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Potential of the Army Reserve to provide the

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Title: Potential of the Army Reserve to provide the


1
Potential of the Army Reserve to provide the
Shortfall
2
Army Reserve Historical Legacy
  • Militia formed post WWII essentially for
    continental defence of Australia
  • Post-WWII a small regular Army was formed and
    committed to relatively small scale deployments
  • Conscription occurred in the 1960s but the then
    Citizen Military Forces could not be used for
    legislative reasons
  • Redesignated as the Army Reserve from 1974 and
    formed a base for mobilisation
  • CMF/Army Reserve reviewed and restructured ad
    nauseam every restructure led to a loss of
    capability as soldiers voted with their feet and
    left
  • One Army concept led to Reserve units being
    structured like ARA units and abolition of
    specialist Reserve units

3
Catalyst for Change
  • What organisation would raise, train and sustain
    a part time force for over 50 years and not use
    it?
  • What changed?
  • Large scale deployment of regular forces to Timor
    led to an increased focus on readiness by Regular
    units and the necessity to use Reservists to plug
    the gaps
  • With a number of exceptions, use of Reservists
    was poorly handled many relinquished rank or
    volunteered to serve but not called upon
  • Defence 2000 White Paper required land forces
    with sufficient fire power, protection and
    mobility for a clear advantage in likely
    operations in DOA or our immediate region

4
Catalyst for Change (Continued)
  • Legislative changes providing for call out of
    Reservists and protection of their civilian
    employment
  • Hardened and Networked Army (HNA) initiative - to
    provide depth and sustainability to Army
  • HNA requires Army to sustain a brigade on
    operations for extended periods and concurrently
    a battalion group for deployment elsewhere
  • Recognition of significant shortfalls in ARA
    units that must be filled by qualified Reservists
    to achieve the capability requirements of HNA

5
51 FNQR
NORFORCE
11 BDE
11 BDE
Pilbara
1 DIV
7 BDE
6
Army Reserve Today
  • Currently comprises _at_ 16,000 active personnel
  • This strength is unacceptably low which
    undermines ability of the Reserve to meet the
    shortfall
  • Parade on an average of 40 days per annum
  • Median length of service 4 years
  • Some 9,000 Supplementary Reserve personnel
    previously the Inactive Reserve

7
What Capability has the Army Reserve Delivered?
  • Since Jan 2000
  • gt 1000 in East Timor including 3HSB, A Coy 5/7
    RAR, individual soldiers
  • gt 1000 to Bougainville, Balkans, Afghanistan,
    Solomons etc
  • 1300 Reservists over 14 x 3 month deployments to
    Rifle Company Butterworth
  • Capability Generation
  • 3 x Regional Force Surveillance Units
  • 7 x Reserve Response Forces
  • In last three years
  • Over 500 a year transfer to ARA (18 of ARA
    target) and
  • 400 to 700 each year are on full time service
  • Support to domestic emergencies (bushfires,
    Tsunami)
  • 230 Reservists for 3 months Xmas rotations to
    deter illegal immigrants (Op Relex now called
    Op Resolute)
  • gt 300 Reservists on Op Acolyte (Commonwealth
    Games)

8
Role of the Army Reserve
  • To provide specified individual and collective
    capability to support, sustain and reinforce
    Armys operational forces.

9
Reserve Components of the HNA
  • High Readiness Reserve
  • Active Reserve
  • Standby Reserve

10
High Readiness Reserve (HRR)
  • Regular Army units will seek High Readiness
    Reservists in accordance with their unit
    establishments via Armys Capability Management
    System
  • High Readiness Reservists will
  • - enter a 2 year contract
  • - be managed and administered regionally by
    their parent Army Reserve unit
  • - be substantively posted to their supported
    Regular Army unit
  • - provide 32-50 days on mandated training per
    year including one continuous exercise between
    14 and 40 days with their Regular Army unit (or
    formation for Force Protection Company Group
    members) and the remainder with their parent Army
    Reserve unit
  • - be available for voluntary deployment when
    called for
  • - possess all Regular Army competencies for
    their employed position (until the HNA training
    model review is complete - whereby exceptions may
    be made)

11
Active Reserve (AR)
  • Active Reservists will enable the High Readiness
    Reserve through support and reinforcement
  • The Active Reserve will provide the Reserve
    Response Force, previously known as the High
    Readiness Reserve
  • Reserve Response Force consists of around
    120 Soldiers on 7 days readiness notice to
    undertake domestic security operations
  • Active Reservists will still have the opportunity
    to be selected for operations, although this
    opportunity is decreased with the raising of the
    High Readiness Reserve

12
Standby Reserve (SR)
  • All ARA who joined after mid 2003 are required to
    transfer to the Standby Reserve for five years
    after completing full-time service
  • This provides potentially significant latent
    capability
  • The who and how the Standby Reserve is to be
    managed is still under review

13
Future ARes Force Structure
Available for operations short of call out
1600 HNA/ 1200 FPCG
HIGH READINESS RESERVES
ACTIVE RESERVES
DEPLOYABLE THRESHOLD
12000-14000
Call out in whole or in part for mobilisation
and expansion
STANDBY RESERVES
9000-12000
6 RESERVE BRIGADES WITH 6-7 UNITS EACH
14
Future ARes Brigade Structure
REGIONAL BDE HQ
CSS
MDM REGT
ENGR REGT
SIG SQN
INF BN
INF BN
LT CAV REGT
RRF
AR
HRR
FPCG
INDIVIDUALS IAW BDE MATRIX
COLLECTIVE CAPABILITIES IAW DIV MATRIX
15
Implementation
  • Phase One (Mid 2006 End 2008)
  • Develop the approximately 1100 individual and
    collective reinforcements
  • Collective capability includes raising Force
    Protection Company Groups to protect HQs,
    Logistic nodes and critical infrastructure.
    Consist of Inf, Engr, Recon, and Combat Service
    Support assets, approximately 180 HRR
  • Identify additional capabilities required to be
    developed within the Army Reserve
  • Review command and control at regional and
    command level

16
Implementation
  • Phase Two (Start 2009 - End 2012)
  • Develop remaining 1700 individual and collective
    reinforcements

17
Training
  • The HNA Training Model currently under
    development will
  • maintain the common competency model for ARA and
    ARes
  • reduce the training requirement for Active
    Reservists by reducing the number of competencies
    required
  • identify and develop gap training to enable
    Reservists to transition from Active Reserve to
    High Readiness Reserve
  • From 1 July 2006, new Reserve Recruit Training
    Course implemented. Now 29 days instead of 45
    days with Reserve units to teach First Aid and
    Navigation modules

18
Remuneration
  • HRR will receive
  • 10,000 Tax Free completion bonus for two years
    HRR service
  • 2,500 health benefit per annum
  • AR and HRR will receive
  • New pay rates that are competency based
  • A Reserve service allowance of up to 10 per day
  • 600 health benefit per annum for AR

19
Risks
  • Whether size and structure of the remuneration
    package is sufficient to attract Active
    Reservists and ex-ARA from the SR to the HRR
  • Whether Active Reservists will have the time to
    obtain ARA trade and rank qualifications
  • The impact of training burden on Reserve units.
    Now required to provide some recruit training,
    around 75 of individual employment training,
    training of the RRF and some training of the HRR.
    Is it feasible to ask Reserve units to also
    undertake the gap training of Active Reservists
    so that they can have the same ARA competencies
    to transfer to the HRR?
  • Whether retention and recruitment can improve to
    grow the Active Reserve to provide the foundation
    base for the HRR (gt 2,800 Reservists) and
    maintain the Reserve Response Forces (gt840
    Reservists)
  • How to produce Reserve NCOs and Officers for the
    HRR that have ARA equivalent qualifications
  • Whether sufficient equipment can be accessed by
    Active Reservists and HRR to maintain the
    necessary skill sets
  • Army and Government being prepared to use the HRR
    on operations
  • Whether fixed mind sets on the utility of the
    Reserve, can change

20
Ideal Chance for Reservists
  • ARES, specifically 2 Div, your time has come.
    With components of the ARA stretched across the
    globe, others preparing to deploy and now a
    stability and support operation in East Timor,
    your time to step up to the plate is here.
  • In the not too distant future, peace in Dili and
    surrounds will be restored.
  • Many question the value that the ARes provides
    Defence. Well here is your opportunity to prove
    your 950 million p.a. worth. Here is 2 Divs
    chance to bring combat power to the fore.
  • In six months, if Army is still in East Timor,
    then you are well placed to assume full command
    of Op Astute and allow the ARA to focus on
    warfighting ops.
  • Of the 10,000 ARes pers, dispersed across 14
    infantry battalions and associated combat, CS,
    CSS units and numerous formation HQs, surely 2
    Div can be entrusted with the forming, training
    deployment and sustainment of an appropriate
    force to assume full operational responsibility
    of Op Asture.
  • If not, then it is evident that there is no
    place for the ARes in its present form in the
    current future complex warfighting environment.
  • Source Army Newspaper, Circa 2006

21
Strengths
  • Provides a realistic and achievable role for the
    Reserve
  • Provides an operational focus and fosters a
    culture of readiness in Reserve units
  • Reserve tasks will be directly linked to
    generating capability for the HRR
  • Core of the Army Reserve will remain the Active
    Reserve which will raise, partially train and
    sustain HRR soldiers and continue to deliver
    depth to Army
  • Supported by Senior Reservists
  • Maintains Reserve unit structures and formations
    and hence the footprint of Army in large parts of
    Australia

22
Conclusion
  • Army Reserve forces can now be concentrated on
    providing full capability as part of operational
    forces, and to provide the subsequent
    reinforcement and rotation of deployed forces.
    Expansion and mobilisation will remain an Army
    task, but the priority in the future will clearly
    be on meeting more immediate military needs
  • Quote Lieutenant General Peter Leahy

23
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