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3.1 Understanding Maps

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What is a map? A map is a graphic representation, on a flat surface,of what a part of the Earth s surface looks like from above. Geographic Information ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 3.1 Understanding Maps


1
Unit 3 Understanding Maps
2
What is a map?
  • A map is a graphic representation,
  • on a flat surface,of what a part of the Earths
    surface looks like from above.

3
Its (Geographys) foremost tool is the map. -
Why are maps so valuable?
4
Geographic Information
  • Cartographers (person who makes a map) today use
    many sources of data collected for their maps.
  • GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is the most
    accurate to date GIS is using computers to plot
    points and use different sources such as
    satellites, maps, pictures (images)-to create an
    electronic layer. Layers are then stacked upon
    themselves to create maps that display a wide
    variety of information.
  • Air Photography and Satellite Images can help
    gather information to then be placed on maps.
    Cartographers can interpret what they see and
    plot it on a map.
  • GPS (Global Positioning Systems) use satellites
    around the world to plot the exact point of
    location from an electronic receiver. Examples
    Garmin-Tom-Tom

5
Types of Maps
  • General Purpose Typically used for reference,
    education and travel.
  • Special Purpose Emphasize a single idea or a
    particular kind of information about an area

6
General or Special
7
Map Elements
  • TODALSIGS The elements of a good map.
  • TITLE Tells us what, where, when and the subject
    of the map
  • ORIENTATION Directions - North, South, East,
    West
  • DATE When the map was made
  • AUTHOR Who made the map
  • LEGEND What the symbols on the map mean
  • SCALE Tells us the distance a unit of
    measurement represents in the area shown on the
    map (estimated)

8
  • INDEX Map address of places, usually an
    alphabetical listing such as a street map grid or
    latitude/longitude coordinates
  • GRID A set of horizontal and vertical lines that
    help you locate places on the map using letters
    and numbers or latitude and longitude
  • SOURCE Where the information on the map came
    from- the bibliographical information

9
Large vs. Small Scale Maps
  • The larger the area represented on a flat piece
    of paper , the smaller the scale of the map and
    the less detail it can display.
  • Why? Because scale refers to the ratio of a
    distance on a map to the actual distance it
    represents.

10
What is the scale?
11
What is the scale?
12
Scale Bar
  • Shows the relationship between map measurements
    and actual distances.

13
Using the scale bar
14
Using the Grid
15
Lines of latitude (parallels) Lat Flat
  • Lines that are drawn around the globe parallel to
    the Equator.
  • They measure North and South.

16
Major Lines of Latitude
17
Lines of longitude (meridians)
  • Lines that are drawn around the globe through the
    poles.
  • They measure East and West.
  • Prime Meridian 0- Greenwich, England

18
Absolute Location vs. Relative Location
  • Absolute location- exact position on the globe,
    use latitude and longitude
  • When giving absolute location REMEMBER, Latitude
    comes before Longitude!!
  • Relative Location- The position to a place in
    relation to another place

19
Practice Using Absolute Location
B
E
A
D
C
F
20
What happens if the map is turned?
21
Reading A Map
  • In addition to scale and the lines of latitude
    and longitude, maps feature other important tools
    to help you interpret the information they
    contain. Learning to use these map tools will
    help you read the symbolic language of maps.

22
Key/Legend
  • Every map has different symbols, to assure that
    the symbols used are clear every map contains a
    key a list that explains what the symbols stand
    for.

23
Boundary Lines
  • On political maps boundary lines highlight the
    borders between different countries, states, or
    counties.

24
Compass Rose
  • A marker to indicate direction
  • Cardinal Directions
  • N, S, E, W
  • Intermediate Directions
  • NE, NW, SE, SW

25
Scale Bar
  • Shows the relationship between map measurements
    and actual distances.

26
Cities
  • Represented by dots. Relative sizes of cities
    can be used by using dots of different size.

27
Capitals
  • National capitals are often represented by a star
    with in a circle.

28
Understanding Time Zones
  • As the earth rotates on its axis, half of the
    planet experiences day and the other half
    experiences night.
  • By international agreement there are 24 time
    zones around the world.

29
Time Zones
  • Time zones are represented at 15 longitude, or
    the distance the earth rotates in one hour.

30
Universal Time
  • Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is set at the Prime
    Meridian (0)
  • Travel W time gets earlier
  • Travel E times gets later

31
International Date Line
  • Located on the 180 meridian
  • Travel W 1 day
  • Travel E -1 day

32
Time Zone Lines
  • Are not always perfectly straight, some curve to
    serve special needs
  • Political
  • Geographic

33
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34
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35
Summary
  • Why are maps valuable?
  • What are the features of a map?
  • What are the major lines of latitude?
  • How do you determine absolute location?
  • What is the difference between large and small
    scale maps?
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