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Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems

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Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems From Little to Big, Its on the Taks – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems


1
Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems
  • From Little ? to
    Big, ?
    Its on the Taks
  • Another Whaddaya Need to Know to Pass the Taks
    presentation

2
Credits
  • This presentation contains sample Taks questions
    from released Taks tests with explanations. This
    power-point presentation can be printed with both
    the question and answer to a given question on a
    single page.

3
(No Transcript)
4
Im the boss need the info!
  • Like humans, plants have cells, tissues , organs,
    and systems.
  • Leaves are expanded surface areas for
    photosynthesis.
  • Through transpiration, CO2 enters and Oxygen
    water vapor exits the leaf.
  • The openings that allows transpiration are the
    stomata.
  • The answer is D!

5
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6
Throw me a bone!
  • Muscle cells make up muscle tissue. These are
    incorporated into muscles in the muscular system
  • Muscles can occur as antagonist pairs.
  • Muscles only contract (not press or push).
  • In the arm, the triceps on the back of the
    humerus contract to extend the arm.
  • The biceps on the front contract to raise the
    arm, i.e. Curling weights.
  • The answer is C!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • The excretory system controls the loss of water.
  • The kidneys extract water from urine and the
    large intestine extracts water from solid wastes.
  • The immune system fights prevents infections.
  • The skin is your first line of defense, and white
    blood cells attack invaders throughout the body.
  • The integumentary system includes connective
    tissue
  • Tendons Ligaments, etc.
  • The respiratory system includes the lungs and air
    passages.
  • The respiratory system loads the blood with
    oxygen and rids the blood of carbon dioxide all
    through free gas exchange.
  • The answer is C!

9
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10
Im the boss need the info!
  • Cells have organelles that perform specific
    functions.
  • Lysosomes aid in the digestion of molecules and
    damaged organelles.
  • Plastids store and synthesize molecules like
    starches and fatty acids, etc.
  • Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis.
  • Mitochondria are the sites of cellular
    respiration.
  • The mitochondria takes sugars from the digestive
    system, and oxygen from the respiratory system,
    both delivered by the circulatory system, and
    converts them into energy, with CO2 H2O as
    waste products.
  • The answer is A!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • The Skeletal systems provides for support,
    protection, and sites for muscle attachment.
  • Again, the Respiratory system loads blood with
    oxygen and rids the blood of carbon dioxide.
  • The Reproductive system allows the organism to
    reproduce to continue the species existence.
  • The Digestive system breaks down food for use by
    the body.
  • The answer is F!

13
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14
Im the boss need the info!
  • Cells have specific roles within the body.
  • Red blood cells carry oxygen through the
    circulatory system to the cells of the body, and
    carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
  • GABA receptor cells recognize an inhibitory
    neurotransmitter in the nervous system.
  • The liver is an organ that serves in
    detoxification, glycogen storage, plasma protein
    synthesis, and the production of bile that aids
    in digestion.
  • Helper T-Cells work in the immune system to
    identify infections in the body.
  • The answer is F!

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16
Im the boss need the info!
  • Helper T-Cells work in the immune system to
    identify infections in the body.
  • The answer is B!

17
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Im the boss need the info!
  • Without functioning Helper T-Cells, the immune
    system to can not identify infections in the
    body.
  • A virus like the flu could kill before the
    weakened immune system could resist.
  • In this manner, subjects with HIV do not actually
    die due to AIDS, but due to a secondary infection
    such as the Flu.
  • The answer is C!

19
16 A portion of the human excretory system is
represented in the diagram. The order in which
urine flows through the system is F urethra ?
bladder ? ureter ? kidney G ureter ? kidney ?
bladder ? urethra H kidney ? ureter ? bladder ?
urethra J bladder ? urethra ? kidney ? ureter
20
Im the boss need the info!
  • The kidney rids the body of nitrogenous wastes by
    excreting urine.
  • The kidney aids in the excretory system by
    retaining water.
  • Urine is stored in the bladder, and excreted
    through the urethra.
  • The answer is H!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • Nutrients from digested food are absorbed in the
    small intestine into the circulatory system.
  • The answer is A!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • Food is digested into usable glucose, proteins,
    lipids, vitamins, etc, that does the body little
    good without the circulatory system.
  • The circulatory takes the products of digestion
    to the cells of the body, and takes the metabolic
    wastes away.
  • The answer is G!

25
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26
Throw me a bone!
  • Muscles contract to move bones and provide
    locomotion.
  • The answer is J!

27
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28
Im the boss need the info!
  • This is a neuron. Neurons are composed of axons
    and dendrites. Between each neuron is a gap
    called a synapse. A chemical such as
    acetylcholine serves as a neurotransmitter to
    allow the signal from the axon of one neuron to
    pass to the dendrite of the next. These cells are
    found in the nervous system.
  • The answer is D!

29
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Im the boss need the info!
  • Just as each body system works together to
    maintain equilibrium, the organelles of each cell
    work to maintain homeostasis within the cell.
  • The answer is D!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrying molecule in red
    blood cells.
  • The nervous system is made up of the brain, the
    spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most
    important systems in your body, the nervous
    system is your body's control system.
  • The endocrine system is made up of a group of
    glands that produce the body's long-distance
    messengers, or hormones.
  • The respiratory system brings air into the body
    and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose,
    trachea, and lungs.
  • The circulatory system is the body's transport
    system. It is made up of a group of organs that
    transport blood throughout the body.
  • The answer is A!

33
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34
Take a look this cat!
  • Every cell except for the gametes has a complete
    copy of DNA.
  • Regardless of the body system, organ, or tissue
    in which the cell is located, the DNA contains a
    copy of every gene.
  • The answer is D!

35
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36
Throw me a bone!
  • So, how do pelicans wings move? How do your arms
    move?
  • A signal is sent through nerves from the brain to
    the wings so that muscles contract and move the
    bones in the wings.
  • The answer is B!

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38
Im the boss need the info!
  • Heat requires energy. The powerhouse of the cell
    is the mitochondria.
  • The mitochondria is the organelle in the cell
    that converts sugar and oxygen into ATP for
    energy.
  • Even ill-tempered swordfish would need more
    mitochondria to warm their brains.
  • The answer is B!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • Again, the mitochondria is the energy center of
    the cell. More specifically, the mitochondria is
    the site of ATP synthesis. Said another way, the
    mitochondria is the site of cellular respiration.
  • Tissues requiring more energy would be composed
    of cells with more mitochondria.
  • The answer is A!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • The endocrine system is made up of a group of
    glands that produce the body's long-distance
    messengers, or hormones.
  • The respiratory system brings air into the body
    and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose,
    trachea, and lungs.
  • Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory
    system.
  • The answer is G!

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Im the boss need the info!
  • The cell is dividing.
  • In unicellular organisms like bacteria, cell
    division is used for asexual reproduction.
  • This is called Binary Fission, because one single
    celled organism divides to form two organisms.
  • The answer is D!

45
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46
Throw me a bone!
  • Marrow is found in bones
  • Bones are in the skeletal system
  • The answer is J!

47
(No Transcript)
48
Im the boss need the info!
  • The excretory system prevents the loss of water
    during excretion of urine and solid wastes.
  • This is extremely important, as water loss due to
    disease causing diarrhea can be deadly,
    especially in the young.
  • In times of stress when fluids are not available,
    the excretory system limits the amount of water
    excreted.
  • The answer is G!

49
(No Transcript)
50
Im the boss need the info!
  • Cells in all organisms continually strive for
    equilibrium.
  • Cells placed in a solution with more salt
    (hypertonic) will shrink.
  • Cells place in a solution with less salt
    (hypotonic) will swell.
  • Cells placed in a solution of the same salt
    concentration will remain at equilibrium.
  • The answer is D!

51
(No Transcript)
52
Im the boss need the info!
  • How do we chew? How is food moved from the mouth
    to the stomach?
  • Muscles!
  • Muscles are move the mandible up and down,
    lingual muscles and the tongue move food toward
    the throat where peristaltic muscular contraction
    move the food to the stomach.
  • The answer is C!

53
Im the boss need the info!
  • Cells are the smallest unit of life. Cells
    working together form tissues, tissues form
    organs, organs working together form systems, and
    all the systems form the organism. All of these
    work in concert to maintain homeostasis. All
    Systems are important, regardless of their size
    or prominence.
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