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Human Geography By James Rubenstein

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Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 5 Key Issue 1 Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed? * S. Mathews * * S. Mathews * Dialects in the United States ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography By James Rubenstein


1
Human Geography By James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 5
  • Key Issue 1
  • Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed?

2
Estimates of Distinct Languages
  • 2000 to 4000 languages in the world.
  • About 100 languages are spoken by at least 5
    million people.
  • Another 70 languages are spoken by 2 to 5
    million people.

3
Language
  • A system of communication through speech.

4
Literary Tradition
  • A system of written communication.

5
Official Language
  • A language designated by a country for business
    and government.

6
  • A country with more than one official language
    may require all public documents to be in all
    languages.

7
Study of Geographic Elements
  • Migration spreads language.
  • Cultural Values, such as religion and ethnicity,
    or communicated through language.
  • Global distribution results from
  • - interaction
  • - isolation

8
  • A language originates at a particular place and
    diffuses to other locations through the migration
    of its speakers.

9
Origin and Diffusion of English
  • English is spoken fluently by 1/2 billion people,
    more than any language except for Mandarin.
  • Whereas nearly all Mandarin speakers are
    clustered in one country China English
    speakers are distributed around the world.

10
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11
English Colonies
  • The contemporary distribution of English speakers
    around the world exists because the people of
    England migrated with their language when they
    established colonies during the past four
    centuries.

12
The Diffusion of English
  • Beginning in the 17th century, from England to
    America.
  • Next to Ireland.
  • To South Asia in the mid 18th century.
  • To South Pacific in the late 18th century.
  • To southern Africa in the late 19th century.

13
Invasion and Migration Routes
14
Origin of English in England
  • Inhabited for thousands of years by tribes whose
    languages are unknown.
  • In 2000 B.C., the Celts arrived from Europe.
  • Around A.D. 450, Germanic tribes arrived and
    pushed the Celts to remote areas of parts of the
    island.
  • In 1066, French speaking Normans arrived from
    France.

15
German Invasion
  • The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were among the
    German tribes that invaded England.
  • In Old English, Angles is spelled Engles and
    is the source of the name England.
  • The Angles came from a corner or angle of
    Germany.

16
Viking Invasion
  • Failed in their attempt to conquer the island.
  • Many remained in the country.
  • The language was enriched with many new words of
    Viking origin.

17
Norman Invasion
  • England was conquered by the Normans in 1066.
  • From the French province of Normandy
  • The invaders made French the language of the
    ruling court.
  • The majority of the people still spoke English.

18
Loss of Normandy
  • England lost control of Normandy in 1204.
  • In 1362, the Parliament enacted the Statue of
    Pleading which made English the official language
    of the court.
  • During the 300 years of Norman influence, French
    and German mingled to form new language.

19
Dialects of English
20
Dialect
  • A regional variation of a language distinguished
    by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and
    pronunciation.

21
Standard Dialect
  • A dialect that is well established and widely
    recognized as the most acceptable for government,
    business, education, and mass communication.

22
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
  • A dialect of England associated with upper-class
    London, which is recognized as the standard
    form of British speech.

23
Dialects in England
  • The 3 original dialects of Old English were
    associated with the 3 original invading groups.
  • By 1362, 5 regional dialects had emerged.
  • The BRP was encouraged by the introduction of
    the printing press to England in 1476.

24
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25
  • Language expert Professor Henry Higgins in
  • My Fair Lady
  • teaching Cockney speaking Eliza Doolittle
    proper English.

26
Regional Dialects
  • Rules for spelling and grammar were established
    in the eighteenth century.
  • Several dozen dialects are grouped into 3 main
    ones
  • - Northern
  • - Midland
  • - Southern

27
Differences between British and American English
  • The earliest colonists were most responsible for
    the dominant language patterns that exist today
    in the English-speaking part of the Western
    Hemisphere.

28
  • English in the UK and US evolved independently
    during the 18th and 19th centuries.

29
Differences in Vocabulary
  • Settlers in America borrowed names from Native
    Americans for many new objects and experiences
    encountered.
  • New inventions acquired different names on
    either side of the Atlantic.

30
Differences Spelling
  • Spelling diverged because of a strong national
    feeling of need in U.S. for an independent
    identity.

31
Examples of differences
  • American English
  • Elevator Lift
  • Flashlight Torch
  • Auto Hood Bonnet
  • Auto trunk Boot

32
Noah Webster
  • Created the first comprehensive American
    dictionary and grammar books.
  • Argued that spelling and grammar reforms would
    help
  • - establish a national language
  • - reduce cultural dependence on
  • England
  • - inspire national pride

33
Differences in Pronunciation
  • Between the U.S. and British speakers are
    immediately recognizable.
  • Has changed more in England than in the U.S.
  • Proper English today is not the same as
    Proper English during the colonial period.

34
Dialects in the United States
  • Major differences in U.S. dialects originated
    because of differences in dialects among the
    original settlers.

35
Settlement in the East
  • Original American settlements
  • - New England
  • - Middle Atlantic
  • - Southeastern

36
Original Settlements
37
New England Colonists
  • Two-thirds were Puritans from East Anglia in
    southeastern England.

38
Southeastern Colonists
  • About half came from southeast England and
    represented a diversity of social-class
    backgrounds.

39
Middle Atlantic Colonists
  • More diverse most came from the north of
    England, or from other countries.

40
Isogloss
  • Words that are not used nationally, but have
    regional boundaries.

41
Current Dialect Differences in the East
  • Major differences occur primarily on the East
    Coast.
  • Eastern U.S. is separated into 3 major dialect
    regions due to two important isoglosses.
  • - Northern
  • - Midland
  • - Southern

42
Regional Isoglosses
  • Some words are commonly used in one of the three
    major dialect areas, but rarely in two.
  • These words relate to
  • - rural life
  • - food
  • - objects from daily life

43
Regional Isoglosses
  • Many words that were once regionally
    distinctive, now are national in distribution.
  • Mass media (especially radio and television)
    influence the adoption of the same words
    throughout the country.

44
  • Regional pronunciation differences are more
    familiar to us than word differences, although it
    is harder to draw precise isoglosses for them.

45
New England Accent
  • Well-known for dropping the r sound maintained
    especially close ties to the important ports of
    southern England.
  • New Englanders received more exposure to the
    changes in pronunciation that occurred in Britain
    during the 18th century.

46
  • The mobility of Americans has been a major reason
    for the relatively uniform language that exists
    throughout much of the West.
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