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The Mass Media and the Political Agenda

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Chapter 7 The Mass Media and the Political Agenda Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Mass Media and the Political Agenda


1
The Mass Media and thePolitical Agenda
  • Chapter 7

Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in
America People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth
Edition
2
Introduction
  • Mass Media
  • Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the
    Internet and other means of popular communication
  • High-Tech Politics
  • Politics in which the behavior of citizens and
    policymakers and the political agenda itself are
    increasingly shaped by technology

3
The Mass Media Today
  • Effective communication through media is key to
    political success.
  • Media Events
  • Events purposely staged for the media that
    nonetheless look spontaneous.
  • Image Making
  • News Management

4
The Impact of the Internet
  • Wider range of information
  • More biased? Less accurate?
  • Potential to inform?
  • Since Americans are generally disinterested in
    politics, they will not necessarily use the
    Internet for political information. (2 News)
  • Blogs
  • additional information / opinion

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  • Private Control of the Media
  • Only a small number of TV stations are publicly
    owned in America.
  • Media are totally dependent on advertising
    revenues.
  • Chains
  • Account for over four-fifths of the nations
    daily newspaper circulation
  • Also control broadcast media

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Reporting the News
  • Beats
  • specific locations from which news frequently
    emanates.
  • Trial Balloons
  • an intentional news leak for the purpose of
    assessing the political reaction
  • Reporters and their sources
  • depend on each other.

9
  • Presenting the News
  • Superficial describes most news coverage today.
  • Sound Bites short video clips of approximately
    10 seconds
  • Major TV networks devote less time to covering
    political candidates

10
  • Bias in the News
  • Many people believe the news is biased in favor
    of one point of view.
  • Generally is not very biased toward a particular
    ideology
  • News reporting is biased towards what will draw
    the largest audiencegood pictures and negative
    reporting

11
Partisan Bias
Back
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The News and Public Opinion
  • Television news
  • Agenda-setting effect
  • Provides criteria
  • Which the public evaluates political leaders.
  • Provides coverage
  • Some stories or events can be made more
    important or less important.

14
The Medias Agenda-Setting Function
  • Policy Agenda
  • The issues that attract the serious attention of
    public officials and other people actively
    involved in politics at the time
  • Policy Entrepreneurs
  • People who get an issue placed high on
    governmental agenda
  • Use media to raise awareness of issue

15
The Media and the Scope of Government
  • Media as watchdog restricts politicians
  • Government met with skepticism which restricts
    scope of government
  • If media identifies a problem, it forces
    government to address it, which expands the scope
    of government

16
Start Thursday
17
  • Individualism and the Media
  • Candidates appeal to people on television
  • Easier to focus on one person like the president,
    than groups, e.g., Congress or the courts
  • Democracy and the Media
  • Information is the fuel of democracy.
  • But news provides more entertainment than
    information superficial.
  • News is a business, giving people what they want.

18
Summary
  • Media shape public opinion on political issues
    and influence policy agenda.
  • Broadcast media have replaced print media over
    time.
  • Narrowcasting and the Internet are further
    shifting media.
  • Seeking profits, media are biased in favor of
    stories with high drama.

19
Additional Info - THE MASS MEDIA
Remy Summary-A
  • The Fourth Branch of Government - The Mass
    Media?
  • Newspapers
  • 98 1 paper cities - 78 of circulation by
    chains
  • National weekly magazines (Time,USN, Newsweek)
  • Can set national agenda
  • Wire services (AP, UPI) employ reporters
    worldwide
  • Used by more newspapers today (cut costs)
  • Electronic Media (Radio, TV, Cable, Internet)
  • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • Regulates broadcast ownership content
  • Almost all media are privately owned
  • Ownership has become less diversified

20
CH 19- THE MASS MEDIA
Remy Summary-B
  • What makes news ?
  • Information that is useful (gov/econ/bus)
  • Information that is popular (entertainment)
  • The President -80 of nat. gov. media coverage
  • TV has great impact presidential campaigns
  • Focus on key leaders in Congress
  • The First Amendment (Freedom of the Press)
  • No prior restraint
  • National security exceptions
  • National security v citizens right to
    know
  • Pentagon Papers (1971)
  • No laws against criticizing government officials
  • Shield laws in some states (36 states, Ohio
    Yes)

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22
NON-Edwardian Info
  • ERAS OF THE AMERICAN PRESS
  • PARTY PRESS
  • PARTIES STARTED SUPPORTED NEWSPAPERS
  • POPULAR PRESS
  • MASS CIRCULATION
  • YELLOW JOURNALISM, MUCKRAKERS
  • MAGAZINES OF OPINION
  • MIDDLE CLASS PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT
  • ELECTRONIC JOURNALISM
  • RAPID NEWS REPORTING
  • CHANGED THE WAY WE VIEWED POLITICIANS

23
POPULARPRESSYELLOWJOURNALISMTABLOID
NEWSSENSATIONALISM
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Number of Newspapers
26
Circulation monthly decline
27
WHO READ THE NEWSPAPER YESTERDAY ?
28
WHICH NEWSPAPERS ARE READ EACH DAY
29
WHO READ THE NEWSPAPER YESTERDAY?
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31
Where Americans Get News
?
Back
32
News Generation Gap
Back
33
Sources of Campaign News
Back
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35
  • A FREE PRESS IS RARE IN THE WORLD
  • (17 OF THE NATIONS)
  • GOVERNMENT RESTRAINTS ON THE AMERICAN MEDIA
  • LIBEL, OBSCENITY, INCITEMENT
  • (BUT NO PRIOR RESTRAINT ?)

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37
THE MEDIA HISTORY STRUCTURE OF THE AMERICAN
NEWS MEDIA
  • GOVT CONTROL OVER RADIO AND TV BY THE F.C.C.
  • LICENSING
  • DECENCY STANDARDS
  • GOVT INFLUENCE ON THE NEWS
  • LEAKS
  • (TRIAL BALLOONS, PERSONAL ATTACKS)
  • BACKGROUND STORIES
  • (INSIDER INFORMATION)
  • PUNITIVE MEASURES

38
THE MEDIA SELECTION OF NEWS (BIAS)
  • THE NATIONAL PRESS IS STAFF BY PEOPLE WHO ARE
    MORE LIBERAL THAN THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL.
  • (AND MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE)

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40
  • MASS MEDIA MAY NOT REFLECT REALITY
  • OPPORTUNITIES FOR SLANTING THE NEWS
  • 1-SELECTION OF NEWS TO COVER
  • 70 IS PREPLANNED (THOM. DYE)
  • 2-WRITING AND EDITING PROCESS
  • 3-INTERPRETATION OF THE NEWS
  • 4-EMPHASIS OF THE NEWS

41
Media Bias
  • Questions about effects of media bias.
  • Media bias unavoidable--journalists are human.
  • Media generally thought to be liberal.
  • Recent growth of conservative news sources.
  • Looking at good stories over issues.
  • Can be charmed by interesting personalities.

42
Confidence in the Media
  • General confidence is on a downturn.
  • Republicans are more critical than Democrats.
  • Democrats and Republicans use different sources.
  • Ideological fragmentation may be cause for
    concern.
  • People tend to choose news that supports their
    opinion.

43
  • THE INFLUENCE OF THE MEDIA
  • IS QUESTIONABLE
  • SHALLOW INFORMATION
  • SOUND BITES
  • SELECTIVE VIEWING
  • WATCH WHAT WE AGREE WITH

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47
  • THE MEDIA DOES INFLUENCE THE POLICY AGENDA
  • ROLES OF THE PRESS
  • GATEKEEPER
  • DECIDING WHAT IS NEWS
  • SCOREKEEPER
  • DECIDING WHO IS WINNING
  • WATCHDOG
  • EXPOSING SCANDLES

48
LOADED WORDSREPETITION
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59
Presidential Press Conferences
Back
60
THE MEDIAIMPORTANT TERMS
  • ASSOCIATED PRESS
  • ATTACK JOURNALISM
  • CANNED NEWS
  • COMMUNITY NEEDS
  • EQUAL-TIME RULE
  • FAIRNESS DOCTRINE
  • FEATURE STORIES
  • FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
  • INSIDER STORIES
  • LOADED LANGUAGE
  • MARKET (TELEVISION)
  • MUCKRAKER

61
THE MEDIA IMPORTANT TERMS
  • LOADED LANGUAGE
  • MARKET (TELEVISION)
  • MUCKRAKER
  • OFF THE RECORD
  • ON BACKGROUND
  • RECKLESS DISREGARD
  • RIGHT-OF-REPLY RULE
  • SELECTIVE ATTENTION
  • SOUND BITE
  • TRAIL BALLOON
  • YELLOW JOURNALISM

62
THE MEDIAQUESTIONS
  • 1-DOES THE DESIRE OF AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS TO BE
    OBJECTIVE MAKE AMERICANS LESS INFORMED? SHOULD
    THE UNITED STATES HAVE THE PARTY PRESS LIKE MANY
    EUROPEAN NATIONS?
  • 2-DOES A POPULAR PRESS PANDER TO THE LOWEST
    COMMON DENOMINATOR OF INTEREST AND TASTE?
  • 3-EXPLAIN HOW LOCALISM DECENTRALIZED QUALITIES
    OF THE AMERICAN NEWS MEDIA CONTRIBUTE TO THE
    PROMOTION OF DEMOCRACY?
  • 4-IF MOST REPORTERS HOLD LIBERAL VIEWS WHY HASNT
    AMERICAN SOCIETY BECOME MORE LIBERAL OVER THE
    YEARS?

63
AP - THE MEDIAQUESTIONS
  • 5-DEFINE THE WATCHDOG ROLE OF THE PRESS. IS IT
    GOOD OR BAD FOR DEMOCRACY?
  • 6-WHAT SORT OF ISSUES WOULD YOU EXPECT THE MEDIA
    TO HAVE THE MOST IMPACT?
  • 7- WHAT LIMITS SHOULD THERE BE ON FREEDOM OF THE
    PRESS?
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