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Elements of Music (continued)

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Medieval Secular Music (Non-religious) Heard outside ... (dance music) Fast triple meter 3 instruments Rebec (bowed string) Pipe (wind) Psaltery (plucked string ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Elements of Music (continued)


1
Elements of Music (continued)
  • Musical Style

2
Musical Style
  • Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone,
    color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form in
    music
  • The distinctive or unique sound of
  • One composer
  • A group of composers
  • A country
  • A period in history

3
Historical Musical Style Periods
  • Middle Ages (450-1450)
  • Renaissance (1450-1600)
  • Baroque (1600-1750)
  • Classical (1750-1820)
  • Romantic (1820-1900)
  • 20th century

4
Music of the Middle Ages
  • Medieval Music (450-1450)

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Feudal Society
  • Three main social classes
  • Nobles (Kings, Queens, Knights, etc.)
  • Peasants (Serfs)
  • Clergy (Church People - priests, monks nuns)

12
Knights/Nobility
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Clergy
16
Peasants
17
Medieval Sacred Music (religious)
  • Most music in churches
  • Churches centers of learning, culture, and power
  • Most important musicians were priests

18
Gregorian Chant
  • Prayer music for voices performed in churches
    melodies set to sacred Latin texts, sung without
    accompaniment

19
Gregorian Chant (continued)
  • Gregorian Chant was the official music of the
    Roman Catholic church - the church of Medieval
    Europe
  • Named for Pope Gregory (590-604) who was reputed
    to have assembled and standardized all basic
    chants required for church services of the time

20
ANONYMOUS - Alleluia Vidimus Stellam (We have
seen the star)
  • Latin text
  • Music has otherworldly quality
  • Not in minor or major, but a church mode
  • No beat
  • Music has eternal quality
  • No catchy tune motives dont seem to repeat as
    expected seems like it will go on forever and
    forever
  • Monophony
  • Uses melismas

21
Melisma (not in textbook glossary)
  • Many notes sung to one syllable of text


7 1 3 4 4 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 5 4 71 3 2 3
Al - le- lu- ia
Melismas
22
ANONYMOUS - Alleluia Vidimus Stellam (We have
seen the star)
  • Beginning - Solo, then Choir
  • Alleluia
  • Middle (verse) - Choir
  • We have seen his star in the east and are come
    with gifts to worship the Lord
  • End - Choir sings beginning phrase
  • Alleluia

23
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores (You
successors)
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
  • Abbess of Rupertsberg in Germany
  • Amazingly talented and influential woman
  • Religious mystic and philosopher
  • Diplomat
  • Wrote poetry, music,
  • and musical drama
  • Scientist and healer

24
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores (You
successors)
  • Latin text
  • Music has otherworldly quality
  • Not in minor or major, but a church mode
  • No beat
  • Music has eternal quality
  • No catchy tune motives dont seem to repeat as
    expected seems like it will go on forever and
    forever
  • Monophony, performed with a drone
  • Uses melismas, but less-long that Alleluia chant
  • Larger pitch range than older Alleluia chant

25
Drone
  • Long, sustained note or notes accompanying a
    melody

26
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores (You
successors)
  • You successors of the mightiest lion between the
    temple and the altar- You the masters in his
    household- As the the angles sound forth praises
    and are here to help the nations, you are among
    those who accomplish this, forever showing your
    care in the service of the lamb.

27
Medieval Secular Music (Non-religious)
  • Heard outside church in castles, taverns, and
    town squares
  • JONGLEURS
  • travelling minstrels who performed music and
    acrobatics for popular entertainment

28
ANONYMOUS - Estampie
  • Strong, regular BEAT (dance music)
  • Fast triple meter
  • 3 instruments
  • Rebec (bowed string)
  • Pipe (wind)
  • Psaltery (plucked string)
  • Monophony (rebec pipe) with drone (psaltery)
  • Repetitive sounding catchy

29
Important Musical Development in Middle Ages
around 900 A.D.
  • Birth of Polyphony

30
Organum (pl. Organa)
  • Medieval polyphony that consists of Gregorian
    Chant and one or more additional melodic lines

31
Architectural Layers Layers of Chant
or Organum
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Birth of Polyphony
700-900 900-1300 1300-1450
simple organum "School" of Notre Dame (Leonin, Perotin) simple rhythmic notation invented ARS NOVA new system of notating rhythm
monks add a 2nd melody above chant chant stretched out and more lines of organum added above chant used for complex rhythms and syncopation
38
Notre Dame Cathedral Paris, France
39
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - (1377-1377)
  • French composer
  • Educated as priest
  • Mostly worked as court official
  • Wrote sacred and secular music

40
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - Agnus Dei from Notre Dame
Mass
  • Agnus Dei part of MASS
  • MASS - sacred choral composition made up of five
    sections
  • Kyrie (Lord have mercy)
  • Gloria (Glory to God in the highest)
  • Credo (I believe in one God)
  • Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy, Lord of Hosts)
  • Agnus Dei (Lamb of God)

41
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - Agnus Dei from Notre Dame
Mass
  • Written for 4 voices
  • NON-IMITATIVE POLYPHONY
  • 3 sections 3 lines of text each closed by
    cadences
  • Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi miserere
    nobis (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of
    the world, have mercy on us)
  • Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi miserere
    nobis (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of
    the world, have mercy on us
  • Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi dona nobis
    pacem (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of
    the world, grant us peace)
  • Chant stretched out in tenor voice
  • Upper voices have faster melodies with
    syncopation
  • Regular BEAT
  • Harmony has dissonant parts

42
Musical Style Elements Early and Mid - Middle Ages (Chant) Late Middle Ages (Machaut)
Rhythm no regular beat, free-flowing, creates "floating," "otherworldly" sound has regular beat, more complex, has syncopations
Melody uses melismas, very smooth (legato) uses melismas, more "jumpy" and less smooth
Form sounds non-repetitive sounds non-repetitive
Dynamics no changes, all one level no changes, all one level
Texture monophonic polyphonic (non-imitative) produces heavy, dense, thick sound
Harmony none mixture of consonance and dissonance produces serious sound
43
BENART DA VENTADORN - La douza votz (The sweet
voice)
  • Troubadour song
  • Monophony (voice) with improvised drone
    accompaniment (plucked string)
  • I have heard the sweet voice of the woodland
    nightingale and my heart springs up so that all
    the cares and the grievous betrayals love has
    given me are softened and sweetened and I would
    thus be rewarded, in my ordeal, by the joys of
    others

44
BENART DA VENTADORN - La douza votz (The sweet
voice)
  • In truth, every man leads a base life who does
    not dwell in the land of joy
  • One who is false, deceitful, of low breeding, a
    traitress has betrayed me, and betrayed herself
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