.giss.nasa.gov/gis
    temp/
  • United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
    Changehttp//www.ipcc.ch/
  • US Global Change Research Programhttp//www.globa
    lchange.gov/
  • Pew Center on Global Climate Changehttp//www.pew
    climate.org/
  • World View of Global Warming - The Photographic
    Documentation of Climate Changehttp//www.worldvi
    ewofglobalwarming.org/pages/glaciers.html
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