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The Renaissance

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Title: The Renaissance


1
The Renaissance
  • Music

2
Renaissance Music by 1425
  • Mensural (Measured) Notation had reached the
    point of using dots, flags, white and colored
    notes

3
Consonance vs. Dissonance
  • Consonance What sounds good
  • Dissonance What sounds bad
  • 3rds and 6ths added to the list of consonant
    sounds (Perfect 4th, 5th, 8ve)

4
Renaissance MusicJohannes Tinctoris
  • Renaissance Music Theorist and Composer
  • Pythagoras-Antiquity
  • Boethius-Medieval
  • Believed in what sounded good to the ear
  • The pleasure of the ear is derivedthen, not
    by heavenly bodies, but by earthly instruments
    with the cooperation of nature.-1477 Book on the
    Art of Counterpoint

5
Renaissance MusicJohannes Tinctoris
  • Tinctoris wrote that the musical Renaissance
    began in England and moved to France
  • COMPOSERS INCLUDE
  • John Dunstable (1390-1453)-English used interval
    of thirdsTriads
  • Guillaume du Fay (1400-1474)-Belgium-Italy
  • Johannes Ockegham (1420-1496)-France
  • (among others)

6
Renaissance Music
  • Texture-homogeneous texture (same part, different
    time, forms vertical structure)-polyphonicemploys
    uses of pervading imitation
  • Rhythm-Flowing, less strong downbeats
    (specifically vocal)tactus (steady pulse)
    governs work
  • Melody-usually newly composed-lyrical
  • Harmony-3rds, 6ths added to 4ths, 5ths, 8ves
  • Compositional Buzz Words-cantus firmus, motet,
    chanson, frotolla, cyclic Mass

7
Renaissance MusicJohn Dunstable
?24
  • English Composer given credit for being among the
    first to use new harmonies
  • Qulam pulchra es (How Fair You Are) c.1430
  • Motet (polyphonic religious work)
  • Uses consonant sounds, moving chordally,
    hymn-like (strophic)
  • Very few dissonant sounds used

8
Renaissance MusicGuillaume du Fay
?26
  • Born in what is now Belgium, moved to Italy for
    most of career (spent time in France) p.106-107
  • Last well-known composer to write plainchant,
    upon commission in 1457 (found in 1988)

9
Renaissance MusicGuillaume Du Fay
?26
  • Nuper rosarum flores (The Rose Blossoms)
  • Motet
  • Written for the consecration of the dome of the
    cathedral in Florence March 25, 1436
  • Sounds very similar (rhythmically) as middle
    ages, harmonically (chordally) much different
  • Uses cantus firmus-fixed melody (chant or melodic
    line that music is written around)
  • All parts singing the same thing, one moving
    faster

10
The Florence Cathedral Domedesigned by Filippo
BrunelleschiSmaller inner shell helps support
the outer shell
11
Renaissance MusicJousquin des Prez
?27
  • Born in Belgium/France c1450-1521 and spent most
    of life in either Italy or France p.108-9
  • Ave Mariavirgo serena (Hail the Serene Virgin
    Mary) c. 1470-80 (page 108, 110, 111)
  • Published in Petruccis First Book of Motets
  • Uses not only normal Renaissance harmonies
    (triads-3rds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths, 8ves) but
  • Pervading imitationseries of musical ideas
    presented imitatively (echo)replaces isorhythm
  • The point that a new idea is presented is the
    point of imitation

12
Renaissance MusicCyclic Mass
  • OLD
  • Liturgically Appropriate
  • No Unifying musical concept throughout
  • Monophonic, Polyphonic
  • Only later instrumentally accompanied
  • NEW
  • Focus placed on musical continuity
  • Based on single Cantus Firmus (presented
    throughout)May or may not be chant related
  • Polyphonic
  • Usually accompanied (organ, other instruments)

13
Renaissance MusicGuillaume Du Fay
?29 (00-34, 728-end)
  • Cyclic Mass
  • Missa Se la face ay pale (Mass If My Face Is
    Pale)-p.117
  • First to be based on secular tune (composed by Du
    Fay)
  • Tenor no longer lowest voiceallowed more
    harmonies (still fairly consonant)

14
Renaissance MusicCantus Firmus
  • Generally applied in one of three ways
  • Strict Technique Cantus Firmus remains
    constantly in one voice (usually tenor)
  • Ostinato Technique Cantus Firmus repeats
    constantly, always appearing in at least one
    voice
  • Free Technique Cantus Firmus migrates from voice
    to voice or may drop out completely
  • May be canonic in the form of a canonstrict
    imitation (parody) of original theme or altered
    (augmentation, inversion, retrograde, retrograde
    inversion)

15
Renaissance MusicThe Motet
  • Religious Polyphonic WorkPrayer set to music
  • Three types
  • Liturgicalwritten within the liturgy of the Mass
    Proper (usually Offertory texts)
  • DevotionalNon-liturgical services or gatherings
    (including confraternities and Memorial
    Services)(Usually non-liturgical poetry)
  • OccasionalCommissioned for special circumstances
    (Usually non-liturgical poetry or prose)

16
Renaissance MusicWord-Painting
  • The use of Musical Elements to imitate the
    meaning of a specific passage of text

17
Renaissance Music Word-Painting Example
?215
  • Musical Example Absalon, fili mi (Absalom, My
    Son) Josquin (possibly Pierre de la Rue)
  • In the Bible, a son of David who staged a revolt
    against his father's kingship and was defeated
    and killed in the ensuing battle.
  • His body was then taken down and cast into a pit
    dug in the forest, and a heap of stones was
    raised over his grave. When the tidings of the
    result of that battle were brought to David, as
    he sat impatiently at the gate of Mahanaim, and
    he was told that Absalom had been slain, he gave
    way to the bitter lamentation "O my son Absalom,
    my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for
    thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" (2 Sam. 1833.
    Comp. Ex. 3232 Rom.93).

18
Renaissance Music Word-Painting Example
?215
  • Motet
  • Written in lament of a lost son. Exact loss
    unknown (p.126-127)
  • Uses Word-Painting to symbolize the Depths of
    Hell
  • Another example would be an ascending line while
    text is saying ascending in to heaven or climbing
    a mountain.

19
The Renaissance
  • Secular Music

20
Secular (vocal) Music of The Renaissance
  • Most music was still memorized, improvised or
    embellished from what we haveFewer works are
    available than sacred for this reason.

21
Renaissance MusicThe Chanson (French song)
  • Secular Polyphonic WorkPoem or Prose set to
    Music (Secular Version of the Motet)
  • Instruments often replaced text (served same
    melodic purpose)
  • Progressed much like the motetfrom several
    non-related lines to a unifying theme and mood
    prevailing throughout AND more rhythmic
    denotations

22
Chanson ExamplesDu Fay
?216
  • Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoys (Farewell These
    Good Wines of Lannoys)
  • Ca 1425-1450
  • Three melodic lines (superius, tenor and
    contratenor) only superius is vocalcan be vocal
    or instrumental.

23
Chanson ExamplesHayne van Ghizeghem
?217
  • De tous biens plaine (Of All Good Things)
  • Ca 1470
  • Three melodic lines (superius, tenor and
    contratenor) again, vocal or instrumental.
  • More fluid melodic line
  • Very popularseveral arrangements survive

24
Chanson ExamplesHeinrich Isaac
?218
  • Helas, que devera mon coeur (Alas, that my
    heart will devour?) p.130
  • Ca late 1480s
  • Pervading Imitation
  • Paratactic structure-successive points of
    imitation present new materialall voices are
    equal
  • Three-Voiced Rondeau (each strophe consists of
    eight lines of text set to music following the
    rhyme scheme ABaAabABUppercase letters show
    Refrain that remains constant strophe to strophe)

25
Renaissance MusicFrottola
  • Italian version of the Chanson
  • Lighthearted and sarcastic rather than the
    courtly love themes in chansons
  • Characterized by dance-like rhythms with
    syncopation (hemiola)
  • Highly published by Petrucci
  • Most for solo voice, lute or keyboard
  • Spread throughout Europedid not remain just in
    Italy
  • Occasionally written in antiphonal style (moving
    back and forth)

26
Frottola Musical ExamplesMarchetto Cara (c.
1470-1525)
?219
  • From Mantua, Italy
  • Hor venduto ho la speranza (I have just sold
    hope)
  • Published in 1504 in Petruccis first book of
    frottolle (plural)

27
Frottola Musical ExamplesJosquin des Prez
?220
  • El grillo (The Cricket)
  • Antiphonal
  • Only partially imitative

28
The Parisian ChansonClaudin de Sermisy
?221
  • Parisian Chanson, influenced by FrottolaLighter
    text. (Based in France)
  • Still Polyphonic, and homorhythmic (moving
    together).
  • Tant que vivray (As Long As I Live)-1528
  • Parisian Chanson began to become more
    complicated, some using onomatopoeic techniques
    (words that describe sounds crash, kaplooie,
    bang.Batman)Described subjects such at War,
    Birds, Cries, Gossip

29
The Italian Madrigal
  • Developed in Italy
  • Similar to Frottola,
  • Differences
  • More rhythmic variation (contrapuntal)
  • More daring harmonies (use of dissonance)
  • Through-composedEach line of text set to new
    music (allowed for word-painting)
  • This is different than the madrigal encountered
    in the Middle Ages

30
The Italian MadrigalMusic Examples-p.145
?Bonus1
  • Jacob Arcadelt
  • Il bianco e dolce cigno (The White and Gentle
    Swan)-1539
  • Early Italian Madrigal

31
The Italian MadrigalMusical Examples
?Bonus3
  • Madalena Casulana (p.148-149)
  • Morir non puo il mio cuore (My Heart Cannot
    Die)-1566p.147
  • Among earliest published female composers

32
The Italian Madrigal Musical Examples
?31
  • Matona mia cara (My Dear Lady)-1581
  • Orlando de Lassus (p.171)
  • Considered an anti-madrigal from its
    light-hearted parody on the madrigal style
  • Difficult to translate to English as it is
    intentionally written as a German soldier
    speaking broken Italian

33
Review of Secular Vocal Music of the Renaissance
  • Call and Answer of musical genres (more of
    variations on innovations)
  • France Chanson (1450-1500)
  • Italy Frottola (1480s)
  • France Parisian Chanson (1520s)
  • Italy Madrigal (1530s)

34
Renaissance Music-Germany
  • Lied (Song) and Tenorlied (Tenor
    Song)-Musical selection prominent in Germany
  • Meistersingers (Master Singers)-Group of
    singers, sophisticated
  • Most famous, Hans Sachs

35
Renaissance Music-Germany
?32
  • Musical example
  • Henrich Isaac
  • Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen (Innsbruck, I
    Must Leave You)

36
Renaissance Music-Spain
?BONUS4
  • Villancico-Musical form of the Renaissance
  • Similar to Italian Frottola
  • Al amor quiero vencer (I Want to Conquer Love)
  • Solo voice with vihuela (guitar-like)
    accompaniment
  • Specific directions for embellishment (do or
    dont or do what I say)

37
Renaissance Music-England
?33
  • Italian Madrigal form moved to EnglandEnglish
    Madrigal
  • Thomas Morley (1557-1602)
  • Now is the Month of Maying (Now is the Month of
    Maying)-1597
  • Renaissance Ballata (Ballet), Fa-La
  • Lighter side (English Madrigals included light
    and more serious)

38
Renaissance Music-England
?34
  • John Dowland (1563-1626)
  • Known for Lute Song (strophic, notated for lute
    and 1 voices)
  • Come, Heavy Sleep
  • Serious side of English Renaissance

39
Again, To Review
  • France Chanson (1450-1500)
  • Italy Frottola (1480s)
  • France Parisian Chanson (1520s)
  • Italy Madrigal (1530s)
  • In their own right
  • Germany Lied and Tenorlied (1500s)
  • Spain Villancico (Late 1400s)
  • England English MadrigalRenaissance Ballet
    (Fa-La) and Lute Song

40
The Renaissance
  • Sacred Music

41
Renaissance Music State of the Art
  • Up until the beginning of the Reformation, there
    was one church, one (religious) language and one
    liturgy
  • More churches (sects) began to form, regional
    vernacular slipped in and the liturgy was altered.

42
Music of the Reformation
  • Martin Luther, in addition to German
    MonkLutenist, flutist, singer and composer
    (admired works by Josquin des Prez)
  • Some Protestant composers still used parts of the
    traditional Roman Liturgy (i.e. Introits,
    Graduals)
  • Latin still used (some), vernacular used
    frequently
  • Communal Music important-CHORALES-German term for
    hymn (strophe)

43
Music of the Reformation
  • All Protestants did not embrace music like Luther
  • Jean Calvin-Calvinists (later Presbyterian) only
    allowed unaccompanied unison singing of the
    Psalms (NO OTHER MUSIC)
  • Ulrich Zwingli-NO MUSIC
  • Luther comments I am not satisfied with him who
    despises music, as all fanatics do,Music is a
    gift of God, not a gift of Men.

44
The Chorale
  • Meant to be sung by a congregation
  • Began to be combined for special music with
    form of tenorlied (polyphonic work set around
    tenor melody)

45
Musical Examples
?35
  • Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott (A Mighty Fortress
    is Our God)-1551
  • Johann Walter (Protestant Composer)
  • Set using text that Martin Luther adapted for his
    own hymn (that he composed) by the same name
  • Elaborated chorale

46
Musical Examples
?36
  • Verily, Verily I Say Unto You
  • Thomas Tallis (1505-1585) (Protestant Composer)
  • Uses word-painting I will raise Him up
  • Anthem-meant to be sung by choir

47
Musical Examples
?37
  • Sing Joyfully Unto God
  • William Byrd (1542-1623)-(Catholic Composer)
  • Anthem
  • 6 voices

48
Music of the Counter-Reformation
  • Refer to earlier notes regarding Council of
    Trents Stand on the place of music
  • In addition secular music was discouraged as a
    model for sacred compositions (motet)

49
Pierluigi da Palestrina
?38
  • Missa Papae Marcelli (Mass for Pope
    Marcellus)-1567
  • Polyphonic workAccepted by the Catholic church,
    as the TEXT does not get lost from moving parts
  • Palestrina considered poster-child for Catholic
    compositions

50
The Renaissance
  • Instrumental and Dance Music

51
Instrumental Music
  • See Instrument Presentation
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