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Snowbird: Interactive Resource-Intensive Applications Made Easy

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Title: Flexible Computing with Virtual Machines Author: Andres Lagar-Cavilla Last modified by: H. Andres Lagar-Cavilla Created Date: 7/14/2007 5:59:51 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Snowbird: Interactive Resource-Intensive Applications Made Easy


1
SnowbirdInteractive Resource-IntensiveApplicati
ons Made Easy
  • H. Andrés Lagar-Cavilla
  • Niraj Tolia , Eyal de Lara,
  • M. Satyanarayanan Dave OHallaron
  • University of Toronto, HP Labs,
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Middleware, November 2007

2
Bimodal Applications
  • Interactive
  • Cognitive phase
  • Resource-Intensive
  • Crunch phase
  • Digital Animation
  • Scientific Computing
  • Engineering Design
  • Bio/Pharma
  • Video Editing
  • .

Maya (digital animation)
3
Dichotomy
  • Crunch (computation)
  • Short completion time
  • Remote computing resources
  • Cognitive (interaction)
  • Crisp interactive performance
  • User attention

4
Execution Alternatives
  • Thick Clients (Desktop PCs)
  • Cognitive excellent interactive performance
  • Crunch resource constrained
  • Thin Clients (VNC, Remote Desktop)
  • Crunch use of remote resources (CPU, Data)
  • Cognitive latency and jitter impact
    interactions
  • Custom Applications
  • Pipeline placement over different nodes
  • Requires significant developer resources

5
Execution Alternatives
  • Cognitive excellent interactive performance
  • Crunch use of remote resources (CPU, Data)

6
Snowbird Agent Abstraction
  • Applications encapsulated within an agent
  • Agent processes, libraries, IPC, OS, config
    data
  • Migration performance goals achieved by morphing
  • a thin client for resource intensive crunch
    phases
  • a thick client for highly interactive cognitive
    phases

7
Bimodal Applications Made Easy
  • Develop apps as monolithic blocks
  • Dont worry about what executes where
  • Agent is migrated to satisfy each phase
  • Seamless and transparent behavior
  • Legacy support
  • Different OSs (and versions/features)
  • Different languages (Fortran!)
  • No need for recompilation, relinking, etc
  • Closed source apps just work

8
Implementation
9
Design Criteria
  • VM-based migration
  • x86 interface most widely deployed
  • Transparently support OS, lang, etc
  • Internet scale
  • WAN migration
  • Long fat pipes 50 Mbp/s, 50-200 ms RTT
  • Use of graphics HW acceleration a must
  • For the cognitive mode of bimodal apps
  • Server-less design (P2P)
  • All hosts symmetric
  • Can execute anywhere

10
Components
  • VMM suspend, resume, live migration
  • Xen 3.0.1
  • Interaction-aware migration manager
  • Transparent
  • Support for 3D acceleration in VMs
  • Vital for crisp interaction
  • Virtual disk that maximizes locality
  • WAN area migration

11
Agent Profiles Migration Manager
  • FSM that models an agents behavior
  • Provided by expert users, admins, or developers
  • Default system-wide profile available
  • Only deployment additional effort

12
Interaction-aware
  • Novelty in our approach
  • Measure the quality of the interactive response
  • We use frames per seconds
  • More in sync with operations in bimodal apps
  • Stretch object, rotate, zoom, etc
  • Pure latency not enough
  • Ample space for future work

13
Frames Per Second
  • Local FPS n/latency
  • Non work-conserving (VNC) FPS 2/latency
  • Work-conserving (X) FPS n/(latencyk)

14
The Rest
  • VMGL support for 3D acceleration in VMs
  • Coming live to this conference in 5 mins
  • Follow up VEE 2007, gt4K downloads
  • WANDisk virtual disk maximizes locality
  • Minimizes WAN communication
  • Simplifies state synchronization
  • More details in paper

15
Evaluation
16
Benchmarks
  • Broad set of domains
  • Scientific Computing, Bio, Video Editing,
    Animation
  • Closed and open source
  • Straightforward installation
  • Able to use generic profile on all four
  • Partitioned mode for comparison
  • ADF Maya

QuakeViz
Kmenc15
Maya (closed source)
ADF (closed source)
17
Methodology
  • Crunch cognitive benchmarks
  • Performing crunch experiments is easy
  • Replaying long interactive traces is not
  • Cant expect a user to do it
  • Must be able to compare results
  • VNC-Redux record and replay interactive user
    sessions
  • Record input and screen state
  • This is matched during replay for accuracy

18
Experimental Setup
19
Results Crunch Phase
370Ouch!
  • Snowbirds crunch performance
  • Much better than thick
  • Comparable to thin/partitioned

20
Results Cognitive Phase
  • Better interactivity than thin clients
  • Is Snowbird any worse than a thick client?
  • gt 20 FPS is ok, lt 8 FPS is unusable

21
Take Home Messages
  • Bimodal applications
  • What they are and why they matter
  • Thin clients are not almighty
  • There is no replacement for local interaction
  • Best of both worlds thick and thin clients
  • Necessary in an Internet world with remote
    computing resources
  • VM-based app migration is feasible
  • And with many advantages
  • Future trends align well

22
Futurism
  • More bandwidth cheaper VM migration
  • What about latency?
  • The earth is not shrinking
  • Speed of light is not increasing
  • More routers, overlays, firewalls
  • Toronto-London UK 109ms
  • Toronto-LA 84ms
  • Insurmountable obstacle for thin clients

23
Questions?
Thanks ?
H. Andrés Lagar-Cavilla andreslc_at_cs.toronto.edu N
iraj Tolia, Eyal de Lara, Satya Dave
OHallaron U of Toronto, HP Labs, Carnegie Mellon
24
Backup
25
VMGL 3D Acceleration in VMs
  • OpenGL virtualization
  • Hardware specs closed, unavailable
  • Focus instead on software standards
  • OpenGL -gt cross-platform
  • Direct3D -gt MS-only
  • Intercept GL calls and forward them to the host.
    Proprietary driver renders there.
  • More details VEE 2007

26
Open GL for X11 Apps
27
VMGL for X11 Apps
28
WANDisk Virtual Disk
Chunk Table
foo.toronto.edu
ChunkMisses
29
Why Another Storage System?
  • Exploits Snowbird characteristics
  • P2P model
  • No server interposition
  • Single-writer simple metadata, no locks
  • Minimizes WAN talk
  • Locality persistent replicas
  • Differential transfers rsync
  • On-demand fetching

30
Experimental Setup
  • Thick No virtualization, on User Desktop
  • User Desktop UP with graphics acceleration
  • Thin No virtualization, on Compute Server
  • Compute Server 4-way SMP
  • 100 Mbit/s WAN, RTT 33, 66, and 100 ms
  • Partitioned
  • App-specific developer-brewed Maya ADF
  • Snowbird
  • Agents are initially launched on User Desktop

31
ADF Migration Time (secs)
Latency (ms) Detection Migration Pause
33 12.5 62 4.9
66 11.5 62 6.2
100 13.1 64.9 6.7
32
Applicability of Snowbird
  • Morphing time our implementation
  • Speedup application resources
  • C Crunch phase time locally

33
Snowbird Limitations
  • Parallelism up to SMP level
  • What about cluster-scale?
  • SSE, 3DNow!
  • i.e. x86 is not that uniform
  • Overlapping phases
  • Hysteresis, priority in migration manager
  • Very short phases
  • Cost/benefit analysis

34
Our Current Interests
  • VM support for large parallel tasks
  • Relevant to commodity computing
  • Migration, the cloud, etc
  • How to measure interactive performance
  • Thin clients, desktop consolidation, VMs
  • Unknown effects for modern (3D-heavy) GUIs

35
Really Backup Backup
36
Keywords Of This Presentation
  • Thin clients
  • Remote execution
  • Interactive Performance
  • Thick clients
  • Virtual machine migration
  • Application migration
  • Bimodal applications
  • What they are and why they matter

37
Frames Per Second
  • Local FPS frames/latency
  • Non work-conserving same latency, less frames
  • Work-conserving same frames, more latency

38
What We Need
  • System support for bimodal applications
  • Combine best of both worlds
  • Thick client, local execution
  • Interaction
  • Thin client, remote execution
  • Computation
  • Make development easy

39
Results Crunch Phase
  • Snowbirds crunch performance
  • Much better than thick
  • Comparable to thin/partitioned

40
Talk Pointers
  • Be more explicit demo thin, frames
  • Proxy FPS input in migr manager
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