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Title: AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 1-4

AP PSYCHOLOGYReview for the AP ExamChapter 1-4
Psychology The science of behavior (what we do)
and mental processes (sensations, perceptions,
dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.)
At all levels, psychologists examine how we
process information--how we organize, interpret,
store, and use it.
Prologue Psychologys Roots
  • Empiricism
  • Knowledge comes from experience via the senses
  • Science flourishes through observation and

Founding Psychologists
1) William Wundt (1879 Leipzig, Germany)
Founded the first formal laboratory devoted to
experimental psychology.
2) Hermann von Helmholtz physicist who conducted
simple experiments on perception and the nervous
system..the first to measure the speed of a
nerve impulse.
3) Herman Ebbinghaus 1885 published classic
studies on memory
4) G. Stanley Hall first psychology laboratory
in US (1883) at John Hopkins Univ..first
American Psychology Journal (1887).first
president of American Psychological Association
5) Margaret Floy Washburn First woman to
receive PhD in Psychology (1894)
6) Francis Cecil Sumner first African-American
PhD in psychology
7) Mary Whiton Calkins first woman elected
president of APA, 1905
Historical Schools
STRUCTURALISM using introspection, the
systematic examination by individuals of their
own thoughts and feelings about specific sensory
experiences. Emphasized the structure of the
mind and behavior.
Edward Titchener (Cornell University)
emphasized the what of mental illness rather
than why or how of thinking.
The major opponent to Stucturalism was
FUNCTIONALISM gives primary importance to
learned habits that enable organisms to adapt to
their environment and to function effectively.
What is the function or purpose of any
behavioral act?
John Dewey provided impetus for progressive
William James study of consciousness was not
limited to elements, contents, and structures.
.the mind haS an ongoing relationship with the
environment. He published Principles of
Psychology 1890
GESTALTISM The whole is greater than the sum of
its parts.
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Koffka, and
Kurt Lewin
BIOLOGICAL the causes of behavior in the genes,
the brain, the nervous system, and endocrine
system the role of specific brain systems in
aggression by stimulating different regions and
then recording any destructive actions that are
BEHAVIORISM emphasizes observable behavior
rather than inner mental experiences
emphasizes the role of environment as the cause
of behavior. (From our environment, we learn to
do certain behaviors and learn not to do others.)
Sometimes called learning theory. .use of
positive reinforcement rather than punishment
B. F. Skinner radical behaviorism acknowledged
that evolution provided each species with a
repertory of behaviors.
John B.Watson observable behavior was important
stated the chief goal of psychology was the
prediction and control of behavior.
Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning.
NEUROPHYSIOLOGY An approach which emphasizes
that all actions, feelings, and thoughts are
associated with bodily events such as the firing
of nerve cells in the brain or the release of
COGNITIVE refers to mental activity including
thinking, remembering, learning and using
language. Behavior is only partly determined
by preceding environmental events and past
behavioral consequences. People act because they
Jerome Bruner developed a learning theory
based upon categorization
David Ausubel attempted to explain meaningful
verbal learning as a phenomenon of consciousness
rather than of behavior. Created the advance
Jean Piaget identified stages of cognitive
PSYCHOANALYSIS An approach that emphasizes
unconscious motives and conflicts. A
psychodynamic psychologist will analyze
aggression as a reaction to frustrations caused
by barriers to pleasure, such as unjust
authority. They view aggression as an adults
displacement of hostility originally felt as a
child against his or her parents.
Sigmund Freud developed from his work with
mentally disturbed patients views a person as
being pushed and pulled by complex network of
inner and outer forces. Developed stages of life
to age 12, claiming that an individual would
change little after that point.
Erik Erikson expanded on Freuds stages of life
to include 8 stages into later adulthood.
Carl Jung challenged his mentor Freud with the
hypothesis that adulthood, not childhood,
represents the most significant phase of
Bernice Neugarten focused on the difference
between chronological age and social age.
HUMANISM emphasizes personal growth,
self-esteem, and the achievement of human
potential more than the scientific understanding,
prediction, and control of behavior. Human beings
are not driven by the powerful, instinctive
forces postulated by Freudians or manipulated by
environments. .look for personal values and
social conditions that foster self-limiting,
aggressive perspectives instead of
growth-enhancing, shared experiences.
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of
Needs, stating that each level of needs must be
satisfied before one moves onto the next.
EVOLUTIONARY Seeks to connect contemporary
psychology to a central idea of the life
sciences, Charles Darwins theory of evolution by
natural selection. Researchers focus on the
environmental conditions in which the human brain
evolved. Those organisms best suited to their
environments will flourish and pass on genes more
successfully than those with poorer adaptations.
CULTURAL Study cross-cultural differences in
the causes and consequences of behavior.
Researchers may compare the prevalence of eating
disorders for white Americans vs. African
American teenagers within the U.S. Cultural
psychologists study the perceptions of the world
as affected by culture, the languages one speaks
and how it affects ones experience of the world,
or how does culture affect the way children
develop toward adulthood.
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
Psychologys Perspectives A lot depends on your
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Basic Research
  • Biological psychologists explore the links
    between brain and mind
  • Developmental psychologists study changing
    abilities from womb to tomb
  • Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive,
    think, and solve problems
  • Personality psychologists investigate our
    persistent traits
  • Social psychologists explore how we view and
    affect one another

Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychiatry
  • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological
  • Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical
    (for example, drug) treatments as well as

  • Psychologists, like all scientists, use the
    scientific method to construct theories that
    organize observations and imply testable
  • Five Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Developing a hypothesis
  • 2) Performing a controlled test
  • 3) Gathering objective data
  • 4) Analyzing the result/Survival of Hypothesis
    (refine hypothesis and retest)
  • 5) Publishing, criticizing and replicating the

Types of ResearchExperimental Method
Components of the Research Process 1) Developing
a research question 2) Surveying the
literature 3) Hypothesis 4) Independent
variable 5) Dependent variable 6) Extraneous
variables 7) Controls 8) Sampling/Subjects
(random assignment to groups)
9) Procedure 10) Results/Statistics 11)
Discussion 12) New Hypothesis
Research Strategies--Step 1Developing a
  • Empirical Investigation
  • collecting objective information firsthand by
    making careful measurements based on direct
  • Theory
  • an explanation using an integrated set of
    principles that organizes and predicts
  • Hypothesis
  • a testable prediction
  • often implied by a theory
  • MUST be defined operationally

Research Strategies--Step 1Developing a
  • Operational Definition
  • a statement of procedures (operations) used to
    define research variables
  • REQUIRED to make your suspicion testable
  • You MUST describe
  • independent variables
  • dependent variable
  • list of procedures
  • Example-
  • intelligence may be operationally defined as
    what an intelligence test measures

Research Strategies--Step 2Performing a
Controlled Test
  • Independent Variable
  • the experimental factor that is manipulated
  • the variable whose effect is being studied

Think of the independent variable as a condition
that the experimenter changes INDEPENDENTLY of
all the other controlled experimental conditions.
Research Strategies--Step 3 Gathering Objective
Dependent Variable the experimental factor that
may change in response to manipulations of the
independent variable in psychology it is
usually a behavior or mental process, or test.
The responses of the participants in an
experiment DEPEND directly on the conditions to
which they have been exposed.
the dependent variable must also be given an
operational definition.
Research Strategies--Step 5Publishing,
Criticizing, Replicating the Results
Critics will look for flaws in the
research. REPLICATION is one way to see if one
would get the same results.
Replication repeating the essence of a
research study to see whether the basic finding
generalizes to other subjects and
circumstances usually with different subjects
in different situations
  • Types of Psychological Research
  • 1) Experimental Method
  • 2) Non-Experimental Methods (Descriptive Studies)
  • 3) Correlational Studies
  • Survey
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Longitudinal Study
  • Cross-Sectional Study
  • Cohort-Sequential Study

Advantages of Experimental Method cause-and-effec
t operationalization of variables stresses the
control of variables can implement double-blind
or blind procedures high internal validity may
be replicated
Disadvantages of Experimental Method reduce
external validity difficult to establish
adequate control conditions statistical
probability of bias
Advantages of Case Study in-depth, detailed
information about the case opportunity to study
unusual cases time, money issues ethical
Disadvantages of Case Study results cannot be
generalized prone to inaccurate reporting from
source cannot be used to establish
cause-and-effect relationships biased researcher?
Disadvantages of Correlation Study cannot
establish cause-and-effect prone to inaccurate
reporting hard to access the impact of
additional variables do not allow for the active
manipulation of variables.
Advantages of Correlation Study examine, test,
reveal, compare or describe relationship between
2 variables efficient, collect lots of
data make predictions dispel illusory
correlations utilize preexisting or archival data
Illusory Correlation
  • the perception of a relationship where none

Research Strategies
  • Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships

could cause
(1) Low self-esteem
(2) Depression
Low self-esteem
could cause
Low self-esteem
(3) Distressing events or biological predispositio
could cause
BIOLOGICAL (Neurophysiological) Chapter 2
Neural Communication
  • Neuron
  • a nerve cell
  • Dendrite
  • the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that
    receive messages and conduct impulses toward the
    cell body
  • Axon
  • the extension of a neuron, ending in branching
    terminal fibers, through which messages are sent
    to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  • Myelin MY-uh-lin Sheath
  • a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the
    fibers of many neurons
  • enables vastly greater transmission speed of
    neutral impulses

Neural Communication
Neural Communication
  • Action Potential
  • a neural impulse a brief electrical charge that
    travels down an axon
  • generated by the movement of positively charged
    atoms in and out of channels in the axons
  • Threshold
  • the level of stimulation required to trigger a
    neural impulse

Neural Communication
  • Synapse SIN-aps
  • junction between the axon tip of the sending
    neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the
    receiving neuron (synaptic gap)
  • Neurotransmitters
  • chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic
    gaps between neurons
  • when released by the sending neuron,
    neuro-transmitters travel across the synapse and
    bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron,
    thereby influencing whether it will generate a
    neural impulse

Serotonin Pathways
Neural Communication
  • Acetylcholine ah-seat-el-KO-leen
  • a neurotransmitter that, among its functions,
    triggers muscle contraction
  • Endorphins en-DOR-fins
  • morphine within
  • natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters
  • linked to pain control and to pleasure

Neural Communication
EXAMPLES Neurotransmitters dopamine,
serotonin Agonists cocaine (increases dopamine
in synapse) Antagonist (blocks reuptake) curare
  • Serotonin Syndrome potentially
  • two drugs increase the level of serotonin at
    the same time. (ie) migraine medication
    (triptans) and antidepressants with SSRI
    (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
  • examples SSRI Celexa, Zoloft, Prozac,
    Zoloft, Paxil, and Lexapro. SNRI's include
    Cymbalta and Effexor
  • examples Triptans mitrex, Zomig, Frova,
    Maxalt, Axert, Amerge, and Relpax
  • Drugs of abuse, such as ecstasy and LSD have also
    been associated with serotonin syndrome.

The Endocrine System
  • Endocrine System
  • the bodys slow chemical communication system
  • a set of glands that secrete hormones into the
  • The Endocrine System is made up of tissues or
    organs called endocrine glands, which secrete
    chemicals directly into the bloodstream. The
    chemical messengers are called HORMONES.

REGULATORY HORMONES) Primary link between
Endocrine and Nervous systems. PINEAL GLAND
important hormones which REGULATE GROWTH
thymosins ) Two lobes consists--outer CORTEX
and a central MEDULLA.
(adrenaline), NOREPINEPHRINE (noradrenaline))
Lie along the superior borders of the
The Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • the brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • the sensory and motor neurons that connect CNS to
    the rest of the body
  • Nerves
  • neural cables containing many axons
  • part of the PNS
  • connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense
  • Sensory Neurons
  • neurons that carry incoming information from the
    sense receptors to the CNS

The Nervous System
  • Interneurons
  • CNS neurons that internally communicate and
    intervene between the sensory inputs and motor
  • Motor Neurons
  • carry outgoing information from the CNS to
    muscles and glands
  • Somatic Nervous System
  • the division of the peripheral nervous system
    that controls the bodys skeletal muscles

The Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • the part of the peripheral nervous system that
    controls the glands and the muscles of the
    internal organs (such as the heart)
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • division of the autonomic nervous system that
    arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in
    stressful situations
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • division of the autonomic nervous system that
    calms the body, conserving its energy

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The Nervous System
  • Reflex
  • a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory
  • Neural Networks
  • interconnected neural cells
  • with experience, networks can learn, as feedback
    strengthens or inhibits connections that produce
    certain results
  • computer simulations of neural networks show
    analogous learning

Brain Structures and their Functions
  • Lesion
  • tissue destruction in the brain
  • a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally
    caused destruction of brain tissue
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • an amplified recording of the waves of electrical
    activity across the brains surface
  • these waves are measured by electrodes placed on
    the scalp

The Brain
  • CT (computed tomography) Scan
  • a series of x-ray photographs taken from
    different angles and combined by computer into a
    composite representation of a slice through the
    body also called CAT scan
  • PET (positron emission tomography) Scan
  • a visual display of brain activity that detects
    where a radioactive form of glucose goes while
    the brain performs a given task
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio
    waves to produce computer-generated images that
    distinguish among different types of soft tissue
    allows us to see structures within the brain

MRI Scan
Normal patient Schizophrenic patient
The Brain
  • Brainstem
  • the oldest part and central core of the brain,
    beginning where the spinal cord swells as it
    enters the skull
  • responsible for automatic survival functions
  • Medulla muh-DUL-uh
  • base of the brainstem
  • controls heartbeat and breathing

The Brain
  • Reticular Formation
  • a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an
    important role in controlling arousal
  • Thalamus THAL-uh-muss
  • the brains sensory switchboard, located on top
    of the brainstem
  • it directs messages to the sensory receiving
    areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the
    cerebellum and medulla
  • Cerebellum sehr-uh-BELL-um
  • the little brain attached to the rear of the
  • it helps coordinate voluntary movement and

The Brain
  • Limbic System
  • a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at
    the border of the brainstem and cerebral
  • associated with emotions such as fear and
    aggression and drives such as those for food and
  • includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and
  • Amygdala ah-MIG-dah-la
  • two almond-shaped neural clusters that are
    components of the limbic system and are linked to
  • Hypothalamus
  • neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus
    directs several maintenance activities (eating,
    drinking, body temperature, sexual behavior)

The Cerebral Cortex
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • the intricate fabric of interconnected neural
    cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres
  • the bodys ultimate control and information
    processing center
  • Glial Cells
  • cells in the nervous system that support,
    nourish, and protect neurons

The Cerebral Cortex
  • Frontal Lobes
  • involved in speaking and muscle movements and in
    making plans and judgments
  • Parietal Lobes
  • includes the sensory cortex
  • Occipital Lobes
  • include the visual areas, which receive visual
    information from the opposite visual field
  • Temporal Lobes
  • include the auditory areas

The Cerebral Cortex
  • Motor Cortex
  • area at the rear of the frontal lobes that
    controls voluntary movements
  • Sensory Cortex
  • area at the front of the parietal lobes that
    registers and processes body sensations

Association Areas
  • More intelligent animals have increased
    uncommitted or association areas of the cortex

The Cerebral Cortex
  • Aphasia
  • impairment of language, usually caused by left
    hemisphere damage either to Brocas area
    (impairing speaking) or to Wernickes area
    (impairing understanding)
  • Brocas Area
  • an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the
    muscle movements involved in speech
  • Wernickes Area
  • an area of the left temporal lobe involved in
    language comprehension and expression

Specialization and Integration
  • Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking

  • Plasticity
  • the brains capacity for modification, as evident
    in brain reorganization following damage
    (especially in children) and in experiments on
    the effects of experience on brain development
  • Corpus Callosum
  • large band of neural fibers
  • connects the two brain hemispheres
  • carries messages between the hemispheres

Split Brain
  • a condition in which the two hemispheres of the
    brain are isolated by cutting the connecting
    fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum)
    between them

Right Brain vs. Left Brain Perception Spe
aking Spatial-relations Calculations Abstract
thought Speech Intuitive thought Songs
Writing Logic Analysis
Whole picture vs. Details Emotion vs. Co
Genes Our Biological Blueprint
  • Chromosomes
  • threadlike structures made of DNA that contain
    the genes
  • All human cells contain the diploid number of
    chromosomes (46) consisting of 23 pairs of
    homologous chromosomes
  • Two of this set are X and Y (the sex chromosomes)
    and the other 22 pairs are autosomes that guide
    the expression of other traits.

KARYOTYPE of a male The human haploid genome
contains 3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs,
divided among twenty two (22) pairs of autosomes
and one pair of sex chromosomes.
Genes Our Biological Blueprint
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  • complex molecule containing the genetic
    information that makes up the chromosomes
  • has two strands-forming a double helix- held
    together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Four major
    varieties of nitrogen-containing bases can
    contribute to nucleotide structure
  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Thymine

Genetics and Behavior
  • Genes
  • biochemical units of heredity that make up the
  • a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a
  • Genome
  • the complete instructions for making an organism
  • consisting of all the genetic material in its
  • Represents two sets of genetic instructions--one
    from the egg and one from the sperm

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Evolutionary Psychology
  • Natural Selection
  • the principle that, among the range of inherited
    trait variations, those contributing to survival
    will most likely be passed on to succeeding
  • Mutations
  • random errors in gene replication that lead to a
    change in the sequence of nucleotides
  • the source of all genetic diversity

Behavior Genetics
  • Identical Twins
  • develop from a single zygote (fertilized egg)
    that splits in two, creating two genetic replicas
  • Fraternal Twins
  • develop from separate zygotes
  • genetically no closer than brothers and sisters,
    but they share the fetal environment

Identical twins may have separate placentas and
blood flow, just like fraternal twins.
Two placental arrangements in identical twins
a) Splits early, about 5th day
b) Splits between 5th and 12th day, greater
mortality, greater abnormalities
Eggs that split after the 12th day results in
conjoined twins.
A little known (and very rare) genetic situation
results in the TETRAGAMETIC CHIMERISM. . .
someone who has at least two different genotypes
which each arose from an individual zygote and
eventually fused, when normally they would have
developed separately as twins.
Behavior Genetics
  • Temperament
  • a persons characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity
  • Heritability
  • the proportion of variation among individuals
    that we can attribute to genes
  • may vary, depending on the range of populations
    and environments studied
  • Interaction
  • the effect of one factor (such as environment)
    depends on another factor (such as heredity)
  • Molecular Genetics
  • the subfield of biology that studies the
    molecular structure and function of genes

Environmental Influence
  • Experience affects brain development

In 14 to 16 repetitions of this basic experiment,
the rats placed in the enriched environment
developed significantly more cerebral cortex.
Environmental Influence
  • Culture
  • the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and
    traditions shared by a large group of people and
    transmitted from one generation to the next
  • Norm
  • an understood rule for accepted and expected
  • Personal Space
  • the buffer zone we like to maintain around our
  • Memes
  • self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovation
    passed from person to person

The Nature and Nurture of Gender
  • X Chromosome
  • the sex chromosome found in both men and women
  • females have two males have one
  • an X chromosome from each parent produces a
  • Y Chromosome
  • the sex chromosome found only in men
  • when paired with an X chromosome from the mother,
    it produces a male child

The Nature and Nurture of Gender
  • Testosterone
  • the most important of the male sex hormones
  • both males and females have it
  • additional testosterone in males stimulates
  • growth of male sex organs in the fetus
  • development of male sex characteristics during
  • Role
  • a set of expectations (norms) about a social
  • defining how those in the position ought to behave

The Nature and Nurture of Gender
  • Social Learning Theory
  • theory that we learn social behavior by observing
    and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  • Gender Schema Theory
  • theory that children learn from their cultures a
    concept of what it means to be male and female
    and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
  • Gender Role
  • a set of expected behaviors for males and females
  • Gender Identity
  • ones sense of being male or female
  • Gender-typing
  • the acquisition of a traditional masculine or
    feminine role

The Nature and Nurture of Gender
  • Two theories of gender typing

  • Developmental Psychology
  • a branch of psychology that studies physical,
    cognitive and social change throughout the life
  • Zygote
  • the fertilized egg
  • enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division
  • develops into an embryo
  • Embryo
  • the developing human organism from 2 weeks
    through 2nd month
  • Fetus
  • the developing human organism from 9 weeks after
    conception to birth

  • Teratogens
  • agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can
    reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal
    development and cause harm (nuclear fallout, food
    allergies, medicine taken by mother during
    pregnancy, alcohol, drugs, et.al.)
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • physical and cognitive abnormalities in children
    caused by a pregnant womans heavy drinking.
  • symptoms include facial misproportions

The Newborn
  • Rooting Reflex
  • tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple
    when touched on the cheek
  • Preferences
  • human voices and faces
  • facelike images--gt
  • smell and sound of mother
  • Babinsky Reflex
  • tendency to grasp an object when when placed into
    their hands and lift them up by their clasped

Newborn Reflexes rooting reflex sucking
reflex grasping reflex swallowing
reflex startle (moro) reflex babinsky reflex
The Newborn
  • Habituation
  • decreasing responsiveness with repeated
  • newborns become bored with a repeated stimulus,
    but renew their attention to a slightly different
  • Maturation
  • biological growth processes that enable orderly
    changes in behavior
  • relatively uninfluenced by experience
  • sets the course for development while experience
    adjusts it

Infancy and Childhood
  • Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking
    moves a mobile- and can retain that learning for
    a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989).

Cognitive Development
  • Cognition
  • mental activities associated with thinking,
    knowing, and remembering
  • Schema
  • a concept or framework that organizes and
    interprets information
  • Assimilation
  • interpreting ones new experience in terms of
    ones existing schemas
  • Accommodation
  • adapting ones current understandings (schemas)
    to incorporate new information

Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Handout 4-4 and 4-11
Infancy and Childhood Cognitive Development
  • Object Permanence
  • the awareness that things continue to exist even
    when not perceived (Piaget Sensorimotor)
  • Conservation
  • the principle that properties such as mass,
    volume, and number remain the same despite
    changes in the forms of objects (Piaget Concrete

Cognitive Development
  • Baby Mathematics
  • Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants
    stare longer (Wynn, 1992)
  • Egocentrism
  • the inability of the preoperational child to take
    anothers point of view (Piaget Preoperational)
  • Theory of Mind
  • peoples ideas about their own and others mental
    states- about their feelings, perceptions, and
    thoughts and the behavior these might predict
    (Piaget Preoperational)
  • Autism
  • a disorder that appears in childhood
  • Marked by deficient communication, social
    interaction and understanding of others states
    of mind

Born in Russia (Jewish) Law degree Unive of
Moscow PhD Literature Linguistics
Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)
humans use various symbols and items that help
us to develop cultures we change, interact and
go through development within our
cultures higher?thinking skills depend on the
internalization of the items we used to develop
within our culture and communicate. used blocks
to distinguish children's mastery of the concept
from simple memorization His work was
suppressed by Marxist Russian authorities for
over 20 years after his death.
  • SocioCultural Theory of Development
  • FACETS (not stages)
  • Private Speech talking to oneself
  • Proximal Development is the level of development
    immediately above a person's present level to
    achieve maximum learning
  • Scaffolding using hints and pointers from
    teachers, parents, and peers who have already
    grasped the desired concept, children are able to
    form their own path toward a solution

Vygotsky v. Piaget
Both Piaget and Vygotsky viewed pre-school
children in problem solving situations talking to
themselves. When Piaget labeled the self directed
behavior as egocentric and believed it only
minimum relevant to childrens cognitive growth,
Vygotsky referred to it as a private speech. He
argued that private speech grows out of the
childrens interaction with parents and other
adults and through such interactions, they begin
to use their parents instructional comments to
direct their own behavior.
REF http//starfsfolk.khi.is/solrunb/vygotsky.htm
Abnormal Development
PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) a metabolic disorder that,
left untreated, results in mental retardation and
other problems. inability of the body to
utilize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine.
Amino acids are the building blocks for body
proteins. We get amino acids from food. In
classic PKU the enzyme that breaks down this
amino acid is completely deficient causing
phenylalanine to accumulate in the blood and body
tissues. high levels of phenylalanine can cause
significant brain problems.
symptoms include vomiting, irritability, rash,
mousy odor to the urine, nervous problems,
increased muscle tone, more active muscle tendon
reflexes. Later, severe brain problems occur,
mental retardation and seizures. Other features
include microcephaly (small head), prominent
cheek and upper jaw bones with widely spaced
teeth, poor development of tooth enamel and
decreased body growth.
Resource http//depts.washington.edu/pku/diet.htm
Abnormal Development
TAY-SACHs DISEASE deterioration of the brain
of a one-year old child due to accumulation of
fat on the brain, caused by insufficient activity
of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A that
catalyzes the biodegradation of acidic fatty
materials known as gangliosides. this child will
usually die before age 4 infants with this
disease appear to develop normally for first few
months of iife. symptoms deterioration of
mental physical abilities, blindness, deafness,
inability to swallow, seizures, dementia,
increased startle reflex, muscles atrophy and
paralysis sets in.
viable human monosomy (missing one chromosome)
1 in 5000 births XO phenotype female sex
organs do not mature at adolescence, and
secondary sex characteristics fail to
develop sterile and short no mental deficiency
Abnormal Development
ANDROGYNY having both female and male
characteristics HERMAPHRODITIC may be raised
as one sex or another as genetalia is
ambiguous failure to develop breasts,
milk-glands, child-bearing hips, no menses,
sterility, beard growth, male vocal chords,
TOURETTES SYNDROME neurological disorder which
becomes evident in early childhood or adolescence
before the age of 18 years. multiple motor and
vocal tics lasting for more than a
year. symptoms include involuntary movements of
the face, arms, limbs, or trunkfrequent,
repetitive and rapid..such as eye blink, nose
twitch, grimace. causal evidence points to
abnormal metabolism of at least one brain
neurotransmitter, dopamine.
Social Development
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • fear of strangers that infants commonly display
  • beginning by about 8 months of age
  • Attachment
  • an emotional tie with another person
  • shown in young children by seeking closeness to
    the caregiver and showing distress on separation

Mary Ainsworth (1979) observed mother-infant
pairs at home during their first 6 months.
Later, she observed 1 year old infants in strange
situations without their mothers. Sensitive-respon
sive mothers had infants who exhibited SECURE
ATTACHMENT. Insensitive-unresponsive
mothers--those who ignored their children at
times--had children who exhibited INSECURE
ATTACHMENT. She is known for her work in the
development of ATTACHMENT THEORY.
Placed in a strange situation, 60 of infants
display SECURE ATTACHMENT. They play comfortably
and explore their new environment. Others show
INSECURE ATTACHMENT. These infants cling to
their mother and are slow to explore their
Harry Harlow 1905 - 1981 1930, BA, PhD
Stanford Univ Faculty, Univ of
Wisconsin Worked with Abraham Maslow
  • Harlows Surrogate Mother Experiments
  • Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable
    cloth mother, even while feeding from the
    nourishing wire mother

Social Development
  • Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were
    terror-stricken when placed in strange situations
    without their surrogate mothers.

Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)
From his initial analysis of imprinting, Lorenz
went on to identify the essential components of
innate behavior and developed the central
constructs of releasers and fixed action patterns
which serve as the foundation of the study of
animal behavior.
  • Critical Period
  • an optimal period shortly after birth when an
    organisms exposure to certain stimuli or
    experiences produces proper development
  • Imprinting
  • the process by which certain animals form
    attachments during a critical period very early
    in life
  • Temperament
  • a persons characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity

Social Development
  • Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)
  • a sense that the world is predictable and
  • said to be formed during infancy by appropriate
    experiences with responsive caregivers
  • Self-Concept
  • a sense of ones identity and personal worth

Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices
Studies by Stanley Coopersmith (1967), Diana
Baumrind (1996) and John Buri (1988) reveal that
children with the highest self-esteem,
self-reliance, and social competence usually have
warm, concerned, AUTHORITATIVE parents. Although
most studies are done with white middle-class
families, studies in other cultures with other
races in more than 200 cultures worldwide confirm
these findings.
  • Authoritarian
  • parents impose rules and expect obedience
  • Dont interrupt
  • Why? Because I said so.
  • Authoritative
  • parents are both demanding and responsive
  • set rules, but explain reasons
  • encourage discussion
  • Permissive
  • submit to childrens desires
  • make few demands
  • use little punishment
  • Rejecting-neglecting
  • disengaged
  • expect little
  • invest little

Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices
  • Authoritarian
  • ADVANTAGE little time
  • DISADVANTAGE frail obedient children who may
    feel hopeless children may become rebellious and
    grow to have an insecure outlook on life.
  • Authoritative
  • ADVANTAGE children who talk and discuss,
    incorporate understanding children grow to be
    confident and trusting of the world.
  • DISADVANTAGE takes time to explain and discuss
  • Three explanations for correlation between
    authoritative parenting and social competence

  • Adolescence
  • the transition period from childhood to adulthood
  • extending from puberty to independence
  • Puberty
  • the period of sexual maturation
  • when one first becomes capable of reproduction
  • Primary Sex Characteristics
  • body structures that make sexual reproduction
  • ovaries- female
  • testes- male
  • external genitalia
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • nonreproductive sexual characteristics
  • female- enlarged breasts, hips
  • male- voice quality, body hair
  • Menarche (meh-NAR-key)
  • first menstrual period

The Heinz Dilemma
In a county in Europe, a poor man named Valjean
could find no work, nor could his sister and
brother. Without money, he stole food and
medicine that they needed. He was captured and
sentenced to prison for 6 years. After a couple
of years, he escaped from the prison and went to
live in another part of the country under a new
name. He saved money and slowly built up a
factory. He gave his workers the highest wages
and used most of his profits to build a hospital
for people who couldnt afford good medical care.
Twenty years had passed when a tailor recognized
the factory owner as being Valjean, the escaped
convict whom the police had been looking for back
in his hometown.
Should the tailor report Valjean to the
police? Why or why not?
Kohlbergs Moral Ladder
  • As moral development progresses, the focus of
    concern moves from the self to the wider social

5. Although turning Valjean in may not be
perfectly just, leaving such decisions up to each
persons judgment would result in greater
injustice (Affirms agreed-upon rights)
Morality of abstract principles to
affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical
Postconventional level
4. There has to be respect for the law (duty to
society/avoids dishonor or guilt)
Morality of law and social rules to
gain approval or avoid disapproval
Conventional level
3. If you dont report him, everyone will think
you are just as much a criminal (gains
approval/avoids disapproval)
Morality of self-interest to avoid punishment or
gain concrete rewards
2. The tailor may get a reward for turning in a
criminal. (gains/rewards)
Preconventional level
1. The tailor will be in trouble if he doesnt
tell the police. (avoid punishment)
NOTE the authors gave no Stage 6 response.
This is partly because none of the answers
reflected Stage 6 responses. Kohlberg and Colby
conclude that, the question of whether Stage 6
should be included as a natural psychological
stage will remain unresolved until research is
conducted with a special sample of people likely
to have developed beyond Stage 6.
At one time Kohlberg proposed a Stage 7, which
reflected a cosmic orientation in which one is
motivated to be true to universal principles and
feels oneself part of a cosmic direction
transcending social norms.
Lawrence Kohlberg 1927-1987 Harvard University
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson Freudian ego-psychologist 1902-1994
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
In each stage, conflict arises between newly
emerging personality needs and social demands
and culminates in a crisis, not in the sense of a
catastrophe but rather represents a turning point
in development.
Erikson noted, however, that all the personality
components develop to some extent throughout
life, even before their critical stages.
To some extent, they may develop in parallel and
are interdependent even before the relevant
crises are resolved.
Social Development
  • Identity
  • ones sense of self
  • the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of
    self by testing and integrating various roles
  • Intimacy
  • the ability to form close, loving relationships
  • a primary developmental task in late adolescence
    and early adulthood

Consider, friend, as you pass by, as you are
now, so once was I. As I am now, you too shall
be. Prepare, therefore, to follow
me. --Scottish tombstone epitaph
Adulthood- Physical Changes
  • Menopause
  • the time of natural cessation of menstruation
  • also refers to the biological changes a woman
    experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
  • Alzheimers Disease
  • a progressive and irreversible brain disorder
  • characterized by a gradual deterioration of
    memory, reasoning, language, and finally,
    physical functioning

Adulthood- Cognitive Changes
Reasoning ability score
  • Cross-Sectional Study
  • a study in which people of different ages are
    compared with one another
  • Longitudinal Study
  • a study in which the same people are restudied
    and retested over a long period

Age in years
Cross-sectional method
Longitudinal method
Adulthood- Cognitive Changes
  • Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age,
    while nonverbal intelligence scores decline
    (adapted from Kaufman others, 1989).

Intelligence (IQ) score
Age group
Adulthood- Cognitive Changes
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
  • tends to increase with age
  • Fluid Intelligence
  • ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly
  • tends to decrease during late adulthood

The stages Kubler-Ross identified are Denial
(this isn't happening to me!) Anger (why is
this happening to me?) Bargaining (I promise
I'll be a better person if...) Depression (I
don't care anymore) Acceptance (I'm ready for
whatever comes) Many people believe that these
stages of grief are also experienced by people
who have lost a loved one.
Many people have tried to explain what grief is
some have even identified certain stages of
grief.Probably the most well-known of these might
be from Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' book, "On Death
and Dying."
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