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PILOT NAVIGATION

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Title: PILOT NAVIGATION


1
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Key Revision
  • Press F5 to start.

2
This presentation may be used either as a
revision aid or as a self-test program.
Revision
Self-test
Instructions
3
This presentation may be used either as a
revision aid or as a self-test program.
  • To revise, just use the down arrow or left
    mouse button to progress. The correct answer(s)
    will be highlighted. Press down arrow again to
    go on to the next question.

To test yourself, use the mouse to left click
directly on the highlighted a) b) c) or d)
alongside to the correct answer.
If you are correct your answer will be
highlighted. If your answer was incorrect you
will be invited to try again. Click OK to go
back and try again.
If you dont want to try again and just want the
answer, left click or down arrow will highlight
the correct one.
4
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • For revision, press the down arrow or left
    mouse button to advance.
  • Press up arrow to go back.

5
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • To test your knowledge, click directly on the
    highlighted a) b) c) or d) alongside the
    correct answer.

6
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Contents List.
  • Click on a chapter.

Chapter 1 Units.
Chapter 2 Flight Planning.
Chapter 3 Position Fixing.
Chapter 4 Map Reading.
Chapter 5 Weather.
exit
7
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Chapter 1
  • Units

Return to contents list
exit
8
Units
Most countries still use feet to measure aircraft
height and altitude. Only in Russia and China are
you expected to fly and report altitude in metres.
9
Units
Most countries still use feet to measure aircraft
height and altitude. Only in Russia and China are
you expected to fly and report altitude in metres.
10
Units
Most countries still use feet to measure aircraft
height and altitude. Only in Russia and China are
you expected to fly and report altitude in metres.
Despite still using feet to measure aircraft
altitude, most countries have adopted metres to
show elevations on maps - the British OS map is
an example.  
Great care is needed because an aircraft being
flown in thousands of feet can be in a very
dangerous position if a navigator reads a
mountain top as being 2000 feet instead of 2000
metres!
11
Safety Altitude
Imagine an aircraft is flying at 2000 feet above
sea level towards a hill with a peak 1000 metres
above sea level.
One metre is equal to 3.3 feet, so the 1000 metre
peak is actually 3300 feet above sea level.
1000m 3300ft
If the pilot takes no avoiding action the
aircraft will hit the hill 1300 feet below the
peak.
2000ft
12
Safety Altitude
The Navigators number one priority at all times
is to calculate and ensure the aircraft is above
the safety altitude for the area.
He will take great care to ensure that elevations
taken from maps which have contours and spot
heights in metres, are converted into feet.
13
In which two countries would you expect to be
told by air traffic control to fly at a height of
300 metres instead of 1000 feet?
a) Russia and China.
b) UK and Ireland.
c) Australia and New Zealand.
d) USA and Mexico.
14
Try again!
OK
exit
15
In which two countries would you expect to be
told by air traffic control to fly at a height of
300 metres instead of 1000 feet?
a) Russia and China.
b) UK and Ireland.
c) Australia and New Zealand.
d) USA and Mexico.
16
Why must you be very careful if using an OS map
to work out safety altitudes?
a) The map does not cover a large enough area.
b) The map is out of date.
c) The elevations are in metres.
d) The grid is based on kilometre squares.
17
Try again!
OK
exit
18
Why must you be very careful if using an OS map
to work out safety altitudes?
a) The map does not cover a large enough area.
b) The map is out of date.
c) The elevations are in metres.
d) The grid is based on kilometre squares.
19
An aircraft is flying at 2000ft above sea level,
towards a hill whose peak is 1000 metres above
sea level. If the pilot takes no action, will the
a/c
a) Hit the hill more than half way up the slope.
b) Miss the hill by 1000 metres.
c) Miss the hill by 1000 ft.
d) Hit the hill near the peak.
20
Try again!
OK
exit
21
An aircraft is flying at 2000ft above sea level,
towards a hill whose peak is 1000 metres above
sea level. If the pilot takes no action, will the
a/c
a) Hit the hill more than half way up the slope.
b) Miss the hill by 1000 metres.
c) Miss the hill by 1000 ft.
d) Hit the hill near the peak.
22
The Navigators Number 1 priority is
a) Calculation of safety altitude.
b) Keeping the a/c above safety speed.
c) Navigating with a sextant.
d) Calculating a/c altitude in metres.
23
Try again!
OK
exit
24
The Navigators Number 1 priority is
a) Calculation of safety altitude.
b) Keeping the a/c above safety speed.
c) Navigating with a sextant.
d) Calculating a/c altitude in metres.
25
Vertical Speed
Vertical speed is measured in metres per minute
in Russia and China.
The rest of the world measures vertical speed in
feet per minute.
26
Meteorological Reports
Most countries except the USA use metric units
for meteorological reports, for instance
The USA still reports visibility in miles and
feet.
The rest of the world reports visibility in
kilometres and metres.
27
The units used for vertical distance and speed in
most countries are
a) Metres and metres per minute.
b) Metres and knots.
c) Feet and knots.
d) Feet and feet per minute.
28
Try again!
OK
exit
29
The units used for vertical distance and speed in
most countries are
a) Metres and metres per minute.
b) Metres and knots.
c) Feet and knots.
d) Feet and feet per minute.
30
The country which is changing to metric units
most slowly in aviation is
a) Russia
b) USA
c) UK
d) France
31
Try again!
OK
exit
32
The country which is changing to metric units
most slowly in aviation is
a) Russia
b) USA
c) UK
d) France
33
Aircraft and Fuel
American built aircraft measure fuel in pounds or
imperial tons. Most others use kilogrammes (kgs)
or metric tonnes.
Although it would be more correct to measure fuel
by its mass, fuel cannot be weighed when an
aircraft is airborne.
The alternative is to measure its volume.
34
What units of fuel would you expect to see on the
gauges of a Eurofighter (Typhoon) aircraft?
a) Kilogrammes.
b) U.S. Gallons.
c) Imperial gallons.
d) Pounds.
35
Try again!
OK
exit
36
What units of fuel would you expect to see on the
gauges of a Eurofighter (Typhoon) aircraft?
a) Kilogrammes.
b) U.S. Gallons.
c) Imperial gallons.
d) Pounds.
37
Why do we use units of volume for a/c fuel, even
though it would be more correct to measure its
mass?
a) It is impossible to weigh the fuel in the air.
b) The Americans don't like doing it that way.
c) The mass of the fuel depends on its type.
d) The fuel is affected by outside air
temperatures.
38
Try again!
OK
exit
39
Why do we use units of volume for a/c fuel, even
though it would be more correct to measure its
mass?
a) It is impossible to weigh the fuel in the air.
b) The Americans don't like doing it that way.
c) The mass of the fuel depends on its type.
d) The fuel is affected by outside air
temperatures.
40
Specific Gravity
Different fuels have different densities or
Specific Gravities.
Specific Gravity (SG) is the ratio between the
weight of the fuel and the weight of the same
volume of water.
Water has an SG of 1.0 Jet fuel typically has an
SG of about 0.8
This means that a litre of jet fuel will weigh
only 80 of the weight of a litre of water.
41
Fuel Conversion
Conversion of fuel weight to volume, or between
the various types of units (pounds, gallons,
litres etc) can be done in several ways.
A calculator can be used, or conversion charts in
the RAF Flight Information Handbook.
Alternatively the crew could use a DR Computer.
42
If an a/c fuel tank was filled with water, it
would contain 5000 pounds of water. If this water
is now replaced with fuel at an SG of 0.80, how
heavy would the fuel be?
a) 4000 pounds.
b) 400 gallons.
c) 8000 pounds.
d) 5000 pounds.
43
Try again!
OK
exit
44
If an a/c fuel tank was filled with water, it
would contain 5000 pounds of water. If this water
is now replaced with fuel at an SG of 0.80, how
heavy would the fuel be?
a) 4000 pounds.
b) 400 gallons.
c) 8000 pounds.
d) 5000 pounds.
45
If the fuel tanker has its gauges calibrated in
different units from the receiver aircraft fuel
gauges, what method of conversion would the crew
use?
a) A DR computer.
b) A fuel weight and volume conversion chart.
c) A calculator.
d) Any of the last three answers.
46
Try again!
OK
exit
47
If the fuel tanker has its gauges calibrated in
different units from the receiver aircraft fuel
gauges, what method of conversion would the crew
use?
a) A DR computer.
b) A fuel weight and volume conversion chart.
c) A calculator.
d) Any of the last three answers.
48
Pressure
Atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of
air above us.
The higher we go, the less air there is above
us. Atmospheric pressure is greatest at sea level
and reduces as we climb up through the
atmosphere.
Pressure can be measured in pounds per square
inch (psi), inches of mercury (the method used in
the USA), or millibars.
Millibars are used everywhere outside the USA.
49
Pressure
This table illustrates how the atmosphere thins
with altitude
Altitude (feet) Air Pressure
(millibars) Sea level 1013
10,000 700 18.000 500 24.000
400 30,000 300 34,000 250 39,000
200
50
Pressure
Note that at a typical airliners cruising
altitude of 34,000 ft the air outside has only
one quarter of the sea level pressure.
Altitude (feet) Air Pressure
(millibars) Sea level 1013
10,000 700 18.000 500 24.000
400 30,000 300 34,000 250 39,000
200
51
Pressure
The amount of oxygen available is also only one
quarter of that at sea level. The cabin
pressurization system maintains the oxygen level
for the passengers and crew.
Altitude (feet) Air Pressure
(millibars) Sea level 1013
10,000 700 18.000 500 24.000
400 30,000 300 34,000 250 39,000
200
52
What causes the air pressure at sea level?
a) The movement of highs and lows on a weather
chart.
b) All the aircraft flying around.
c) Depression.
d) The weight of the air above it.
53
Try again!
OK
exit
54
What causes the air pressure at sea level?
a) The movement of highs and lows on a weather
chart.
b) All the aircraft flying around.
c) Depression.
d) The weight of the air above it.
55
Which units are used to measure pressure in the
atmosphere throughout Europe?
a) Inches of mercury.
b) Millibars.
c) Atmospheres.
d) Hectonewtons.
56
Try again!
OK
exit
57
Which units are used to measure pressure in the
atmosphere throughout Europe?
a) Inches of mercury.
b) Millibars.
c) Atmospheres.
d) Hectonewtons.
58
Outside the USA, which units are used to measure
atmospheric pressure?
a) Inches of mercury.
b) Millibars.
c) Pounds per square inch.
d) Millimetres of mercury.
59
Try again!
OK
exit
60
Outside the USA, which units are used to measure
atmospheric pressure?
a) Inches of mercury.
b) Millibars.
c) Pounds per square inch.
d) Millimetres of mercury.
61
What is the typical atmospheric pressure at sea
level ?
a) 200 millibars
b) 1013 millibars
c) 29.98 millibars
d) 1013 inches of mercury
62
Try again!
OK
exit
63
What is the typical atmospheric pressure at sea
level ?
a) 200 millibars
b) 1013 millibars
c) 29.98 millibars
d) 1013 inches of mercury
64
Flying at a typical airliner cruising level of
34000 feet, what would you expect the atmospheric
pressure outside the aircraft to be?
a) One half of sea level pressure.
b) One tenth of sea level pressure.
c) Three quarters of sea level pressure.
d) One quarter of sea level pressure.
65
Try again!
OK
exit
66
Flying at a typical airliner cruising level of
34000 feet, what would you expect the atmospheric
pressure outside the aircraft to be?
a) One half of sea level pressure.
b) One tenth of sea level pressure.
c) Three quarters of sea level pressure.
d) One quarter of sea level pressure.
67
Most large a/c have cabin pressurization to
maintain air pressure inside the a/c fairly close
to sea level pressure. Why is this?
a) It maintains the oxygen level.
b) It reduces the a/c fuel consumption.
c) It keeps the cabin warm.
d) It helps the stewardesses keep the passengers
calm.
68
Try again!
OK
exit
69
Most large a/c have cabin pressurization to
maintain air pressure inside the a/c fairly close
to sea level pressure. Why is this?
a) It maintains the oxygen level.
b) It reduces the a/c fuel consumption.
c) It keeps the cabin warm.
d) It helps the stewardesses keep the passengers
calm.
70
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Chapter 2
  • Flight Planning

Return to contents list
exit
71
The Triangle of Velocities
Heading and True Airspeed (HDG/TAS)
Windspeed and Direction (W/V)
Track and Groundspeed (TK/GS)
72
The Triangle of Velocities
Heading and True Airspeed (HDG/TAS)
Windspeed and Direction (W/V)
Drift is the angle between Heading and Track
vectors
Track and Groundspeed (TK/GS)
73
The Triangle of Velocities
Heading and True Airspeed (HDG/TAS)
Windspeed and Direction (W/V)
Track and Groundspeed (TK/GS)
Each vector has both a direction and a value
(represented by the length of the arrow).
74
The Triangle of Velocities
Heading and True Airspeed (HDG/TAS)
Windspeed and Direction (W/V)
Track and Groundspeed (TK/GS)
Providing we have four of the elements of the
vector triangle, we can find the other two.
75
The Triangle of Velocities
Heading and True Airspeed (HDG/TAS)
Windspeed and Direction (W/V)
Track and Groundspeed (TK/GS)
The quickest and most accurate way of solving the
vector triangle is to use the Dalton DR Computer.
76
In the triangle of velocities, which vector
represents the wind velocity?
a) The angle between track and heading.
b) The vector with one arrowhead.
c) The vector with two arrowheads.
d) The vector with three arrowheads.
77
Try again!
OK
exit
78
In the triangle of velocities, which vector
represents the wind velocity?
a) The angle between track and heading.
b) The vector with one arrowhead.
c) The vector with two arrowheads.
d) The vector with three arrowheads.
79
In the triangle of velocities, which vector
represents the track and groundspeed?
a) The longest one.
b) The vector with one arrowhead.
c) The vector with two arrowheads.
d) The shortest one.
80
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OK
exit
81
In the triangle of velocities, which vector
represents the track and groundspeed?
a) The longest one.
b) The vector with one arrowhead.
c) The vector with two arrowheads.
d) The shortest one.
82
In the triangle of velocities, which vector
represents the heading and airspeed?
a) The angle between track and heading.
b) The vector with one arrowhead.
c) The vector with two arrowheads.
d) The vector with three arrowheads.
83
Try again!
OK
exit
84
In the triangle of velocities, which vector
represents the heading and airspeed?
a) The angle between track and heading.
b) The vector with one arrowhead.
c) The vector with two arrowheads.
d) The vector with three arrowheads.
85
How is drift shown in the triangle of velocities?
a) The angle between heading and wind direction.
b) The angle between track and heading.
c) The angle between track and wind direction.
d) It is not shown at all.
86
Try again!
OK
exit
87
How is drift shown in the triangle of velocities?
a) The angle between heading and wind direction.
b) The angle between track and heading.
c) The angle between track and wind direction.
d) It is not shown at all.
88
How many elements of the vector triangle are
needed in order that the triangle may be solved?
a) 3
b) 4
c) half
d) 6
89
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OK
exit
90
How many elements of the vector triangle are
needed in order that the triangle may be solved?
a) 3
b) 4
c) half
d) 6
91
What is the quickest and most accurate way of
solving the vector triangle?
a) Mentally.
b) Using a sheet of graph paper.
c) Using a word processor.
d) Using the Dalton DR Computer.
92
Try again!
OK
exit
93
What is the quickest and most accurate way of
solving the vector triangle?
a) Mentally.
b) Using a sheet of graph paper.
c) Using a word processor.
d) Using the Dalton DR Computer.
94
The diagram shows a vector triangle for a flight
along an easterly track. With an N.E. wind, which
of the following is true?
a) The TAS is less than the groundspeed.
b) The a/c experiences port drift.
c) Without doppler radar, nothing is certain.
d) The heading is approximately 080 degrees.
95
Try again!
OK
exit
96
The diagram shows a vector triangle for a flight
along an easterly track. With an N.E. wind, which
of the following is true?
a) The TAS is less than the groundspeed.
b) The a/c experiences port drift.
c) Without doppler radar, nothing is certain.
d) The heading is approximately 080 degrees.
97
Flight Planning
For private pilots and light military trainers,
flight planning is carried out using the Pilot
Navigation Log Card.
98
Flight Planning
The Pilot Navigation Log Card is purely for use
by the pilot, ensuring that he has all of the
necessary details readily available in the
cockpit, to complete the flight safely and
accurately.
99
Flight Planning
The pilot must enter the important details on the
log card for each leg.
He must measure the tracks from the map using a
protractor and the distances with dividers.
100
Flight Planning
Temperature is required in order to calculate the
True Airspeed (TAS) from the Calibrated Airspeed
(CAS).
101
Fuel Planning
The time for each leg and the fuel required is
also calculated and logged on the card.
Running out of fuel in a car is inconvenient, in
an aircraft it is disastrous.
102
Fuel Planning
The timings on the log cards also help the pilots
pass accurate estimates of time of arrival
(ETAs) at waypoints or destinations.
103
Safety Altitude
The safety altitude is calculated by adding 1000
feet to the highest elevations (mountains, TV
masts etc) on or near the track and rounding up
to the nearest 100 feet.
104
Safety Altitude
For instance, if the highest obstacle near the
track is 1750 feet, the safety altitude is 1750
1000 2750 ft. Rounded up to the nearest 100
ft this becomes 2800 feet.
105
Safety Altitude
If meteorological conditions deteriorate the
pilot must always be prepared to climb above the
safety altitude.
106
Air Traffic Control Flight Plan
Before a pilot commences his flight he must
submit an ATC Flight Plan so that ATC units along
his route, and at his destination, have details
of his intended flight.
The Flight Plan is faxed or electronically
transmitted to all of the ATC Centres en-route.
The Flight Plan includes the aircraft callsign,
type of aircraft, time and place of departure,
speed and altitude, intended route and ETA at
destination. It also includes safety information
such as the numbers of people on board and the
types and quantities of emergency equipment
carried.
107
What is the purpose of the Pilot Navigation log
card?
a) It records the instrument readings every 6
minutes.
b) It enables the pilot to plan the flight.
c) It tells the pilot where the a/c is.
d) It is an accurate record of the flight for
squadron statistics.
108
Try again!
OK
exit
109
What is the purpose of the Pilot Navigation log
card?
a) It records the instrument readings every 6
minutes.
b) It enables the pilot to plan the flight.
c) It tells the pilot where the a/c is.
d) It is an accurate record of the flight for
squadron statistics.
110
What must a pilot do in order to complete the
Pilot Navigation log card?
a) Extract the tower frequencies from the
navigation handbook.
b) Measure the tracks with a protractor and the
distances with dividers.
c) Measure the tracks with dividers and the
distances with a protractor.
d) Ensure that the a/c has the correct equipment
fitted.
111
Try again!
OK
exit
112
What must a pilot do in order to complete the
Pilot Navigation log card?
a) Extract the tower frequencies from the
navigation handbook.
b) Measure the tracks with a protractor and the
distances with dividers.
c) Measure the tracks with dividers and the
distances with a protractor.
d) Ensure that the a/c has the correct equipment
fitted.
113
Why do you need to know the outside air
temperature at operating altitude in order to
complete your flight planning?
a) To ensure that the passengers meals stay
frozen.
b) To calculate the TAS from the CAS.
c) To calculate IAS from Mach No.
d) To ensure that the engines will work.
114
Try again!
OK
exit
115
Why do you need to know the outside air
temperature at operating altitude in order to
complete your flight planning?
a) To ensure that the passengers meals stay
frozen.
b) To calculate the TAS from the CAS.
c) To calculate IAS from Mach No.
d) To ensure that the engines will work.
116
As well as solving the triangle of velocities,
what other information is logged on the Pilot
Navigation log card?
a) Amount of fuel received from tanker.
b) Time for each leg and a/c registration.
c) Met forecast of icing and thunderstorms.
d) Time for each leg and fuel required.
117
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OK
exit
118
As well as solving the triangle of velocities,
what other information is logged on the Pilot
Navigation log card?
a) Amount of fuel received from tanker.
b) Time for each leg and a/c registration.
c) Met forecast of icing and thunderstorms.
d) Time for each leg and fuel required.
119
For what reasons do we need to calculate leg
times and ETA's on our pilot navigation card?
a) Fuel and de-icing fluid.
b) To calculate safety altitude and variation.
c) Fuel and Air Traffic.
d) Air Traffic and for astro calculations.
120
Try again!
OK
exit
121
For what reasons do we need to calculate leg
times and ETA's on our pilot navigation card?
a) Fuel and de-icing fluid.
b) To calculate safety altitude and variation.
c) Fuel and Air Traffic.
d) Air Traffic and for astro calculations.
122
If the highest obstacle near your track is 1750',
what is your safety altitude?
a) 2700 ft
b) 1800 ft
c) 3800 ft
d) 2800 ft
123
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OK
exit
124
If the highest obstacle near your track is 1750',
what is your safety altitude?
a) 2700 ft
b) 1800 ft
c) 3800 ft
d) 2800 ft
125
If you are flying an a/c at 2000' and you fly
into cloud, to what altitude must you climb?
a) 3000 ft
b) To safety altitude or higher.
c) Flight level 40
d) Maintain altitude.
126
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OK
exit
127
If you are flying an a/c at 2000' and you fly
into cloud, to what altitude must you climb?
a) 3000 ft
b) To safety altitude or higher.
c) Flight level 40
d) Maintain altitude.
128
Which of the following would you not expect to
find on an Air TrafficControl flight plan?
a) Destination.
b) Callsign.
c) Persons on board.
d) Wind forecast.
129
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OK
exit
130
Which of the following would you not expect to
find on an Air TrafficControl flight plan?
a) Destination.
b) Callsign.
c) Persons on board.
d) Wind forecast.
131
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Chapter 3
  • Position Fixing

Return to contents list
exit
132
Position Fixing
In the pioneering days of aviation, aircraft
could not fly unless the pilot could see the
ground, as map reading was the only way of
navigating.
Great strides were made during World War II, but
it was not until the 1970s that world-wide
coverage was achieved with a fixing aid known as
Omega.
This has now been superseded by Satellite
Navigation (SATNAV) and the Global Positioning
System (GPS).
133
Visual Fixing
By using a map to positively identify a feature
on the ground below, you are making a visual fix
known as a pinpoint.
The pinpoint is still a very reliable way of
fixing ones position, particularly in the early
days of training.
134
In the early days of aviation, what did pilots
have to rely on for navigation?
a) Map reading.
b) The navigator.
c) The observer.
d) The stars.
135
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136
In the early days of aviation, what did pilots
have to rely on for navigation?
a) Map reading.
b) The navigator.
c) The observer.
d) The stars.
137
What is the name of the first long range
navigation system to give world-wide fixes?
a) Sputnik.
b) Omega.
c) Loran.
d) GPS.
138
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OK
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139
What is the name of the first long range
navigation system to give world-wide fixes?
a) Sputnik.
b) Omega.
c) Loran.
d) GPS.
140
Omega is now being replaced by what modern system?
a) ILS
b) TCAS
c) LORAN
d) GPS
141
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OK
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142
Omega is now being replaced by what modern
system?
a) ILS
b) TCAS
c) LORAN
d) GPS
143
The name of a fix that you get from reading a map
is known as a
a) Pinprick.
b) DR position
c) Pinpoint.
d) Air position
144
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OK
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145
The name of a fix that you get from reading a map
is known as a
a) Pinprick
b) DR position
c) Pinpoint
d) Air position
146
Radio Aids
The next time you listen to a small portable
radio, try turning the radio through 360 degrees.
You will find that there are two points in the
circle where reception is poor, and two points
where reception is best. This is because the
aerial is in the form of a horizontal bar.
147
Radio Aids
The Radio Direction Finder (or radio compass)
works on the same principle to find the direction
of the aircraft from a beacon.
By using lines from two further beacons,
preferably at about 60 degrees from each other, a
three position line fix can be plotted to
accurately locate the position of the aircraft.
148
The radio compass works on the same principle as
which of these equipments
a) A Radio 1 transmitter?
b) A gyro magnetic compass?
c) A small portable radio?
d) A radio sonar buoy?
149
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150
The radio compass works on the same principle as
which of these equipments
a) A Radio 1 transmitter?
b) A gyro magnetic compass?
c) A small portable radio?
d) A radio sonar buoy?
151
The radio compass enables you to take what kind
of fix?
a) VOR/DME fix.
b) 3 position line fix.
c) Tacan fix.
d) Astro heading fix.
152
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153
The radio compass enables you to take what kind
of fix?
a) VOR/DME fix.
b) 3 position line fix.
c) Tacan fix.
d) Astro heading fix.
154
In a 3-position line fix what is the ideal angle
between position lines?
a) 30 degrees
b) 45 degrees
c) 60 degrees
d) 90 degrees
155
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156
In a 3-position line fix what is the ideal angle
between position lines?
a) 30 degrees
b) 45 degrees
c) 60 degrees
d) 90 degrees
157
VOR/DME and TACAN
A more modern method of position finding utilises
VOR/DME (civilian) or TACAN (military) beacons.
Both give the same information, namely the
magnetic bearing of the aircraft from the beacon
and the range.
158
Both VOR/DME and TACAN give the same information.
Is it
a) Magnetic track and groundspeed?
b) True heading and range to the beacon?
c) Airway centreline and distance?
d) Magnetic bearing and range to the beacon?
159
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160
Both VOR/DME and TACAN give the same information.
Is it
a) Magnetic track and groundspeed?
b) True heading and range to the beacon?
c) Airway centreline and distance?
d) Magnetic bearing and range to the beacon?
161
The civilian equivalent of TACAN is known as
a) LORAN
b) OMEGA
c) ADF
d) VOR/DME
162
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163
The civilian equivalent of TACAN is known as
a) LORAN
b) OMEGA
c) ADF
d) VOR/DME
164
Astro Navigation
Astro navigation works on the principle of using
a sextant to measure the angle of the sun or
stars to determine position.
Perhaps the only advantage of astro navigation is
that it cannot be jammed.
It has been superseded by GPS.
165
What is the major advantage of Astro Navigation
over more modern systems?
a) It is more accurate.
b) It can only be used by naval aviators.
c) It cannot be jammed.
d) It is easier to use.
166
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167
What is the major advantage of Astro Navigation
over more modern systems?
a) It is more accurate.
b) It can only be used by naval aviators.
c) It cannot be jammed.
d) It is easier to use.
168
Radar Navigation
Airborne radar has been refined to such a stage
that ground returns received by an aircraft ca be
matched to a computerised map enabling an
accurate fix to be obtained simply at the press
of a button.
The major disadvantage of this system is that the
radar transmissions can be detected by the enemy. 
169
In the Tornado GR variants, a computer generated
low level map can be superimposed over the radar
picture. What does this enable the navigator to
do?
a) Avoid carrying paper maps.
b) Take quick, accurate fixes.
c) Spot the golf courses he/she would like to
play.
d) Use look down, shoot down missiles.
170
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171
In the Tornado GR variants, a computer generated
low level map can be superimposed over the radar
picture. What does this enable the navigator to
do?
a) Avoid carrying paper maps.
b) Take quick, accurate fixes.
c) Spot the golf courses he/she would like to
play.
d) Use look down, shoot down missiles.
172
What is the major disadvantage of radar in combat
a/c?
a) It only works at night.
b) You need a weapon systems operator to use it.
c) It gives away your location.
d) It only works at low level.
173
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174
What is the major disadvantage of radar in combat
a/c?
a) It only works at night.
b) You need a weapon systems operator to use it.
c) It gives away your location.
d) It only works at low level.
175
Long Range Fixing
During the 1950s and 1960s a number of long range
area navigation systems were developed Gee,
Decca, Loran and Omega.
All worked to a similar principle measuring the
time it takes two synchronised signals to arrive
from two different transmitting stations to give
a fix. 
176
Global Positioning System (GPS)
With airborne microcomputers and the network of
Global Positioning Satellites it is now possible
for even an unskilled operator to obtain fixes to
within a few metres.
177
All long range nav aids work on a similar basis.
What does the equipment use to calculate
position?
a) Old Moore's Almanac.
b) Time interval between synchronised signals.
c) Time interval between successive fixes.
d) Phase difference on various radials.
178
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179
All long range nav aids work on a similar basis.
What does the equipment use to calculate
position?
a) Old Moore's Almanac.
b) Time interval between synchronised signals.
c) Time interval between successive fixes.
d) Phase difference on various radials.
180
Only one long range Navigation System gives
accuracies of about 100 metres. Which is it
a) GEE
b) DECCA
c) GPS
d) LORAN
181
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182
Only one long range Navigation System gives
accuracies of about 100 metres. Which is it
a) GEE
b) DECCA
c) GPS
d) LORAN
183
Active / Passive Systems
The development of radar-homing missiles has
necessitated the development of even more
sophisticated electronic warfare (EW)
countermeasures.
Whilst electronic warfare measures can be taken
to protect active systems, another approach is
to use only passive systems. 
Passive systems do not transmit, merely
receiving signals such as those transmitted by
GPS satellites. Combining these with a triple
Inertial Navigation System (INS) will give a very
accurate position fix.
184
Navigation Training
Despite the availability of accurate navigation
systems a student pilot will spend a great deal
of time, especially in the early stages of his
training developing the basic skill of map
reading.
185
What is the best defence against enemy detection
of active navigation systems in fast jet a/c?
a) Use only astro navigation.
b) Climb to service ceiling.
c) Scramble/unscramble the signals.
d) Use only passive systems.
186
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187
What is the best defence against enemy detection
of active navigation systems in fast jet a/c?
a) Use only astro navigation.
b) Climb to service ceiling.
c) Scramble/unscramble the signals.
d) Use only passive systems.
188
The best passive navigation system is
a) Astro alone?
b) Loran with astro?
c) Triple inertial with GPS?
d) Twin inertial with Omega?
189
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190
The best passive navigation system is
a) Astro alone?
b) Loran with astro?
c) Triple inertial with GPS?
d) Twin inertial with Omega?
191
In the early stages of training, students are
made to concentrate on which method of
navigation?
a) Astro navigation.
b) Air plot.
c) Map reading.
d) Mechanical track plot.
192
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193
In the early stages of training, students are
made to concentrate on which method of
navigation?
a) Astro navigation.
b) Air plot.
c) Map reading.
d) Mechanical track plot.
194
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Chapter 4
  • Map Reading

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195
Map Reading
You can make the same mistakes map reading in the
air as on the ground, but with the extra mental
pressure that there is no time when you are
flying to have a discussion about your location.
196
Altitude
The best features to select for map reading will
depend upon whether the aircraft is at high or
low altitude.
At low level it is important to choose features
which have vertical extent chimneys, hills,
power stations etc. 
At high level vertical features cannot be seen
and larger features are needed lakes, woods,
islands etc.
197
Unique?
The most important characteristic of a map
reading feature is that it is unique and cannot
be confused with any similar nearby features.
198
What is the main difference between map reading
on the ground and in the air?
a) There is no time in the air to discuss where
we are.
b) You don't have to wear an oxygen mask on the
ground.
c) You do not need waterproof maps in the air.
d) The scale of maps is so different.
199
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200
What is the main difference between map reading
on the ground and in the air?
a) There is no time in the air to discuss where
we are.
b) You don't have to wear an oxygen mask on the
ground.
c) You do not need waterproof maps in the air.
d) The scale of maps is so different.
201
What is the essential requirement of a feature
for use in low level map reading?
a) It must be a different colour from the
background.
b) It must be a water feature.
c) It must have vertical extent.
d) It must be large enough to be seen at high
speed.
202
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203
What is the essential requirement of a feature
for use in low level map reading?
a) It must be a different colour from the
background.
b) It must be a water feature.
c) It must have vertical extent.
d) It must be large enough to be seen at high
speed.
204
What is the major difficulty with map reading
from an a/c at high level?
a) The weather.
b) The maps are not accurate enough.
c) Vertical features cannot be seen.
d) Everything looks so small.
205
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206
What is the major difficulty with map reading
from an a/c at high level?
a) The weather.
b) The maps are not accurate enough.
c) Vertical features cannot be seen.
d) Everything looks so small.
207
What is the most important characteristic of a
map reading feature?
a) It must be small enough.
b) It must be tall enough.
c) It should be unique.
d) It must be large enough.
208
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209
What is the most important characteristic of a
map reading feature?
a) It must be small enough.
b) It must be tall enough.
c) It should be unique.
d) It must be large enough.
210
Contrast and Colour
Of the natural features used in map reading
rivers and coastlines are generally the most
useful.
They show the greatest contrast and colour change
between themselves and the land. 
211
Map Scales
Special maps are produced for map reading from
the air.
Emphasis is placed on features more easily
identified from the air.
They are normally made to a much smaller scale
typically 1500,000
212
Timing Marks
Before embarking on a flight in an aircraft
without sophisticated navigation aids, a student
will put timing or distance marks along each of
the legs of his route.
10
20
30
40
213
Timing Marks
If he loses his place along his track he need
only consult his watch, work out the time since
his last waypoint and that will tell him where to
look at the map.
10
20
30
40
214
When choosing natural (rather than man-made)
features for map reading, what characteristic is
most important?
a) How they are shown on the map.
b) Their contrast and colour.
c) Their size.
d) Whether they are frozen or not.
215
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216
When choosing natural (rather than man-made)
features for map reading, what characteristic is
most important?
a) How they are shown on the map.
b) Their contrast and colour.
c) Their size.
d) Whether they are frozen or not.
217
In a simple a/c, what piece of equipment do we
rely on to assist with map reading?
a) The radar.
b) The watch.
c) The gyro magnetic compass.
d) The magnifying glass.
218
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219
In a simple a/c, what piece of equipment do we
rely on to assist with map reading?
a) The radar.
b) The watch.
c) The gyro magnetic compass.
d) The magnifying glass.
220
Why do we put timing (or distance) marks on a map
to assist with map reading?
a) To calculate ETA.
b) To monitor the groundspeed.
c) In case we lose our place.
d) To check fuel consumption.
221
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222
Why do we put timing (or distance) marks on a map
to assist with map reading?
a) To calculate ETA.
b) To monitor the groundspeed.
c) In case we lose our place.
d) To check fuel consumption.
223
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • Chapter 5
  • Weather

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224
The Atmosphere
Pure air consists of 79 nitrogen, 20 oxygen and
1 other gases.
The major variable in the atmosphere that affects
weather is water in all of its forms.
The air pressure at sea level is caused by the
weight of the air above us. With increasing
altitude the pressure reduces, and so does the
temperature.
225
What is the major variable in the atmosphere that
affects weather?
a) Water in all its forms.
b) Cigarette smoke.
c) Pressure.
d) Temperature.
226
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227
What is the major variable in the atmosphere that
affects weather?
a) Water in all its forms.
b) Cigarette smoke.
c) Pressure.
d) Temperature.
228
What causes the air pressure at sea level?
a) Depression.
b) The weight of the air above it.
c) All the aircraft flying around.
d) The movement of highs and lows on the weather
chart.
229
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230
What causes the air pressure at sea level?
a) Depression.
b) The weight of the air above it.
c) All the aircraft flying around.
d) The movement of highs and lows on the weather
chart.
231
Water Vapour
Air holds water vapour as an invisible gas. The
warmer the air, the more water vapour it can hold.
As air is cooled, its ability to hold water
vapour is reduced.  Eventually it becomes
saturated and can hold no more water vapour
this is the dew point.
If the air continues to be cooled below its dew
point then visible droplets of water start to
form dew, mist, fog or clouds.
232
Water Vapour
There are four trigger actions which cause air
to rise
Turbulence Convection - heating Orographic
Uplift - hills and mountains Frontal Uplift -
cold or occluded fronts  
In each case temperature and pressure fall until
the dew point is reached, and at that altitude
the base of the cloud is formed. Cirrus (high
level clouds) consist of ice crystals, but most
clouds consist of tiny visible droplets of water.
233
When the temperature drops to the dew point, but
is still above freezing, what kind of weather can
you expect?
a) Fog
b) Rain
c) Sleet
d) Thunderstorms
234
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235
When the temperature drops to the dew point, but
is still above freezing, what kind of weather can
you expect?
a) Fog
b) Rain
c) Sleet
d) Thunderstorms
236
The 4 main reasons that air moves vertically are
known as the trigger actions. What are these?
a) Conduction, precipitation, thunderstorms,
convection.
b) Turbulence, convection, orographic and frontal
uplift.
c) Turbulence, conduction, orographic, fiscal.
d) Market forces, radiation, x-rays, frontal
uplift.
237
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238
The 4 main reasons that air moves vertically are
known as the trigger actions. What are these?
a) Conduction, precipitation, thunderstorms,
convection.
b) Turbulence, convection, orographic and frontal
uplift.
c) Turbulence, conduction, orographic, fiscal.
d) Market forces, radiation, x-rays, frontal
uplift.
239
The base level of clouds is normally the point at
which the rising air has cooled to what
temperature?
a) Its dewpoint.
b) Its condensation.
c) 0 degrees C.
d) 0 degrees F.
240
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241
The base level of clouds is normally the point at
which the rising air has cooled to what
temperature?
a) Its dewpoint.
b) Its condensation.
c) 0 degrees C.
d) 0 degrees F.
242
What are clouds made of?
a) Visible droplets of water.
b) Water vapour.
c) Scotch mist.
d) Steam.
243
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244
What are clouds made of?
a) Visible droplets of water.
b) Water vapour.
c) Scotch mist.
d) Steam.
245
Thunderstorms
Thunderstorms present a variety of hazards to an
aircraft.
246
Thunderstorms
Thunderstorms present a variety of hazards to an
aircraft. They are best avoided by a large margin.
Some of these hazards are Icing - airframe
and engine Precipitation - usually
hail Turbulence Lightning Severe downdrafts
247
Thunderstorms
Modern aircraft carry weather radar to assist in
avoiding thunderstorms.
248
What is the best thing for an aviator to do about
thunderstorms?
a) Avoid them by a wide margin.
b) Use the radar to go through the centre.
c) Pass downwind of them.
d) Stay on the ground.
249
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250
What is the best thing for an aviator to do about
thunderstorms?
a) Avoid them by a wide margin.
b) Use the radar to go through the centre.
c) Pass downwind of them.
d) Stay on the ground.
251
Which of the following is not one of the hazards
to a/c that is found in thunderstorms?
a) Icing.
b) Lightning.
c) Isobars.
d) Turbulence.
252
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253
Which of the following is not one of the hazards
to a/c that is found in thunderstorms?
a) Icing.
b) Lightning.
c) Isobars.
d) Turbulence.
254
What form of precipitation is commonest in
thunderstorms?
a) Drizzle
b) Hail
c) Snow
d) Showers
255
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256
What form of precipitation is commonest in
thunderstorms?
a) Drizzle
b) Hail
c) Snow
d) Showers
257
What do aircrew use to avoid thunderstorms?
a) Radio beacons.
b) Seaweed.
c) Radar.
d) Weather forecasts.
258
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259
What do aircrew use to avoid thunderstorms?
a) Radio beacons.
b) Seaweed.
c) Radar.
d) Weather forecasts.
260
Isobars
Isobars join points of equal pressure (just as
contours join all points of equal height) and
help meteorologists and pilots understand how the
air is moving.
261
Isobars
Isobars join points of equal pressure (just as
contours join all points of equal height) and
help meteorologists and pilots understand how the
air is moving.
In the northern hemisphere air circulates
clockwise around anticyclones (high pressure
areas). 
H
262
Isobars
Isobars join points of equal pressure (just as
contours join all points of equal height) and
help meteorologists and pilots understand how the
air is moving.
And circulates anticlockwise around cyclones (low
pressure areas). 
L
263
Isobars
Isobars join points of equal pressure (just as
contours join all points of equal height) and
help meteorologists and pilots understand how the
air is moving.
The easy way to remember this is that if you
stand with your back to the wind the Low pressure
is on your Left.
L
264
Isobars
Isobar patterns represent the wind at 2000 ft
above the surface.
The direction of the lines gives the direction of
the wind and the closer the lines are together
the stronger the wind 
Low
265
Isobars
On the surface the wind will be about 25 less
strong than at 2000 ft due to the effects of
friction.
It will also have backed about 25 degrees
compared with the 2000 ft wind.
Low
266
Isobars
For instance, if the 2000 ft wind is 270/20
the surface wind will be 245/15
Low
267
In the northern hemisphere, if you stand with
your back to the wind, where is the higher
pressure air?
a) On your left.
b) In front of you.
c) On your right.
d) Above you.
268
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269
In the northern hemisphere, if you stand with
your back to the wind, where is the higher
pressure air?
a) On your left.
b) In front of you.
c) On your right.
d) Above you.
270
Where on this pressure diagram will the wind
speed be greatest?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
271
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272
Where on this pressure diagram will the wind
speed be greatest?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
273
If the wind indicated by the isobars on a weather
chart is 200 degrees / 20 kts, what would you
expect the surface wind to be?
a) 175/15
b) 175/25
c) 230/15
d) 200/20
274
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275
If the wind indicated by the isobars on a weather
chart is 200 degrees / 20 kts, what would you
expect the surface wind to be?
a) 175/15
b) 175/25
c) 230/15
d) 200/20
276
TAFs and METARs
Weather information is passed from the met office
to aircrew in the form of Terminal Area
Forecasts (TAFs) and Meteorological Actual
Reports (METARs).
Standard codes are used for brevity, for instance
CAVOK means that there is no cloud below 5000
feet and visibility is at least 10 km. (Cloud And
Visibility OK)
277
TAF and METAR Decodes
BR Mist DZ Drizzle HZ Haze FU Smoke RA Rain
FZ Freezing  TS Thunderstorms FG Fog SH Shower SN
Snow
- Slight Heavy
The codes can be used in combination e.g. RASH
means heavy rain showers.
278
How does the met office pass information about
airfield weather to aircrew?
a) By using TAFs and METARs.
b) By television.
c) By radar.
d) By TEMPOs and BECMGs.
279
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280
How does the met office pass information about
airfield weather to aircrew?
a) By using TAFs and METARs.
b) By television.
c) By radar.
d) By TEMPOs and BECMGs.
281
The main difference between a TAF and a METAR is
a) One is a report, the other is a forecast.
b) One TAF is more reliable.
c) One never includes the wind velocity.
d) One is for a longer time period than the
other.
282
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283
The main difference between a TAF and a METAR is
a) One is a report, the other is a forecast.
b) One TAF is more reliable.
c) One never includes the wind velocity.
d) One is for a longer time period than the
other.
284
If you saw the term CAVOK in a weather report,
what would it mean to you?
a) Visibility 5 km, cloudbase 10,000 ft.
b) Combat all-terrain vehicles OK.
c) Visibility better than 5 km and no cloud below
10,000 ft.
d) Visibility better than 10 km and no cloud
below 5,000 ft.
285
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286
If you saw the term CAVOK in a weather report,
what would it mean to you?
a) Visibility 5 km, cloudbase 10,000 ft.
b) Combat all-terrain vehicles OK.
c) Visibility better than 5 km and no cloud below
10,000 ft.
d) Visibility better than 10 km and no cloud
below 5,000 ft.
287
In a TAF what would -SHSN mean?
a) Heavy snow.
b) Snow all day.
c) Sleet.
d) Light snow showers.
288
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289
In a TAF what would -SHSN mean?
a) Heavy snow.
b) Snow all day.
c) Sleet.
d) Light snow showers.
290
I
a) R
b) W
c) W
d) W
291
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292
I
a) R
b) W
c) W
d) W
293
I
a) W
b) R
c) W
d) W
294
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295
I
a) W
b) R
c) W
d) W
296
I
a) W
b) W
c) R
d) W
297
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298
I
a) W
b) W
c) R
d) W
299
I
a) W
b) W
c) W
d) R
300
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301
I
a) W
b) W
c) W
d) R
302
Master
X
The
A
The
303
PILOT NAVIGATION
  • The End

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304
PILOT NAVIGATION
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