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MORPHOLOGY = morph ology morph-: form -ology: science of morphology (n): the science of (word) forms

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Title: MORPHOLOGY = morph ology morph-: form -ology: science of morphology (n): the science of (word) forms


1
MORPHOLOGY morph ology morph- form -ology
science of morphology (n) the science of (word)
forms
2
Content Words and Function Words
  • Content Words Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs.
    Also called open-class words.
  • v have lexical content.
  • v additions are possible
  • Function words auxiliaries, conjunctions,
    pronouns, prepositions, articles.
  • v do not have lexical content
  • v additions are not possible
  • v purely required by the rules of syntax.
  • It is raining outside today
  • v Function words are the glue that hold the
    sentence together.

3
Morphemes The minimal units of meaning
  • The smallest element in the language which carry
    meaning the smallest meaningful element in
    language.

What is the meaning of un- in these examples?
What is the meaning of phon- in these examples?
4
Morphology
  • Words have internal structure, which is
    rule-governed. Uneaten, unadmired, and
    ungrammatical are words in English, but eatenun,
    admiredun, and grammaticalun (to mean not
    eaten, not admired, not grammatical) are
    not, because we form a negative meaning of a word
    not by suffixing un- but by prefixing it.
  • The study of the internal structure of words, and
    of the rules by which words are formed, is
    morphology.
  • Morphological knowlesge is part of our
    unconscious knowledge of langugage.
  • A word form can contain one or more morphemes

5
Morphology
  • The meaning of a morpheme must be constant.
  • v the agentive morpheme er singer, player,
    carrier
  • v two different morphemes may be represented by
    the same sound agentive vs. comparative
  • v The same sound may occur in another word and
    cannot represent a morpheme at all finger
  • DISCRETENESS OF LANGUAGE
  • In all languages, sound units combine to form
    morphemes, morphemes combine to form words, and
    words combine to form larger unitsphrases and
    sentences.
  • Discreteness is an important part of linguistic
    creativity.
  • to write writable DVD , a rewritable DVD ,
    unrewritable DVD
  • You know the meanings of all these words by
    virtue of your knowledge of the discrete
    morphemes write, re-, -able, and un-, and the
    rules for their combination.

6
Morphology
  • Free morphemes
  • v Morphemes that can stand by themselves.
  • v Ex desire, gentle, of, man etc.
  • v Morphemes that constitute words by
    themselves.
  • Bound morphemes
  • v Morphemes that cannot stand by themselves.
  • v Affixes like pre-, un- , -ish, -er etc.
  • v Bound morphemes are divided into two groups
  • a) Prefixes occur before words
  • b) Suffixes occur after words
  • c) Infixes morphemes inserted between other
    morpehmes
  • Many languages have prefixes and suffixes, but
    languages may differ in how they deploy these
    morphemes. A morpheme that is a prefix in one
    language may be a suffix in another and vice
    versa.

7
Morphology
8
Morphology
  • An example of a language with infixes is the
    language is Bontoc, spoken in Philippines

Circumfixes Morphemes that are attached to both
at the beginning and end of a root. Chickasaw, a
langauge spoken in Oklahoma
9
Roots and Stems
  • Morphologically complex words consist of a
    morpheme root and one or more affixes.
  • The root word is the primary lexical unit of a
    word, and of a word family , which carries the
    most significant aspects of semantic content and
    cannot be reduced into smaller constituents.
  • Some examples of English roots are paint in
    painter, read in reread, ceive in conceive, and
    ling in linguist.
  • A root may or may not stand alone as a word
    (paint and read do ceive and ling dont).
  • In languages that have circumfixes, the root is
    the form around which the circumfix attaches, for
    example, the Chickasaw root chokm in ikchokmo
    (he isnt good).
  • In infixing languages the root is the form into
    which the infix is inserted for example, fikas
    in the Bontoc word fumikas (to be strong).
  • Arabic

10
Roots and Stems
  • Morphologically complex words consist of a
    morpheme root and one or more affixes.
  • The root word is the primary lexical unit of a
    word, and of a word family , which carries the
    most significant aspects of semantic content and
    cannot be reduced into smaller constituents.
  • Some examples of English roots are paint in
    painter, read in reread, ceive in conceive, and
    ling in linguist.
  • A root may or may not stand alone as a word
    (paint and read do ceive and ling dont).
  • In languages that have circumfixes, the root is
    the form around which the circumfix attaches, for
    example, the Chickasaw root chokm in ikchokmo
    (he isnt good).
  • In infixing languages the root is the form into
    which the infix is inserted for example, fikas
    in the Bontoc word fumikas (to be strong).
  • Arabic

What is the root of this word family?
11
Roots and Stems
  • Morphologically complex words consist of a
    morpheme root and one or more affixes.
  • The root word is the primary lexical unit of a
    word, and of a word family , which carries the
    most significant aspects of semantic content and
    cannot be reduced into smaller constituents.
  • Some examples of English roots are paint in
    painter, read in reread, ceive in conceive, and
    ling in linguist.
  • A root may or may not stand alone as a word
    (paint and read do ceive and ling dont).
  • In languages that have circumfixes, the root is
    the form around which the circumfix attaches, for
    example, the Chickasaw root chokm in ikchokmo
    (he isnt good).
  • In infixing languages the root is the form into
    which the infix is inserted for example, fikas
    in the Bontoc word fumikas (to be strong).
  • Arabic

What is the root of this word family?
ktb
12
Roots and Stems
  • Stems

13
Bound Roots
  • Bound roots do not occur in isolation and they
    acquire meaning only in combination with other
    morphemes.
  • For example, words of Latin origin such as
    receive, conceive, perceive, and deceive share a
    common root, ceive
  • The words remit, permit, commit, submit,
    transmit, and admit share the root mit.
  • For the original Latin speakers, the morphemes
    corresponding to ceive and mit had clear
    meanings, but for modern English speakers,
    Latinate morphemes such as ceive and mit have no
    independent meaning. Their meaning depends on the
    entire word in which they occur.
  • The morpheme huckle, when joined with berry, has
    the meaning of a berry that is small, round, and
    purplish blue luke when combined with warm has
    the meaning somewhat. Both these morphemes and
    others like them (cran, boysen) are bound
    morphemes that convey meaning only in
    combination.

14
Derivational Morphology
  • Derive tion derivation
  • Derivational derivational
  • v When derivational morphemes are added to a
    base, a new word with a new meaning is derived.
  • v pure ify to make pure
  • v purify ation purification the process of
    making pure
  • v This is a creative process.
  • If we invent an adjective, pouzy, to describe the
    effect of static electricity on hair, you will
    immediately
  • understand the sentences Walking on that carpet
    really pouzified my hair and The best method of
  • pouzification is to rub a balloon on your head.
  • v Derivational morphemes have clear semantic
    content.
  • v When a derivational morpheme is added to a
    base, it adds meaning.
  • v The derived word may also be of a different
    grammatical class than the original word, as
    shown by suffixes such as -able and ly.
  • desire (n) able desirable(adj)
  • dark(adj) en darken (verb)

15
Derivational Morphology
Other examples

16
Inflectional Morphology
  • v Function words like to, it, and be are free
    morphemes. Many languages, including English,
    also have bound morphemes that have a strictly
    grammatical function. They mark properties such
    as tense, number, person and so forth.
  • v They never change the grammatical category of
    the stems they are attached.

v Represent relationships between different parts
of sentence.
17
Inflectional Morphology
  • English has 8 bound inflectional suffixes.

v In a word, inflectional morphemes follow
derivational morphemes v Inflectional morphemes
are productive they can attach every appropriate
base. (the inflectional plural morphemes s vs.
the derivational ize)
18
Inflectional Morphology
  • Languages differ with respect to the use of
    inflectional morphemes.
  • Some languages have a rich number of inflectional
    morphemes than others.

In the Romance languages (languages descended
from Latin), the verb has different inflectional
endings depending on the subject of the sentence.
The verb is inflected to agree in person and
number with the subject, as illustrated by the
Italian verb parlare meaningto speak
Russian Russian has a system of inflectional
morphology that indicates the nouns grammatical
relation.
19
Inflectional Morphology
  • v Case Marking
  • The grammatical relation of a noun in a sentence
    is called the case of the noun.
  • When case is marked by inflectiona morphemes, the
    process is referred to as case morphology.
  • v Reduplication
  • inflecting a word through the repetition of part
    or all of the word
  • savali he travels, savavali they travel.
  • The Samoan Language
  • orang person, orang orang people.
  • The Malay Language

20
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21
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22
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
Words have internal structure
23
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
Further morphological operations can apply to
this stem
unsystematical
unsystematically
24
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
  • Tree diagrams make explicit the way speakers
    represent the internal structure of the
    morphologically complex words in their language.
  • Our mental representation of words is
    hierarchical as well as linear, and this is shown
    by tree diagrams.
  • v Inflectional morphemes are equally well
    represented.

25
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
  • Imagine you are inside a room and you want some
    privacy
  • And you find out that the door is unlockable.
    How would you feel?
  • unlockable not able to be locked
  • Now imagine you are inside a locked room trying
    to get out.
  • And you find out that the door is unlockable.
    How would you feel?
  • unlockable able to be unlocked

26
Rule Productivity
  • Remember we have noted that some word formation
    processes, inflection in particular, are
    productive.
  • Among derivational morphemes, some affixes are
    also productive and some are less productive than
    others.
  • The derivaional suffix able fully productive.
  • The suffix un- not fully productive.
  • unbrave, unsad, unobvious
  • v This morpheme appears to be productive
    mostly with adjectives that are derived from
    verbs, such as unenlightened, unsimplified,
    uncharacterized, unauthorized, undistinguished,
    and so on.
  • v most acceptable un- words have polysyllabic
    bases, and while we have unfit, uncool, and
    unclean, many of the unacceptable -un forms have
    monosyllabic stems such as unbig, ungreat,
    unred, unsad, unsmall, untall.

27
Exceptions and Suppletions
  • The morphological process that forms plural from
    singular nouns does not apply to words like
    child, man, foot, and mouse. These words are
    exceptions to the English inflectional rule of
    plural formation.
  • Similarly, verbs like go, sing, bring, run, and
    know are exceptions to the inflectional rule for
    producing past tense verbs in English.
  • Irregular, or suppletive, forms are treated
    separately in the grammar.
  • One cannot use the regular rules of inflectional
    morphology to add affixes to words that are
    exceptions like child/children, but must replace
    the uninflected form with another word.
  • For regular words, only the singular form need be
    specifically stored in the lexicon. But this
    cant be so with suppletive exceptions.
  • When a new word enters the language, the regular
    inflectional rules generally apply.
  • Childrens language also provide evidence that
    regular rules exist cf. the wug test.

28
  • Morphemes with no phonological shape
  • The past tense of the verb hit, as in the
    sentence Yesterday you hit the ball, and the
    plural of the noun sheep, as in The sheep are in
    the meadow
  • Some morphemes seem to have no phonological shape
    at all.
  • Zero Derivation
  • Conversion, also called zero derivation, is a
    kind of word formation specifically, it is the
    creation of a word from an existing word without
    any change in form. Conversion is more productive
    in some languages than in others in English, it
    is a fairly productive process.
  • access, host, chair.

29
Lexical Gaps
  • Possible but non-existing words in a language.
  • Dictionaries contain thousands of words, but it
    is never possible to list all the words of the
    language.
  • There are always gaps in the lexiconwords not
    present but that could be added.
  • Note that the sequence of sounds must be in
    keeping with the constraints of the language.
    bnick is not a gap because no word in English
    can begin with a bn.
  • Other gaps result when possible combinations of
    morphemes never come into use.
  • curiouser, linguisticism, and antiquify
  • unsystem and needlessity

30
Other Morphological Processes
  • Backformation
  • A new word that enters the language because of a
    misconcieved morphological analysis.
  • Ex hamburger - hamburger /hamburger
  • Ex peddler peddleer
  • Compounding
  • Combining two words to form a new one.

Some more recent examples are Facebook, Youtube
31
Compounding
  • When the two words are in the same grammatical
    category, the compound will also be in this
    category
  • noun noun noun, fighterbomber, paper clip,
    elevator-operator, landlord, mailman
  • adjective adjective adjective, icy-cold,
    red-hot, worldly wise.
  • the rightmost word in a compound is the head of
    the compound. The head is the part of a word or
    phrase that determines its broad meaning and
    grammatical category.
  • noun adjective adjective, as in headstrong
  • verb noun noun, as in pickpocket.
  • However, compounds formed with a preposition are
    in the category of the nonprepositional part of
    the compound, such as (to) overtake or (the)
    sundown.
  • It is difficult to state an upper word limit to
    compounding
  • three-time loser,
  • four-dimensional space-time,
  • sergeant-at-arms,
  • mother-in-law

32
Compounding
  • When the two words are in the same grammatical
    category, the compound will also be in this
    category
  • noun noun noun, fighterbomber, paper clip,
    elevator-operator, landlord, mailman
  • adjective adjective adjective, icy-cold,
    red-hot, worldly wise.
  • the rightmost word in a compound is the head of
    the compound. The head is the part of a word or
    phrase that determines its broad meaning and
    grammatical category.
  • noun adjective adjective, as in headstrong
  • verb noun noun, as in pickpocket.
  • However, compounds formed with a preposition are
    in the category of the nonprepositional part of
    the compound, such as (to) overtake or (the)
    sundown.
  • It is difficult to state an upper word limit to
    compounding
  • three-time loser,
  • four-dimensional space-time,
  • sergeant-at-arms,
  • mother-in-law

33
Compounding
  • Like derived words, compounds have internal
    structure.
  • The meaning of a compound is not always the
    meaning of the sum of its parts
  • Ex blackboard
  • Meaning relations between the parts of a
    compound may not be consistent.
  • . A jumping bean, a falling star a magnifying
    glass, a looking glass, laughing gas.
  • Vegetarian -- humanatarian

34
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Suppose you didnt know English and were a
    linguist from the planet Zorx wishing to analyze
    the language.

35
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Suppose you didnt know English and were a
    linguist from the planet Zorx wishing to analyze
    the language.
  • How would you discover the morphemes of English?
  • How would you determine whether a word in that
    language had one, two, or more morphemes?

36
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Suppose you didnt know English and were a
    linguist from the planet Zorx wishing to analyze
    the language.
  • How would you discover the morphemes of English?
  • How would you determine whether a word in that
    language had one, two, or more morphemes?

37
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Suppose you didnt know English and were a
    linguist from the planet Zorx wishing to analyze
    the language.
  • How would you discover the morphemes of English?
  • How would you determine whether a word in that
    language had one, two, or more morphemes?

To determine what the morphemes are in such a
list, the first thing a field linguist would do
is to see if some forms mean the same thing in
different words, that is, to look for recurring
forms.
38
Identifying Morphemes of a Language

ugly occurs in ugly, uglier, and ugliest, all of
which include the meaning very unattractive.
-er occurs in prettier and taller, adding the
meaning more to the adjectives to which it is
attached.
-est adds the meaning most.
39
Identifying Morphemes of a Language

40
Identifying Morphemes of a Language

ugly occurs in ugly, uglier, and ugliest, all of
which include the meaning very unattractive.
41
Identifying Morphemes of a Language

ugly occurs in ugly, uglier, and ugliest, all of
which include the meaning very unattractive.
-er occurs in prettier and taller, adding the
meaning more to the adjectives to which it is
attached.
42
Identifying Morphemes of a Language

ugly occurs in ugly, uglier, and ugliest, all of
which include the meaning very unattractive.
-er occurs in prettier and taller, adding the
meaning more to the adjectives to which it is
attached.
-est adds the meaning most.
43
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
ugly occurs in ugly, uglier, and ugliest, all of
which include the meaning very unattractive.
-er occurs in prettier and taller, adding the
meaning more to the adjectives to which it is
attached.
-est adds the meaning most.
44
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Assume you investigated further data and saw the
    following examples
  • Player a person who plays
  • Singer person who sings
  • Carrier a person/thing that carries
  • murderer a person who murders

45
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Assume you investigated further data and saw the
    following examples
  • Player a person who plays
  • Singer person who sings
  • Carrier a person/thing that carries
  • murderer a person who murders

And finally you found the following
examples member somebody that belongs to a
group or organization number a word or sign
that represents exact quantity Butter a solid
yellow food made from milk or cream
46
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • THE PANU LANGUAGE

47
Identifying Morphemes of a Language
  • Here is a more challenging example.
  • Look for repetitions and near repetitions of the
    same word parts, taking your cues from the
    meanings given.
  • Michoacan Aztec, a language of Mexico

48
Exercise
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