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Expansion Of The Reformation


Expansion Of The Reformation The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli ( 1484-1531) : rejected clerical celibacy, the worship of saints, fasting, transubstantiation, and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Expansion Of The Reformation

Expansion Of The Reformation
Holy Roman Empire
My Religion is the Only Right Religion
  • People of the 16th century could not comprehend
    the concept of religious toleration or the
    existence of numerous religions within the same
    country. The ruler determined the religion of the
    region would be. Any other religious beliefs were
    seen as a political threat to the security of the

Lutheranism and the German States
  • 1520 Luther ' s Appeal to the Christian Nobility
    of the German Nation encouraged German patriotism
    and resistance to Roman control. German princes
    supported Luther not only out of religious faith
    but also because it enabled them to confiscate
    wealthy church holdings.

Lutheranism and the German States
  • 1. A series of 5 wars between Holy Roman Emperor
    Charles V and France occurred 1521-1555 and are
    called the Hapsburg-Valois Wars.
  • 2. These ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg
    which said that the religion of each German
    state would be decided by its ruler the only
    choices were Lutheranism or Catholicism
    Calvinism or any others were banned.

Lutheranism in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
  • The monarchs in each state established
    Lutheranism as the state religion.

  • members of a variety of 16th-century religious
    groups that rejected infant baptism. Since they
    believed that only after an adult had come to
    faith in Christ should he or she be baptized,
    they taught that converts who had been baptized
    in infancy must be re-baptized. The first adult
    baptism was performed on Jan. 21, 1525 in Zurich

Thomas Muntzer
  • 1. The Anabaptists refused to take oaths, opposed
    capital punishment, and rejected military
    service and public office. They believed in
    separation of Church and State, religious
    tolerance, women as ministers. They also claimed
    direct inspiration by the Holy spirit.
  • 2. Their beliefs made them appear subversive and
    provoked persecution.
  • 3. Anabaptists numbered less than 1 percent of
    the population. Modern followers included the
    Mennonites, the Hutterian Brethren, and the

The English Reformation Henry VIII
  • Great supporter of the Catholic Church. He
    wrote a pamphlet that showed his allegiance and
    castigated Luther, calling him "a limb of the
    devil". For these the pope gave him the title
    Defender of the Faith.

The English Reformation Henry VIII
  • The Quest for a Son and Heir Marriage story.
    Act of Succession Edward, Mary, Elizabeth.
  • Pope Clement VII refused to annul Henry's
    marriage to Catherine for two reasons. First, to
    overturn a dispensation granted by Pope Julius II
    would admit that a pope could be wrong. In light
    of the ongoing problems with Luther, Clement VII
    could not do that.

The English Reformation Henry VIII
  • Second, in 1527 Rome was captured and sacked by
    Emperor Charles V, Queen Catherine's nephew. The
    pope in Rome was loath to risk the wrath of the
    conqueror of Rome. In 1533 Thomas Cramner was
    named archbishop of Canterbury and immediately
    pronounced Henry's marriage to Catherine annulled
    and his marriage to Anne legal.

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The English Reformation Henry VIII
  • Act of Supremacy passed by Parliament in
    1534, it declared the king to be the head of the
    Church of England (Anglican Church) English
    monasteries were closed and their property seized
    by the state and distributed to supporters under
    Chief Minister Thomas Cromwell, 1535-1539. Basic
    Catholic rituals and doctrines were retained
    during Henry VIII's reign. Cramner opposed Henry
    VIII"s Six Articles. in 1539, in which the King
    reasserted such catholic doctrines as
    transubstantiation in to Eucharist and the
    enforced celibacy of the clergy.

The English Reformation Henry VIII
  • Sir Thomas More would not meet the requirement
    to agree to the Act of Supremacy and was beheaded
    as was John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.

The English Reformation King Edward VI
  • Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cramner promoted
    the Book of Common Prayer (1549). When Edward
    died in 1553, Cramner supported the succession on
    the protestant Lady Jane Grey. However, the
    throne passed to the Roman Catholic Mary I, who
    sent Cramner to the Tower of London for treason
    and heresy. He recanted, but whole being burned
    at the stake he held his right hand in the fire
    first for having signed the recantations.

The English Reformation Mary I
  • return of Catholicism
  • marriage to Philip of Spain
  • persecutions of Protestants
  • Bloody Mary

The English Reformation Elizabeth I
  • beginning of religious stability growth of
    Puritanism Elizabethan Settlement - outward
    conformity to the Church of England and
    uniformity in all ceremonies. Everyone had
    to attend Church of England services or be fined
    1563 Thirty-Nine Articles.

Irish Reformation
  • In1536 the Irish Parliament approved English
    reformation laws
  • Church of Ireland established
  • most Irish people remained Roman Catholic.

The French Reformation John Calvin
  • studied in Paris ( 1521-1525 ) and was imbued
    with humanist philosophy. He then studied law at
    his father's bidding (1525-1530). Dad died 1531
    had Calvin returned to the study of the classics
    and theology. Sometime between 1526 and 1531 he
    had a conversion experience. He wrote numerous
    commentaries on books of the Bible. His reformist
    ideas were suspect and he was forced to flee, in
    1535, to Basel, Switzerland.

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The French Reformation John Calvin
  • Institutes of the Christian Religion ( 1536)
    In Basel he produced a small book about his new
    reformed beliefs. It was designed to offer a
    brief summary of essential Christian belief and
    to defend French Protestants, who were then
    undergoing serious persecution. This first
    edition contained only six brief sections. By the
    last edition ( 1559), it had grown to 79 full

The French Reformation John Calvin
  • Basic Beliefs
  • 1. God is omnipotent and has absolute
  • 2. Men and women are totally weak and sinful by
  • 3 . The Holy Spirit impart the free gift of
  • 4. By God's grace a few people will be saved -
    they are called the Elect
  • 5. Predestination
  • 6. The duty of the Elect is to rule society so as
    to glorify God - the Church should dominate the
    State - Theocracy
  • 7. The Bible is the final authority

The French Reformation John Calvin
  • City of Saints In July 1536, Calvin was
    convinced to stay
  • in Geneva, Switzerland and reform the city and
    the church. In 1538, Calvin was expelled from the
  • 1. Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg where he spent
    the most enjoyable years of his life as pastor of
    the city's French congregation. When friends of
    Calvin gained control of the Geneva council in
    1541, they asked him to return, and he
    reluctantly agreed.

The French Reformation John Calvin
  • 2. During the next 14 years his reforms met stiff
    resistant. Some Genevans then, and ,many critics
    later, considered Calvin' s morality absurdly
    severe, with its banning of plays and its attempt
    to introduce religious pamphlets and psalm
    singing into Geneva's taverns. By 1555 the city
    belonged to Calvin.
  • 3. During Calvin' s last years, Geneva was home
    to many religious refugees who carried away the
    desire to implement a Genevan reform in their own

The French Reformation John Calvin
  • Influence His influence, which spread throughout
    the Western world, was felt especially in France,
    where his followers were called Huguenots, and in
    Scotland through the work of John Knox

Calvins Blue Laws for Inns
  • If any one blasphemes the name of God or says,
    By the body, sblood, zounds, or anything like,
    or who gives himself to the devil or uses similar
    execrable imprecation, he shall be punished.
  • If any one insults any one else the host shall
    deliver him up to justice.
  • The host shall be obliged to report to the
    government any insolent or dissolute acts
    committed by the guests.

Calvins Blue Laws for Inns
  • The host shall be obliged to keep in a public
    place a French Bible, in which any one who wishes
    may read.
  • (He) shall not allow any dissoluteness like
    dancing, dice or cards, nor receive any one
    suspected of being a debauche.
  • He shall not allow indecent songs.
  • Nobody shall be allowed to sit up after nine
    oclock at night except informers.

The Scottish Reformation
  • John Knox ( 1514-1572 ) After serving briefly
    as a Roman Catholic priest, he became a
    Protestant through the efforts of the Scottish
    reformer George Wishart. After Wishart was burned
    at the stake at St. Andrews in 1546 Knox joined
    other rebellious Protestants barricaded in St.
    Andrews castle. There he was urged to preach. His
    zeal and obvious ability made him an immediate
    leader of the Protestant cause. When the castle
    of St. Andrews fell to Scottish and French Roman
    Catholics in July 1547, Knox was sentence to
    serve on French galleys.

The Scottish Reformation
  • After 19 months his release was secured by
    English Protestant influence. Knox then lived for
    four years in England, serving as a parish
    preacher in Berwick and Newcastle and becoming
    (1551) a chaplain to King Edward VI. His
    objections to the Second Book of Common Prayer in
    1552 paved the way for the later Puritan movement
    in England.

The Scottish Reformation
  • Beyond Calvin Knox became a follower of
    Calvin's in 1553 but advanced beyond his mentor
    in political theory. In 1554 Knox had begun to
    justify resistance to faithless rulers do attack
    their dutiful subjects. While in Geneva, Knox
    published a notorious work, The First Blast of
    the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of
    Women ( 1558), in which he scathingly denounced
    rule by women monarchs.

It was directed at the queen regent of Scotland,
Mary of Guise, Mary, Queen of Scots (then also
queen of France), and England's Mary I - all
Catholic monarchs
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary I of England
Mary of Guise
The Scottish Reformation
  • Return to Scotland May 1559 at the height of
    conflict between Catholics and Protestants. His
    inspirational preaching and timely aid from
    England allowed Protestant forces to triumph. The
    return of the widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, in
    1561 led to a famous series of face-to-face
    confrontations between the young queen and
    Scotland foremost preacher. When Mary was forced
    to abdicate in 1567, Protestantism was secure in
    Scotland as the Scottish parliament ends papal
    authority, abolishes the mass, attendance at mass
    punishable by a death Book of Common Order 1564

The Scottish Reformation
  • Presbyterianism
  • 1. Calvinism
  • 2. each community church was governed by a small
    group of elders or presbyters

The Swiss Reformation
  • Ulrich Zwingli ( 1484-1531) rejected
    clerical celibacy, the worship of saints,
    fasting, transubstantiation, and purgatory. I He
    ordered churches to be stripped of all decoration,

The Swiss Reformation
  • Zurich In 1523 the governing council accepted
    his beliefs and the city became a center for
  • Theocracy Zwingli believed in a union of Church
    and state. The law required church attendance
    regulated personal behavior, employed ''snitches"
    to inform on wayward citizens.

The Swiss Reformation
  • Differences Zwingli and Luther differed over the
    Eucharist. Luther supported the concept of the
    Real Presence while Zwingli supported the notion
    of the Eucharist as a remembrance. They met at
    Marburg Castle in 1529 to end their differences
    but they could not agree.
  • E. Swiss Cantons these political divisions of
    Switzerland were divided between Protestant and
    Roman Catholics beliefs. During the resulting
    civil wars Zwingli was captured and executed. The
    treaty ending the civil wars said each canton
    should determine its own religion.
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