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Chapter 13 Gases

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Chapter 13 Gases 13.1 Pressure Objectives: To learn about atmospheric pressure and the way in which barometers work To learn the various units of pressure. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 13 Gases


1
Chapter 13 Gases
  • 13.1 Pressure
  • Objectives
  • To learn about atmospheric pressure and the way
    in which barometers work
  • To learn the various units of pressure.

2
13.1 Pressure
  • Automobile tires, basketballs, balloons, and soda
    bottles.
  • What happens to a balloon when you place it in a
    freezer?
  • Why?

3
13.1 Pressure
  • Evangelista Torricelli invented the
  • BAROMETER device to measure pressure
  • At sea level the height of the column of mercury
    is 760 mm.

Pressure exerted by the atmospheric gases on the
surface of the mercury in the dish keeps the
mercury in the tube.
4
13.1 Pressure
  • Weather
  • -low pressure STORMS
  • -high pressure nice weather

5
13.1 Pressure
  • Units of Pressure
  • -mm Hg torr
  • Standard atmosphere (atm)
  • 1 std. atm.1,000 atm760.0mm Hg760.0 torr

1 std. atm101, 325 Pascal 1.000 std. atm14.69
psi
6
Measuring pressure
Atmospheric pressure-h
Manometer
Atmospheric pressure h
7
13.1 Pressure
  • The height of mercury in a mercury barometer is
    measured to be 732 mm. Represent this pressure
    in atm, torr, and pascals.
  • The pressure of a gas is measured to be 2.79 x
    105 Pa. Represent this pressure in atm, torr,
    and psi.

0.963 atm 732 torr 9.76 x 104 Pa
2.75 atm 2.10 x 103 torr 40.4 psi
Homework, Self-Check exercise 13.1
8
13.2 Pressure and Volume Boyles Law
  • Objectives
  • To understand the law that relates the pressure
    and volume of a gas.
  • To do calculations involving this law.

9
Robert Boyle Irish scientist -studied the
relationship between the pressure of the trapped
gas and its volume
10
P x Vconst. PVk Boyles Law Inversely proport
ional
11
Figure 13.6 Illustration of Boyles law.
P1V1P2V2
12
13.2 Pressure and Volume Boyles Law
  • A sample of neon gas has a pressure of
  • 7.43 atm in a container with a volume of
    45.1 L. This sample is transferred to a container
    with a volume of 18.4 L. What is the new
    pressure of the neon gas?
  • Assume constant temperature.

18.2 atm
13
13.2 Pressure and Volume Boyles Law
  • A steel tank of oxygen gas has a volume of 2.00L.
    If all of the oxygen is transferred to a new
    tank with a volume of 5.50 L, the pressure is
    measured to be 6.75 atm. What was the original
    pressure of the oxygen gas?
  • Assume constant temperature.

18.6 atm
Homework 7-10 p. 435
14
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • Objectives
  • To learn about absolute zero.
  • To learn about the law relating the volume and
    temperature of a sample of gas at constant moles
    and pressure, and to do calculations involving
    that law.

15
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • Objectives
  • To learn about absolute zero.
  • To learn about the law relating the volume and
    temperature of a sample of gas at constant moles
    and pressure, and to do calculations involving
    that law.

16
Jacques Charles (first solo H balloon flight) -sho
wed that the volume of a gas (at constant
pressure) increases with the temperature.
Absolute zero point where you get 0 volume -273oC
17
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • Charless Law
  • V/T constant
  • V1 V2
  • T1 T2

18
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • A 2.45 L sample of nitrogen gas is collected at
    273 K and heated to 325K. Calculate the volume of
    the nitrogen gas at 325 K.
  • Assume constant pressure.

2.92 L
19
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • A sample of methane gas is collected at 285 K and
    cooled to 245K. At 245 K the volume of the gas
    is 75.0 L. Calculate the volume of the methane
    gas at 285K.
  • Assume constant pressure.

87.2 L
20
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • Consider a gas with a volume of 5.65 L at 27 C
    and 1 atm pressure. At what temperature will
    this gas have a volume of 6.69 L and 1 atm
    pressure.

82oC (355K)
21
13.3 Volume and Temperature Charless Law
  • Consider a gas with a volume of 9.25L at 47oC and
    1 atm pressure. At what temperature does this
    gas have a volume of 3.50 L and 1 atm pressure.

-152oC (121K)
22
13.4 Volume and Moles Avogadros Law
  • Objective
  • 1) To understand the law relating the volume and
    the number of moles of a sample of gas at
    constant temperature and pressure, and to do
    calculations involving this law.

23
Avogadros Law
V1 V2 n1 n2
24
13.4 Volume and Moles Avogadros Law
  • If 2.55 mol of helium gas occupies a volume
  • of 59.5 L at a particular temperature and
  • pressure, what volume does 7.83 mol of helium
    occupy under the same conditions?

183 L
25
13.4 Volume and Moles Avogadros Law
  • If 4.35 g of neon gas occupies a volume of
  • 15.0 L at a particular temperature and pressure,
    what volume does 2.00 g of neon gas occupy under
    the same conditions?

6.90 L
26
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • Ideal Gas Law
  • PVnRT
  • RUniversal gas constant (proportionality
    constant)
  • R 0.08206 L atm/ oK
  • Based on experimental measurements.
  • Most gases obey this equation at 1 atm or lower
    and 0oC or higher

27
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • Ideal Gas Law
  • When the number of moles and type of gas are a
    constant.

P1V1 P2V2 T1 T2
28
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • A sample of neon gas has a volume of 3.45 L at
    25oC and a pressure of 565 torr. Calculate the
    number of moles of neon present in the gas sample.

0.105 mol
29
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • A 0.250 mol sample of argon gas has a volume of
    9.00 L at a pressure of 875 mm Hg. What is the
    temperature (in oC) of the gas?

232oC
30
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • Consider a sample of helium gas at 23oC with a
    volume of 5.60 L at a pressure of 2.45 atm. The
    pressure is changed to 8.75 atm and the gas is
    cooled to 15oC. Calculate the new volume of the
    gas using the ideal gas law equation.

1.53 L
31
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • Consider a sample of helium gas at 28oC with a
    volume of 3.80 L at a pressure of 3.15 atm. The
    gas expands to a volume of 9.50 L and the gas is
    heated to 43oC. Calculate the new pressure of
    the gas using the ideal gas law equation.

1.32 atm
32
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • Objectives To understand the relationship
    between the partial and total pressures of a gas
    mixture, and to use this relationship in
    calculations.
  • Scuba divers use helium and oxygen instead of
    air. Air contains nitrogen that dissolves in the
    blood as a result of high pressure. Nitrogen
    bubbles out and the diver gets the bends.

33
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • John Dalton For a mixture of gases in a
    container, the total pressure exerted is the sum
    of the partial pressures of the gases present.
  • Partial pressure pressure that the gas would
    exert if it were alone in the container.
  • Daltons law of partial pressures
  • PtotalP1 P2 P3

34
Ptotalntotal (RT/V)
The pressure doesnt depend on the forces
amongst the particles. The volume of the
individual gas particles is not important.
35
Figure 13.12 The production of oxygen by
thermal decomposition.
36
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • A sample of solid potassium chlorate KClO3, was
    heated in a test tube and decomposed according to
    the reaction
  • 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) 3O2
  • The oxygen produced was collected by displacement
    of water at 22oC. The resulting mixture of O2
    and H2O vapor had a total pressure of 754 torr
    and a volume of 0.650L. Calculate the partial
    pressure of O2 in the gas collected and the
    number of moles of O2 present. The vapor
    pressure of water at 22oC is 21 torr.

37
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • PtotalPO2 PH2O
  • 754PO2 21
  • PO2 733 torr
  • nO2 PO2V 733/7600.964 atm
  • RT
  • nO2 (0.964 atm)(0.650L)
  • (0.08206) (295)

38
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • A 5.00 g sample of helium gas is added to a 5.00
    g sample of neon in a 2.50 L container at 27oC.
    Calculate the partial pressure of each gas and
    the total pressure.

12.3 atm He 2.44 atm Ne 14.7 atm total
39
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • A sample of oxygen gas is saturated with water
    vapor at 30.0oC. The total pressure is 753 torr
    and the vapor pressure of water at 30.0 C is
    31.824 torr. What is the partial pressure of the
    oxygen gas in atm?

0.949 atm
Homework 23-30 and 33-36
40
13.6 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
  • A sample of oxygen gas is saturated with water
    vapor at 27oC. The total pressure is 785 torr
    and the partial pressure of oxygen is 758.3 torr.
    What is the vapor pressure of water at 27oC?

26.7 torr
41
13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
  • Objectives To understand the basic postulates of
    the kinetic molecular theory

42
Postulates of KMT.
43
13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular
Theory
  • Objectives To understand the term temperature.
  • To learn how the kinetic molecular theory
    explains the gas laws.

44
13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular
Theory
  • The temperature of a gas how rapidly, its
    individual particles are moving.
  • High temperatures move very fast.
  • Low temperatures move slower.

45
As the gas is heated to a higher temperature, the
particles move faster, hitting the walls more
often. Pressure increases with increasing
temperature
46
13.10 Real Gases
  • Objectives To describe the properties of real
    gases.

47
As real gases are compressed into smaller and
smaller volumes, the particles of the gas begin
to occupy a significant fraction of the available
volume..
Start to attract to each other here PVnRT not
true
48
13.11Gas Stoichiometry
  • Objectives
  • To understand the molar volume of an ideal gas.
  • To learn the definition of STP
  • To use these concepts and the ideal gas equation.

49
13.11Gas Stoichiometry
  • For 1 mol of an ideal gas at 0oC (273K) and 1
    atm, the volume will be.
  • VnRT/P (1.00mol)(0.08206)(273) 22.4L
  • 1 atm.
  • 22.4 L is called the molar volume
  • Standard temperature and pressure (abbreviated
    STP). Contains 1 mol of an ideal gas at STP.

50
13.11Gas Stoichiometry
  • A sample of argon gas has a volume of 3.45 L at
    STP. What is the mass of the argon?

6.15 g
51
13.11Gas Stoichiometry
  • A sample of hydrogen gas occupies a volume of
    15.0L at STP. What volume will this sample
    occupy at 22oC and 2.50 atm?

6.48 L
52
13.11Gas Stoichiometry
  • When magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid,
    hydrogen gas is produced
  • Mg(s) 2HCl MgCl2(aq) H2(g)
  • Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas produced at
    STP by reacting 5.00 g Mg and an excess of HCl
    (aq)

4.61 L
53
13.11Gas Stoichiometry
  • When subjected to an electric current, water
    decomposes to hydrogen and oxygen gas 2H2O(l)
    2H2(g) O2(g)
  • If 25.0g of water is decomposed, what volume of
    oxygen gas is produced at STP?

15.5 L
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