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The Reformation

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Prelude to the Reformation Reasons for Reform of the Catholic Church: ... Martin Luther Martin Luther Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Reformation


1
The Reformation
  • 3.03 Trace social, political, economic, and
    cultural changes associated with the Renaissance,
    Reformation, the rise of nation-states, and
    absolutism.

2
Prelude to the Reformation
3
Prelude to the Reformation
  • During the second half of the fifteenth century,
    adherents of Christian humanism sought to reform
    the Catholic Church.
  • They believed that humans could improve
    themselves and thus improve society.

4
Prelude to the Reformation
  • Desiderius Erasmus thought that external forms of
    medieval religion such as pilgrimages, fasts, and
    relics were unnecessary and that inner piety
    derived from religious philosophy was more
    important.

5
Prelude to the Reformation
  • Reasons for Reform of the Catholic Church
  • Catholic Popes were more concerned with politics
    and material goods than spiritual guidance.
  • Parish priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual
    duties.
  • An automatic means of obtaining salvation, such
    as the collection of relics, was being presented
    to the people.
  • The use of indulgences was used to avoid
    punishment for sin.

6
Martin Luther
7
Martin Luther
  • Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the
    University of Wittenberg in Germany.
  • He believed that humans would be saved by their
    faith in God and not by the good works done in
    His name.

8
Martin Luther
  • Luther did not want to break away from the
    Church, only to reform it. He wrote a list of his
    grievances, known as the Ninety-five Theses, and
    copies were sent all over Germany.

9
Martin Luther
  • In 1521, Luther was excommunicated for attempting
    to get German princes to overthrow the papacy and
    establish a reformed German church.
  • The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw, and his
    works were banned.

10
Martin Luther
  • Many German princes who supported Luther
    confiscated Church land, and a government church
    was established.
  • A new religious service which consisted of
    reading the Bible, preaching the word of God, and
    songs, became the basis of the doctrine known as
    Lutheranism.
  • Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.

11
Politics in the German Reformation
12
Politics in the German Reformation
  • The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by Charles V who
    wanted the empire to remain Catholic.
  • The empire included Spain, Austria, Bohemia,
    Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, and Naples.
  • Problems with the Ottoman Turks, French rivalry,
    and the alliance of the German kingdoms prevented
    Charles from asserting military power over the
    Protestant Reformation in Germany.

13
Politics in the German Reformation
  • In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg ended the religious
    wars by accepting the division of Christianity.
    German rulers, but not the German people, could
    choose their own religion.

14
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15
John Calvin
16
John Calvin
  • John Calvin was a Frenchman whose conversion to
    Protestantism forced him to flee to Switzerland.
  • Calvin believed in an all-powerful God and the
    idea of predestination.

17
John Calvin
  • Calvins ideas led to the rise of Calvinism which
    soon became more popular than Lutheranism.
  • Calvin worked to reform the city of Geneva,
    Switzerland.
  • Geneva soon became the center of Protestant
    reform in Europe, and its missionaries were sent
    all over to convert the local populations.

18
Reformation in England
19
Reformation in England
  • King Henry VIII of England established the Church
    of England when the pope refused to annul his
    marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
  • The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the king of
    England the official head of religious doctrine,
    with control over discipline, clerical
    appointments, and breaking ties with the pope.
  • Henrys Church of England was very similar to
    Catholicism, although after his death English
    officials attempted to make it more Protestant.

20
Reformation in England
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21
Reformation in England
  • In 1553, Henrys daughter, Mary, came to power
    and attempted to restore Roman Catholicism.
  • Her efforts, including the burning of more than
    300 Protestants, earned her the nickname of
    Bloody Mary.

22
Anabaptists
23
Anabaptists
  • Anabaptists were Protestant reformers who did not
    want to give power to the state.
  • Anabaptists believed
  • Religion should be voluntary baptism occurred as
    an adult.
  • All believers were equal any member could become
    a minister.
  • Separation of state and church refused to bear
    arms or serve in military positions

24
Anabaptists
  • The religious and political beliefs of the
    Anabaptists seemed radical, and they were
    persecuted by Catholics and Protestants.

25
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26
Reformation and Society
27
Reformation and Society
  • With the rise of Protestantism came the end of
    celibacy for Church leaders.
  • Women were subservient, and their roles were
    obedience to their husband and to bear children.
  • Protestants expected Jews to convert to
    Lutheranism. When they refused, Protestants such
    as Martin Luther wrote that Jewish synagogues and
    homes should be destroyed.

28
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29
Catholic Reformation
  • The Catholic response to the Protestant
    Reformation was a Catholic Reformation.
  • A Spanish nobleman named Ignatius of Loyola
    founded the Jesuits, a group who swore allegiance
    to the pope.
  • Jesuit missionaries were influential in spreading
    Catholicism in Germany and the rest of the world.

30
Catholic Reformation
  • Pope Paul II led a reformation of the papacy,
    ending corruption either real or perceived.
  • The pope, archbishops, bishops, and other
    theologians met irregularly at the Council of
    Trent to discuss Church matters and establish
    Catholic doctrine.

31
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32
Vocabulary 1
  • Indulgence a release from all or part of
    punishment for sin by the Catholic Church,
    reducing time in purgatory after death

33
Vocabulary 2
  • Lutheranism the religious doctrine that Martin
    Luther developed it differed from Catholicism in
    the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed
    could be achieved by faith alone, not by good
    works Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith

34
Vocabulary 3
  • Predestination the belief that God has
    determined in advance who will be saved (the
    elect) and who will be damned (the reprobate)

35
Vocabulary 4
  • Annul declare invalid
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