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Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D. 1000-1500

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Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D. 1000-1500 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Medieval Japan Kyoto became the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D. 1000-1500


1
Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D. 1000-1500
2
The East
  • From 1000 to 1500, connections between Africa,
    Asia, and Europe increased dramatically
  • Though they had different cultures, all three
    continents were linked by a complex pattern of
    trade routes

3
Major Trade Routes
  • Four major trade routes connected the continents
    during this era
  • The Silk Road
  • The Indian Ocean trade network
  • The Trans-Saharan caravan route
  • The Mediterranean trade network

4
The Silk Road
  • The Silk routes across Asia to the Mediterranean
    basin
  • It was used heavily by 100 B.C., and continued to
    carry trade up to the 17th Century

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Indian Ocean Trade Network
  • Although many Asian goods traveled along the Silk
    Road, just as many traveled by sea. Maritime
    routes across the Indian Ocean
  • Ships linked the coastal areas of East Africa,
    Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, SE Asia, and
    China

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The Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
  • By 2500 B.C. the Saharan region had begun to dry
    up, becoming a major obstacle for travelers
  • Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
  • Caravan routes had been established to navigate
    the Sahara by 1000 A.D.
  • Salt from the Saharan region was traded for gold
    from the Niger River Basin

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The Mediterranean Trade Network
  • The Mediterranean Sea connected Europe to the
    other trade networks
  • Europe became connected to the Byzantine and
    Muslim Empires
  • Through those empires, Europe was connected with
    Russia, India, and China

11
The Mediterranean Trade Network
  • Mediterranean trade was dominated by Italian
    merchants
  • These merchants helped to bring knowledge and
    learning back to Europe, beginning a period
    called the Renaissance

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Other Trade Networks
  • Northern and Eastern Europe were connected to the
    other trade routes thanks to the Black Sea
  • Rivers and seas were the usual method of trade in
    Western Europe
  • The lands of SE Asia were connected to China
    through the South China Sea

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Continental Interaction
  • By 1000 A.D., the Eastern Hemisphere was highly
    connected thanks to trade
  • The three continents shared goods, ideas,
    technology, and religions
  • Trade had increased for two reasons
  • Improved transportation
  • Peace and stability

16
Continental Interaction
  • Asia was very peaceful and stable during this
    period because of the power of two empires
  • The Chinese Empire
  • The Abbasid Empire

17
Continental Interaction
  • Although the continents traded a wide variety of
    goods, major products included
  • Gold from W. Africa
  • Spices from India and Indian ocean region
  • Porcelain from China and Persia
  • Textiles from India, China, the Mid-East, and
    later Europe
  • Amber from the Baltic region

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Continental Interaction
  • Trade encouraged the spread of technology
  • Crops began to be traded wheat, rice, and
    especially sugar cane came from India
  • Waterwheels and windmills came from the middle
    east

21
Continental Interaction
  • Paper from China through the Muslim world to
    Byzantium and Western Europe
  • Improved navigational charts and lateen sail came
    from the Indian Ocean Region

22
Continental Interaction
  • Religions spread over the centuries
  • Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan
  • Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast
    Asia
  • Islam from the Mideast to West Africa, Central
    and Southeast Asia

23
Cultural Interaction
  • Spread of religions across the hemisphere
  • Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan
  • Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast
    Asia
  • Islam into West Africa, Central and Southeast
    Asia
  • Printing and paper money from China

24
Continental Interaction
  • Some interactions had negative effects
  • Disease traveled along trade routes
  • In 1347 A.D. the bubonic plague, better known as
    the Black Death, reached Europe and killed
    millions
  • The Black Death came from ports along the Black
    Sea, carried by Italian merchant ships

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Continental Interaction
  • Another negative interaction was the beginning of
    the African slave trade
  • Africans were traded for goods in W. Africa and
    moved along the Saharan caravan routes
  • In 1441, the Portuguese arrived on the Atlantic
    coast, beginning the slave trade that resulted in
    millions of Africans being sent to the Americas

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Early Japan
  • Japan is off the Asian coast, east of China,
    separated by the Sea of Japan
  • It is in close proximity to China and Korea
  • Japan is a mountainous archipelago (group of
    islands), with 4 main islands

29
Early Japan
  • Japan adopted many ideas from China, and changed
    them to make them uniquely Japanese
  • Pictographic writing
  • Architecture
  • Confucianism and Buddhism

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Early Japan
  • Chinese influences merged with Japanese
    traditions to mold Japans culture
  • Buddhism became Japans state religion in 594
  • Buddhism coexisted with Japans ancient religion
    Shinto

32
Shinto
  • Shinto is unique to Japan and was the early state
    religion and coexistance with Buddhism
  • It was often associated with the Imperial family
    and worshipped the emperor
  • The religion has no holy book, but emphasizes
    ritual cleanliness and many ceremonies in daily
    life

33
Shinto
  • Important aspects of Shinto include
  • Shrines at natural geographic locations
  • Worshipping forces of nature
  • Loyalty to family and praying to ancestors

34
Medieval Japan
  • Kyoto became the Japanese capital in 794, with
    the start of the Heian Period
  • The Heian broke off contacts with China
  • By 1000, Japan was completely isolated from China
    and Korea
  • The Heian government broke down due to
    incompetent aristocrats

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Medieval Japan
  • The Heian were replaced by the power of local
    princes
  • These princes were protected by warriors called
    samurai

37
Medieval Japan
  • In 1192, a military government called a shogunate
    was established
  • Shoguns controlled land and the local clans that
    lived on them
  • Their system was very similar to European
    feudalism

38
Axum
  • In 300 A.D. the kingdom of Axum gained control of
    the Red Sea trade routes
  • An Axum army conquered Kush in 350, securing
    their control of East Africa

39
Axum
  • Axum became a Christian kingdom after 324 A.D,
    when missionaries came to their ports
  • The Axumites were known for their stelae large,
    decorated stone columns built to mark royal tombs

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Axum
  • By 800 A.D., Arab merchants across the Red Sea
    had begun to control most of the trade passing
    through
  • Without trade fueling their economy, Axum quickly
    declined

42
Zimbabwe
  • In 1300 A.D., the nation of Zimbabwe had
    developed in southern Africa
  • Zimbabwe had developed along the Zambezi and
    Limpopo Rivers
  • The nation centered around their capital of Great
    Zimbabwe
  • The people of Zimbabwe were efficient farmers and
    raised vast herds of cattle

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Zimbabwe
  • The civilization declined by 1450, when Great
    Zimbabwe was abandoned because of two serious
    problems
  • A shortage of salt
  • The exhaustion of grazing and timber resources

45
West African Kingdoms
  • By 800 A.D., kingdoms had grown to dominate trade
    in West Africa
  • They all developed south of the Sahara, in close
    proximity to the Niger River
  • Three major kingdoms developed one after the
    other Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

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Ghana
  • Ghana grew prosperous from the gold and salt
    trade in West Africa
  • Salt was necessary for flavoring and preserving
    foods
  • This trade was taxed by the king of Ghana, who
    was also a religious and military leader

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Ghana
  • From 800-1000, local chiefs maintained authority
    by paying taxes to the King
  • In the 11th Century, Muslim armies from North
    Africa invaded and had conquered Ghana by 1076

50
Mali
  • The empire of Mali was established by 1200 A.D.,
    where Ghana had been
  • Mali was expanded by their great king, Mansa Musa
  • He governed efficiently through provincial
    governors
  • Numerous mosques were built under his rule

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Mali
  • Timbuktu became the most important city of the
    empire
  • It was the home of many Muslim doctors, scholars,
    and merchants
  • The city became a center of learning and trade
  • The city was lost to nomadic warriors in 1433

53
Songhai
  • By 1500 Mali had fallen and been replaced by the
    kingdom of Songhai
  • The Muslim leader Sonni Ali recaptured Timbuktu
    and built the new kingdom
  • His new kingdom was more centralized

54
Songhai
  • Kings of Songhai replaced traditional provincial
    rulers with royal appointees
  • Taxes, trade, and gold made Songhai a wealthy
    kingdom, like Ghana and Mali

55
Next Chapter. The Western Hemisphere
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