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Interventions

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Interventions * * * * * * * * * General Considerations When Selecting Interventions: Research/evidence-based Targeted to student needs Sensitive to cultural ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interventions


1
Interventions
2
General Considerations When Selecting
Interventions
  • Research/evidence-based
  • Targeted to student needs
  • Sensitive to cultural differences
  • Level of acculturation and stage of English
    language acquisition

ELL
2
3
Guiding Questions in Planning Interventions
Auditory Attention and Memory
  • Does the student attend during instructional
    times?
  • Is lack of attention due to fatigue because of
    overload of working memory?
  • Is lack of attention due to environmental
    factors?
  • Are there any pertinent medical issues? Has
    hearing been checked?
  • Does the student remember information given
    verbally from day to day?

3
4
Interventions Auditory Attention and Memory
  • Provide opportunities for the student to learn
    how to
  • repeat sentences through strategies such as
    chunking
  • rephrase/retell
  • rhyme and use songs to remember classroom content
    (math facts, historical events, etc.)
  • connect auditory information through
    visualization, mnemonics, etc.

4
5
Guiding Questions in Planning Interventions
Listening Comprehension
  • Can the student demonstrate understanding of
    academic content and/or novel information
    presented orally?
  • Can the student answer questions when given a
    visual cue, choices, scaffolded content?
  • Can the child demonstrate that he/she understands
    age appropriate vocabulary and basic concepts?
  • Can the child demonstrate that he/she understands
    how sentence structure can change meaning?
    (Example The boy was hit by the girl. vs The
    boy hit the girl.
  • Does presentation method make a difference in the
    childs ability to respond? (Example Visual or
    kinesthetic rather than auditory.)

5
6
Guiding Questions in Planning Interventions
Listening Comprehension, cont.
  • Can the student follow one and/or multiple-step
    directions?
  • Is the student able to follow directions
    presented orally without visual cues?
  • Does he/she improve with visual or auditory
    cues?
  • Is the student an English Language Learner?
  • Refer to stages of language.
  • Recommend instructional strategies, such as SIOP.

ELL
6
7
Interventions Listening Comprehension and
Following Directions
  • Explicitly teach listening strategies
  • Eyes on speaker within cultural norms
  • No talking
  • Quiet hands and feet
  • Ask for repetition
  • Teach strategies such as repetition,
    identification of key words, summarizing
  • Provide sheltered instruction and implement
    vocabulary-building strategies

ELL
7
8
Guiding Questions in Planning Interventions
Grammar and Syntax
  • Does the student use age appropriate grammar?
  • A typical 1st grader may say mouses instead of
    mice, but this would not be age appropriate for a
    5th grader.
  • Is sentence word order appropriate and do
    sentences make sense?
  • I want juice, please. vs. Juice I want,
    please.
  • Word order may be appropriate in the native
    language but not in English. Student may need
    modeling and direction to understand English
    grammar/syntax.
  • Does a students writing reflect the grammar and
    syntax of oral expression?
  • Does the student over generalized grammar rules?

8
9
Considerations for English Language Learners
  • Consider that errors may be differences NOT
    disorders due to primary language structures.
  • Consider the importance of providing frequent
    opportunities to practice syntax structures with
    peers and adults.

9
10
Interventions Grammar and Syntax
  • Explicit teaching of word order for different
    sentence types
  • Daily oral language activities
  • Sentence strips words rearranged into correct
    order
  • Grammar games such as Build-A-Sentence or Making
    Sense with Syntax
  • Translate oral expressions into written form
    (Example develop a 2-part story plan and create
    grammatical sentences for the parts or develop a
    story with a problem and solution and write the
    story with appropriate grammar and syntax.)

10
11
Guiding Questions in Planning Interventions
Vocabulary Development
  • Does the child know common words and/or concepts?
  • Does the student misuse words, for example, call
    a hat a mitten?
  • It is common for ELL students to not know the
    correct words for objects or concepts.
  • Is the student able to learn new content area
    vocabulary?
  • Does the student have trouble recalling content
    area vocabulary?
  • Does the student interpret figurative language
    literally (e.g., idioms, jokes, metaphors,
    sarcasm)?
  • Resource Bringing Words to Life (author Isabel
    Beck) - robust vocabulary instruction that
    emphasizes the importance of instruction that
    expand upon a students vocabulary base,
    especially for ELLs.

11
12
Interventions Vocabulary Development
  • Explicitly teach word meanings in authentic
    contexts.
  • Use words in context and provide daily exposure
    to new vocabulary words.
  • Pre-teach new vocabulary before content area
    lessons.
  • Use graphic organizers to build vocabulary
  • Teach how to provide a description when unable to
    come up with word.
  • Dont limit the teaching of vocabulary to having
    students look up dictionary definitions.

12
13
Resources
  • Longman English Dictionary Online
    (www.idoceonline.com) - provides definition, word
    in sentence, word in pictures.
  • Word Wizard from Scholastic (www.scholastic.com
    and enter search terms Word Wizard and English
    Language Learners)
  • Teaches cognates - words that are similar in both
    languages
  • Teaches idioms
  • Reinforces repetition - read it, hear it, see it,
    say it
  • Builds academic vocabulary
  • Use of a dictionary can help build alphabetic
    knowledge and self-reliance on it as a resource.

13
14
Guiding Questions for Planning Interventions
Social Language
  • Does the child respond to greetings from peers
    and adults?
  • Does the child engage in reciprocal
    conversations?
  • Does the child stay on topic or does he/she
    immediately introduce a topic of interest to
    him/her?
  • Does the child respond appropriately to nonverbal
    cues and body language from others?
  • Note An ELL student may not respond because of
    his/her stage of language acquisition.
    Scaffolding may need to be provided that is
    appropriate to the students language proficiency.

14
15
Interventions Social Language Development
  • Implement social skills programs
  • Cue students to respond to greetings
  • Teach students to observe and respond
    appropriately to body language and facial
    expressions of conversational partners
  • Teach students stay on topic of conversation and
    to shift topics appropriately
  • Have students turn to a partner for
    content-related conversation (Buddy Talk or Pair
    Share strategies)

15
16
Narrative Skills in the Classroom
  • Students are asked to
  • share stories or retell stories to demonstrate
    reading comprehension
  • predict or hypothesize
  • express their opinions
  • state main ideas or themes from stories and texts

16
17
Guiding Questions in Planning Interventions
Narrative Skills
  • Can the student retell or create a simple story
    with a clear beginning, middle, and end?
  • Can the student make predictions and draw
    inferences?
  • Can the student ask and answer questions in the
    classroom setting?
  • Can a student provide a response to a reading
    selection and explain his/her thinking?
  • Can a student provide the explanations needed for
    comparing and contrasting?
  • Note You cannot expect proficiency in these
    skills if student is non-English proficient or
    Limited English proficient. Additional supports
    will be needed.

17
18
Interventions Narrative Skills
  • Sequencing activities such as arranging picture
    cards to illustrate a story or stating the steps
    for an activity
  • Explicitly teaching narrative structure including
    the beginning, middle, and end
  • Using graphic organizers for oral presentations
  • Having student provide a sequential retell to a
    story

18
19
Teacher Read Alouds
  • Students listen to aural content and learn to
    extract the important information.
  • Applies to any content area material - not just
    stories
  • Students learn to visualize the information.
  • Scaffolding may include the use of
    visuals/pictures that support the text being read
    aloud.
  • Effective teacher implementation of read alouds
  • Pre-teach vocabulary
  • Have students draw, write, or respond orally to
    what is being read
  • Ask questions about the content being read
  • Make connections to prior knowledge and
    experience (e.g., picture walk)

19
20
30 Second Conversation
  • Target students who have weak oral language
    skills
  • Take 30 seconds each day to engage them in
    authentic conversation
  • This is one of the most powerful interventions
    for developing oral language skills.
  • This strategy is effective with all students, but
    essential for students with limited oral language
    skills. The 30 Second Conversation strategy is
    effective for enhancing social language skill,
    but also for building content area concept
    vocabulary and understanding.
  • (The Talking Classroom, Judi Dodson 2008)

20
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