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Snowbird: Interactive Resource-Intensive Applications Made Easy

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Title: Flexible Computing with Virtual Machines Author: Andres Lagar-Cavilla Last modified by: H. Andres Lagar-Cavilla Created Date: 7/14/2007 5:59:51 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Snowbird: Interactive Resource-Intensive Applications Made Easy


1
SnowbirdInteractive Resource-IntensiveApplicati
ons Made Easy
  • H. Andrés Lagar-Cavilla
  • Niraj Tolia, Eyal de Lara,
  • M. Satyanarayanan Dave OHallaron
  • U of Toronto, CMU, September 2007

2
Bimodal Applications
  • Interactive
  • Cognitive phase
  • Resource-Intensive
  • Crunch phase
  • Digital Animation
  • Scientific Computing
  • Engineering Design
  • Bio/Pharma
  • Video Editing
  • .

Maya (digital animation)
3
Different Phases, Different Needs
  • Crunch (computation)
  • Short completion time
  • Computing resources
  • Cognitive (interaction)
  • Crisp interactive performance
  • User attention

4
What To Do?
  • Execution alternatives
  • Thick Clients (Desktop PCs)
  • Have excellent interactive performance
  • Can be resource constrained
  • Thin Clients (VNC, Remote Desktop)
  • Allow use of remote resources (CPU, Data)
  • Latency and jitter impact interactive
    performance
  • Custom Applications
  • Pipeline placement over different nodes
  • Requires significant developer resources

5
What To Do?
  • A Systems Solution
  • With the best of both worlds
  • Have excellent interactive performance
  • Allow use of remote resources (CPU, Data)

6
Snowbird Agent Abstraction
  • Applications encapsulated within an agent
  • Agent processes, libraries, IPC, OS, config
    data
  • Migration performance goals achieved by morphing
  • a thin client for resource intensive crunch
    phases
  • a thick client for highly interactive cognitive
    phases

7
Bimodal Applications Made Easy
  • Develop apps as monolithic blocks
  • Dont worry about what executes where
  • Agent is migrated to satisfy each phase
  • Seamless and transparent behavior
  • Legacy support
  • Different OSs (and versions/features)
  • Different languages (Fortran!)
  • No need for recompilation, relinking, etc
  • Closed source apps just work

8
Design Criteria
  • VM-based migration
  • x86 interface most widely deployed
  • Transparently support OS, lang, etc
  • Internet scale
  • WAN migration
  • Long fat pipes
  • 50 Mbp/s, 50-200 ms RTT
  • Server-less design (P2P)
  • All hosts symmetric
  • Can execute anywhere

9
Implementation
10
Implementation
  • VMM suspend, resume, live migration
  • Xen 3.0.1
  • Interaction-aware migration manager
  • Transparent
  • Support for 3D acceleration in VMs
  • Vital for crisp interaction
  • Virtual disk that maximizes locality
  • WAN area migration

11
Agent Profiles Migration Manager
  • FSM that models an agents behavior
  • Provided by expert users, admins, or developers
  • Default system-wide profile available
  • Only deployment additional effort

12
Interaction-aware
  • Novelty in our approach
  • Measure the quality of the interactive response
  • We use frames per seconds
  • More in sync with operations in bimodal apps
  • Stretch object, rotate, zoom, etc
  • Pure latency not enough
  • Ample space for future work

13
Frames Per Second
  • Local FPS n/latency
  • Non work-conserving (VNC) FPS 2/latency
  • Work-conserving (X) FPS n/(latencyk)

14
VMGL 3D Acceleration in VMs
  • OpenGL virtualization
  • Hardware specs closed, unavailable
  • Focus instead on software standards
  • OpenGL -gt cross-platform
  • Direct3D -gt MS-only
  • Intercept GL calls and forward them to the host.
    Proprietary driver renders there.
  • More details VEE 2007

15
Open GL for X11 Apps
16
VMGL for X11 Apps
17
WANDisk Virtual Disk
Chunk Table
foo.toronto.edu
ChunkMisses
18
Why Another Storage System?
  • Exploits Snowbird characteristics
  • P2P model
  • No server interposition
  • Single-writer simple metadata, no locks
  • Minimizes WAN talk
  • Locality persistent replicas
  • Differential transfers rsync
  • On-demand fetching

19
Evaluation
20
Benchmarks
  • Broad set of domains
  • Animation, Scientific Computing, Video Editing,
    Bio
  • Closed and open source
  • Straightforward installation
  • Able to use generic profile on all four
  • Partitioned mode for comparison
  • Adf Maya

QuakeViz
Kmenc15
Maya (closed source)
ADF (closed source)
21
Methodology
  • Crunch cognitive benchmarks
  • Performing crunch experiments is easy
  • Replaying long interactive traces is not
  • Cant expect a user to do it
  • Must be able to compare results
  • VNC-Redux record and replay interactive user
    sessions
  • Record input and screen state
  • This is matched during replay for accuracy

22
Experimental Setup
  • Thick No virtualization, on User Desktop
  • User Desktop UP with graphics acceleration
  • Thin No virtualization, on Compute Server
  • Compute Server 4-way SMP
  • 100 Mbit/s WAN, RTT 33, 66, and 100 ms
  • Partitioned
  • App-specific developer-brewed Maya ADF
  • Snowbird
  • Agents are initially launched on User Desktop

23
Results Crunch Phase
Ouch!
  • Snowbirds crunch performance
  • Much better than thick
  • Comparable to thin/partitioned

24
Results Cognitive Phase
  • Better interactivity than thin clients
  • Is Snowbird any worse than a thick client?
  • gt 20 FPS is ok, lt 8 FPS is unusable

25
Snowbird Limitations
  • Parallelism up to SMP level
  • What about cluster-scale?
  • SSE, 3DNow!
  • i.e. x86 is not that uniform
  • Overlapping phases
  • Hysteresis, priority in migration manager
  • Very short phases
  • Cost/benefit analysis

26
Take Home Messages
  • Bimodal applications
  • What they are and why they matter
  • Thin clients are not almighty
  • There is no replacement for local interaction
  • Best of both worlds thick and thin clients
  • Necessary in an Internet world with remote
    computing resources
  • VM-based app migration is feasible
  • And with many advantages
  • Future trends align well

27
Futurism
  • More bandwidth cheaper VM migration
  • What about latency?
  • The earth is not shrinking
  • Speed of light is not increasing
  • More routers, overlays, firewalls
  • Europe 100ms (60ms speed-of-light)
  • Asia 200ms (90ms speed-of-light)
  • Insurmountable obstacle for thin clients

28
Our Current Interests
  • VM support for large parallel tasks
  • Relevant to commodity computing
  • Migration, the cloud, etc
  • How to measure interactive performance
  • Thin clients, desktop consolidation, VMs
  • Unknown effects for modern (3D-heavy) GUIs

29
Questions?
Thanks ?More details in Middleware 2007
H. Andrés Lagar-Cavilla andreslc_at_cs.toronto.edu N
iraj Tolia, Eyal de Lara, Satya Dave
OHallaron U of Toronto, CMU
30
Backup
31
Frames Per Second
  • Local FPS frames/latency
  • Non work-conserving same latency, less frames
  • Work-conserving same frames, more latency

32
Applicability of Snowbird
  • Morphing time our implementation
  • Speedup application resources
  • C Crunch phase time locally

33
Keywords Of This Presentation
  • Thin clients
  • Remote execution
  • Interactive Performance
  • Thick clients
  • Virtual machine migration
  • Application migration
  • Bimodal applications
  • What they are and why they matter

34
What We Need
  • System support for bimodal applications
  • Combine best of both worlds
  • Thick client, local execution
  • Interaction
  • Thin client, remote execution
  • Computation
  • Make development easy

35
Results Crunch Phase
  • Snowbirds crunch performance
  • Much better than thick
  • Comparable to thin/partitioned
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