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9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS

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learning objectives describe components of telecommunications system calculate capacity of telecommunications channels & evaluate transmission media compare types of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS


1
9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
9.1
2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • DESCRIBE COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
  • CALCULATE CAPACITY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
    EVALUATE TRANSMISSION MEDIA
  • COMPARE TYPES OF NETWORKS NETWORK SERVICES

9.2
3
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • DESCRIBE CONNECTIVITY NETWORK STANDARDS
  • IDENTIFY APPLICATIONS FOR SUPPORTING ELECTRONIC
    COMMERCE, BUSINESS
  • ANALYZE MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS OF NETWORKING

9.3
4
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
  • TELECOMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION
  • COMPONENTS, FUNCTIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    SYSTEM
  • COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
  • ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, ELECTRONIC BUSINESS
    TECHNOLOGIES
  • MANAGEMENT ISSUES, DECISIONS

9.4
5
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
  • COMMUNICATING INFORMATION
  • VIA ELECTRONIC MEANS
  • OVER SOME DISTANCE

9.5
6
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY
  • NATIONAL / WORLDWIDE
  • HIGH SPEED
  • DIGITAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS
  • ACCESSIBLE BY GENERAL PUBLIC

9.6
7
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
  • COMPUTERS
  • TERMINALS (Input / Output Devices)
  • COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
  • PROCESSORS (Modems Multiplexers Front-end
    Processors)
  • COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE

9.7
8
PROTOCOL
  • RULES PROCEDURES
  • TO GOVERN TRANSMISSION
  • BETWEEN COMPONENTS
  • IN A NETWORK

9.8
9
ANALOG SIGNAL
  • CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM
  • PASSES THRU SYSTEM
  • VOICE COMMUNICATIONS

9.9
10
DIGITAL SIGNAL
  • DISCRETE WAVEFORM
  • TWO DISCRETE STATES
  • 1-BIT 0-BIT
  • ON / OFF PULSE
  • DATA COMMUNICATION
  • USES MODEM TO TRANSLATE ANALOG TO DIGITAL,
    DIGITAL TO ANALOG

00101110100111010010101011101111001000100001011110
10110
9.10
11
COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
  • MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED
  • TWISTED WIRES (Copper Wires)
  • COAXIAL CABLE (Insulated Copper Wires)
  • FIBER-OPTIC CABLE
  • MICROWAVE

9.11
12
FIBER OPTICS
  • SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS
  • FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE
  • UP TO TEN BILLION BITS PER SECOND, FULL DUPLEX
  • EXPENSIVE, HARDER TO INSTALL
  • OFTEN USED AS BACKBONE OF NETWORKS

9.12
13
LOW-ORBIT SATELLITE
MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION
UPLINK
DOWNLINK
9.13
14
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES
  • PAGING SYSTEM Small page beeps when receives
    short message
  • CELLULAR TELEPHONE Device uses radio waves to
    reach antennas within areas called cells
  • MOBILE DATA NETWORKS Radio - based data network
    using hand-held computers. cheap, efficient

9.14
15
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES
  • PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE Cellular lower
    power higher frequency. Smaller phones not
    shielded by buildings, tunnels
  • PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT Pen sized, hand-held,
    digital communicator
  • SMART PHONE Wireless, voice, text, Internet

9.15
16
COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
  • TRANSMISSION SPEED Bits per Second (BPS) or Baud
  • BANDWIDTH Capacity of Channel Difference
    between Highest Lowest Frequencies

9.16
17
SPEEDS COST OF MEDIA
9.17
18
COMMUNICATIONS PROCESSORS
  • FRONT- END PROCESSOR minicomputer manages
    communication for host computer
  • CONCENTRATOR computer collects messages for
    batch transmission to host computer
  • CONTROLLER computer controls interface between
    CPU and peripheral devices
  • MULTIPLEXER allows channel to carry multiple
    sources simultaneously

9.18
19
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
STAR
9.19
20
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
BUS
9.20
21
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
RING
9.21
22
LOCAL NETWORKS
  • PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX) firms central
    switching system
  • LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) dedicated channels
    limited distance (less than 2000 foot radius)
    higher capacity than PBX. Can share expensive
    hardware software

9.22
23
LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)
  • SERVER stores programs, data determines access
    to network
  • GATEWAY connection to other networks
  • NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS) manages file
    server routes communications on network
  • PEER - TO - PEER in some small networks all
    computers have equal power

9.23
24
WIDE - AREA NETWORK (WAN)
  • NETWORK SPANS LARGE GEOGRAPHIC DISTANCES
  • CAN INCLUDE CABLE, SATELLITE, MICROWAVE
  • SWITCHED LINES Route Determined by Current
    Traffic
  • DEDICATED LINES Constantly Available for
    High-Volume Traffic

9.24
25
VALUE-ADDED NETWORK (VAN)
  • PRIVATE MULTIPATH DATA ONLY
  • 3rd PARTY MANAGED
  • USED BY SEVERAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • SUBSCRIPTION BASIS

9.25
26
NETWORK SERVICES
  • PACKET SWITCHING
  • FRAME RELAY
  • ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM)
  • INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK
  • DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE
  • CABLE MODEM
  • T1 LINE

9.26
27
PACKET SWITCHING (X.25)
  • FORM OF Value Added Network
  • BREAKS DATA BLOCKS INTO SMALL PACKETS (e.g. 128
    Bytes)
  • PACKETS ROUTED BY MOST ECONOMICAL MEANS
  • REASSEMBLED AT DESTINATION

9.27
28
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM)
  • CELL 53 Groups of 8 Bytes Each
  • USES FIBER OPTICS CABLE
  • INDEPENDENT OF VENDOR HARDWARE SPEEDS
  • CAN TIE LAN TO WAN

9.28
29
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
  • INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR TRANSMITTING VOICE,
    VIDEO, DATA
  • OVER PUBLIC TELEPHONE LINES

9.29
30
OTHER SERVICES
  • DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) enhancing capacity
    over copper telephone lines
  • CABLE MODEM modem for cable TV for high-speed
    access to Internet
  • T1 LINE dedicated telephone connection, 24
    channels _at_ 1.544 megabits per second

9.30
31
ENTERPRISE NETWORK
  • HARDWARE SOFTWARE TELECOMMUNICATIONS, DATA
    RESOURCES
  • MORE COMPUTING POWER ON THE DESKTOP
  • NETWORK LINKING SMALLER NETWORKS

9.31
32
INTERNETWORKING
  • LINK NETWORKS
  • EACH RETAINS IDENTITY
  • INTO INTERCONNECTED NETWORK

9.32
33
CONNECTIVITY
  • MEASURE OF ABILITY OF COMPUTING DEVICES TO PASS
    SHARE INFORMATION WITHOUT HUMAN INTERVENTION
  • OPEN SYSTEMS Software Able to Function on
    Different Computer Platforms. Nonproprietary
    Operating Systems, Applications, Protocols

9.33
34
TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET
PROTOCOL (TCP / IP)
  • REFERENCE MODEL DEVELOPED BY DEPARTMENT OF
    DEFENSE IN 1972
  • 1. APPLICATION Provides Screen Presentations
  • 2. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) Breaks
    Data into Datagrams
  • 3. INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) Breaks, Sends
    Datagrams as Smaller IP Packets Can Repeat
    Transmission to Increase Reliability

9.34
35
TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET
PROTOCOL (TCP / IP)
  • 4. NETWORK INTERFACE Handles Addressing and
    Interface Between Computer Network
  • 5. PHYSICAL NET Defines Electrical Transmission
    Characteristics for Sending Signal Along Networks
    to Destination

9.35
36
OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECT (OSI)
  • INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE MODEL
  • FOR LINKING DIFFERENT TYPES OF
  • COMPUTERS NETWORKS

9.36
37
FACILITATING APPLICATIONS
  • ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail)
  • VOICE MAIL
  • FACSIMILE MACHINES (fax)
  • TELECONFERENCING
  • DATACONFERENCING
  • VIDEOCONFERENCING
  • GROUPWARE

9.37
38
9.38
39
ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)
  • COMPUTER - TO - COMPUTER
  • EXCHANGE BETWEEN TWO ORGANIZATIONS
  • OF STANDARD BUSINESS TRANSACTION DOCUMENTS

9.39
40
PROBLEMS POSED BY ENTERPRISE NETWORKING
  • CONNECTIVITY
  • LOSS OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL
  • ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE REQUIREMENTS
  • HIDDEN COSTS OF CLIENT/SERVER COMPUTING
  • RELIABILITY SECURITY

9.40
41
COSTS OF CLIENT/SERVER SYSTEMS
  • OPERATIONS SUPPORT
  • APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
  • HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE
  • EDUCATION TRAINING

9.41
42
TELECOMMUNICATIONS PLAN
  • KNOW LONG-RANGE PLANS
  • AUDIT EXISTING CAPABILITIES
  • IDENTIFY, PRIORITIZE CRITICAL IMPROVEMENTS
  • ENHANCE FIRMS STRATEGIC POSITION
  • IMPLEMENT PLAN

9.42
43
IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS
  • DISTANCE
  • RANGE OF SERVICES
  • SECURITY
  • MULTIPLE ACCESS
  • UTILIZATION
  • COST
  • INSTALLATION
  • CONNECTIVITY

9.43
44
Connect to the INTERNET
PRESS LEFT MOUSE BUTTON ON ICON TO CONNECT TO THE
LAUDON LAUDON WEB SITE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON
THIS CHAPTER
9.44
45
9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
9.45
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