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The Early Middle Ages

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... Section 4, page 544 Religion and Society ... page 547 How Were Jews Treated? page 547 Medieval Culture page 549 The First Universities ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Middle Ages


1
The Early Middle Ages
  • Chapter 15, Section 1, page 512

2
The Geography of Europe page 512
  • Europe is a continent.
  • a peninsula made up of smaller peninsulas
  • most of Europe lies within 300 miles of the sea
  • rivers Rhine, Danube, Vistula, Volga, Seine,
    etc.
  • mountains Alps, Carpathians, etc.
  • mountains and rivers encouraged trade, provided
    safety, and separated cultures

3
The Germanic Kingdoms page 514
  • When last we were in Europe
  • Western Roman Empire was collapsing
  • 476 A.D. last Western emperor was deposed
  • Germanic tribes had spread throughout the old
    territory of the Empire
  • Byzantine Empire was thriving
  • Christianity was well established
  • What does this mean?
  • population shifts to rural areas
  • unifying factors of the empire start to diminish
  • decline of literacy

4
The Germanic Kingdoms page 514
5
Who Were the Franks? page 514
  • c. A.D. 400 the Franks settled modern day
    France
  • Clovis Frankish king who became a Catholic
  • conversions
  • death and division of land
  • breakdown in royal duties
  • mayors of the palace

6
Who Were the Franks? page 515
  • Charles Martel famous mayor of the palace who
    wanted to reunite Europe
  • A.D. 732 defeated the Muslims at the Battle of
    Tours
  • Pepin the Short became king of the Franks (with
    help) defended the pope against the Lombards
    (Papal States)

7
Who Was Charlemagne? page 515
  • Charlemagne Charles the Great
  • defended pope, again
  • defeated the Saxons in Germany and converted them
  • regained parts of Spain from the Muslims
  • Christmas Day, A.D. 800 Pope Leo III crowned
    him Roman Emperor
  • Hmmm?

8
Who Was Charlemagne? page 515
9
Who Was Charlemagne? page 516
  • Aachen capital of Charlemagnes empire
  • leadership style
  • man of the people?
  • set up courts
  • sent out the lords messengers
  • strong belief in education (perhaps because of
    his own shortcomings)
  • focus on religion, music, literature, arithmetic,
    Latin

10
Who Was Charlemagne? page 518
  • Charlemagnes impact
  • united a large portion of Europe
  • defended Christianity and the Church
  • spread Christianity
  • supported education
  • empire disintegrated after his death ? son Louis
    ? to grandsons Charles, Lothair, and Louis

11
Europe Is Invaded page 518
Europe after the Treaty of Verdun, 843 A.D.
12
Europe Is Invaded page 518
  • A.D. 800s and 900s were not good times
  • Magyars
  • Muslims
  • Vikings
  • Vikings, a.k.a. Norsemen (north men)
  • Scandinavia
  • top-notch sailors courtesy of their longboats
  • feared raiders

13
Europe Is Invaded page 518
  • Vikings
  • Why raid?
  • geography - fjords steep sided valleys that are
    inlets of the sea
  • part of the culture Valhalla
  • known for their ferocity and violence
  • Normandy

14
Europe Is Invaded page 518
15
The Holy Roman Empire page 519
  • eastern Frankish kingdom divided into tiny states
  • Henry I (the Fowler)
  • Otto I - German king the pope declared emperor of
    the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 962
  • most emperors were weak
  • outcome Germany and Italy remained divided into
    small kingdoms until the 1800s

16
The Rise of the Catholic Church page 519
  • Pope Gregory I (the Great) sent missionaries
    throughout Europe to convert people to
    Catholicism
  • conversion of Ethelbert, ruler of Kent (Britain)
  • by A.D. 1050 most of the people in Western Europe
    had converted to Catholicism
  • monasteries filled essential roles
  • later became money-makers involvement in the
    politics of the area

17
Why Is Gregory VII Important? page 520


18
Why Is Gregory VII Important? page 520
  • Concordat of Worms pope named bishops only
    kings could give them government positions
  • limited the power of the emperor
  • concordat agreement between the pope and the
    ruler of a country
  • struggle of popes and kings
  • interdicts

19
Feudalism
  • Chapter 15, Section 2, page 523

20
What Is Feudalism? page 523
  • feudalism political and social system in which
    landowning nobles governed and protected the
    people in return for services (particularly
    military service)
  • vassal a noble who served a lord of a higher
    rank
  • fief land granted to a vassal

21
What Was the Manorial System? page 524
  • manorial system basic economic arrangement
    during the Middle Ages that rested on a set of
    rights and obligations between a lord and his
    serfs
  • manor lords estate
  • lords provided housing, farmland, protection, and
    other services
  • serfs (peasant laborers bound by law to the lands
    of a noble) provided labor (cared for livestock,
    tended crops, etc.) and other duties, and paid
    for services
  • couldnt marry without permission of lord

22
What Was the Manorial System? page 524
23
How Did Farming Improve? page 526
  • farming improvements
  • wheeled plow
  • horse collar
  • water and wind power
  • crop rotation

24
Life in Feudal Europe page 526
  • knights mounted horsemen who pledged to defend
    their lords lands in exchange for a fief
  • Why?
  • changes in technology made mounted combat
    effective
  • expense
  • Process page (7) ? squire (14) ? knight (21)
  • knights follow code of chivalry (guide for
    knights good behavior)
  • manors run by women in their husbands absence

25
How Did Nobles Live? page 526
  • the castle
  • not one design fits all
  • types motte and bailey, concentric, etc.
  • not built for comfort
  • formidable structure

26
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27
What Was Peasant Life Like? page 527
  • In a word, harsh.
  • hard work and lots of it
  • living conditions dirty, cramped, little privacy
  • life expectancy around 35 years
  • diet was meager
  • women pulled double duty
  • Church was central Christian feast days
  • as bad as we think?

28
Trade and Cities page 528
  • A surplus of goods and safer travel allowed trade
    to resume by 1100 which led to bigger cities
    for example
  • Venice Italian city that was a major trading
    center
  • Flanders the center of trade in Northern Europe
  • trade fairs established
  • bartering gives way to coinage again

29
Crafts and Guilds page 530
  • guild organization of individuals in the same
    business or occupation working to improve the
    economic and social conditions of its members
  • protected and taught trades like tanning,
    carpentry, masonry, etc.
  • set standards and prices
  • decided who could join a trade
  • guaranteed quality work
  • apprentice (around 10 years of age), journeyman
    (by 17 or 18), master (produce a masterpiece and
    be accepted by the guild)

30
What Was City Life Like? page 530
  • dirty, smelly, polluted, cramped, crowded, noisy,
    fire-prone

31
Kingdoms and Crusades
  • Chapter 15, Section 3, page 535

32
England in the Middle Ages page 535
  • Alfred the Great united the Anglo-Saxon
    kingdoms and drove away Vikings
  • William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy claimed
    English throne and won it after the Battle of
    Hastings
  • French language
  • merger of customs

33
Henry II and the Common Law page 537
  • Henry II (r. 1154 1189)
  • circuit judges
  • established common law law that is the same
    throughout the kingdom
  • established the jury system
  • grand jury decides if a person can be accused
    of crime
  • trial jury decides if the person is guilty or
    innocent

34
What Was the Magna Carta? page 537
  • Magna Carta (A.D. 1215)
  • Great Charter
  • King John vs. the nobles
  • limits on the right of the king to collect taxes
  • trials by peers for freemen
  • statement of rights and duties of king and
    vassals
  • summary established the idea that people have
    rights and that the power of the government
    should be limited
  • Edward I and the English Parliament

35
The Kingdom of France page 538
  • Hugh Capet and the Capetian dynasty
  • Philip II strengthened kings position
  • Philip IV met with the first Estates-General
    Frances first parliament
  • first estate clergy
  • second estate nobles
  • third estate everyone else

36
Eastern Europe and Russia page 539
  • the Rus Slavic name for Viking rulers
  • Kiev center of the Kievian Rus
  • trouble with the Mongols
  • Ivan III takes title of czar

37
The Crusades page 541
  • 1071 Muslim Turks take control of Asia minor
    Byzantines defeated
  • 1095 Pope Urban II calls for a crusade (holy
    war) to drive out the Muslims and reclaim the
    Holy Land
  • First Crusade drove Muslims from Jerusalem
  • Second Crusade utter failure
  • Third Crusade Fredrick Barbarossa, Philip II,
    Richard I vs. Saladin
  • Fourth Crusade wrong reasons
  • others

38
The Crusades page 541
39
The Crusades page 541
  • summary
  • Crusades Catholics vs. Muslim Turks
  • effects increased trade, helped to breakdown
    feudalism, reduced power of nobles/increased
    power of kings, weakened power of pope, weakened
    Byzantine Empire, damaged Christian/Muslim
    relations

40
The Church and Society
  • Chapter 15, Section 4, page 544

41
Religion and Society page 545
  • growth of monasteries means growth of the
    Churchs power base
  • A.D. 900s witnessed 157 new monasteries, 326 in
    the 11th century, 702 in the 12th century
  • In England, by the 1200s, nearly one of every 50
    adult males was a monk.
  • new religious orders Cluniac order, Cistercian
    order
  • Hildegard of Bingen headed a convent in Germany
    and composed Church music

42
Religion and Society page 546
  • friars monks who go out into the world to
    preach
  • Francis of Assisi founder of the first order of
    friars who helped the poor and served as
    missionaries
  • Franciscan monks
  • Dominic de Guzmán founded Dominican order who
    defended the Churchs teachings

43
The Role of Religion page 546
  • Church is important
  • recorded births, deaths
  • conducted weddings
  • ran schools
  • mass Catholic worship service
  • sacraments
  • Baptism, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation,
    Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick
  • saints
  • relics

44
What Was the Inquisition? page 547
  • Church tried to put an end to heresy religious
    beliefs that conflict with Church teachings
  • friars try
  • 1233 pope established the Inquisition, a church
    court, to root out heretics
  • methods of the Inquisition

45
How Were Jews Treated? page 547
  • anti-Semitism hatred of Jews
  • Why?
  • refused to accept Christianity
  • careers
  • scapegoats
  • manifestations mobs, special clothing,
    restrictions on clothing, murder
  • effects Jewish expulsion

46
Medieval Culture page 549
  • Architecture
  • Romanesque style rectangular, long, rounded
    roofs, huge pillars and thick walls
  • Gothic style ribbed vaults and pointed arches
    instead of rounded barrel vaults, flying
    buttresses, stained glass

47
The First Universities page 550
  • grammar, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music,
    astronomy
  • doctors degree in law, medicine, and theology
    the study of religion and God
  • Thomas Aquinas scholasticisms greatest
    champion, combined teachings of Aristotle with
    those of the Church
  • Summa Theologica
  • natural law
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