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Health and Fitness

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Title: Health, Fitness and Physical Activity Author: Zeph Bennett Last modified by: J Boaler Created Date: 9/11/2007 3:34:22 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 16 January 2020
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Title: Health and Fitness


1
Health and Fitness
  • the differences
  • the similarities
  • the concept of fitness

Title Objectives (what you should learn) Content (you should understand these issues)
Differences between health and fitness and how they are related 1. To consider the differences between health and fitness and also the ways in which they are related. 2. To consider some good exercise habits that could be adopted. 3. To be aware of the benefits that can be gained through increasing basic exercise levels. Differences between health and fitness and how they are related. The adoption of a healthy active lifestyle, for example Jobs involving manual labour Jobs involving being on feet all day An outdoor job Walking/cycling to work/school Practical leisure pursuits.
Concept of fitness 1. To consider fitness capability in terms of the various components of fitness. 2. To consider each of the separate components of fitness. 3. To consider the ways in which these components can be affected by training. The concept of fitness as the capability of the body to meet the daily demands made upon it with some comfort/without stress. Fitness capability in terms of the components that serve the body in different degrees, at different times to meet different demands, either separately or in combination, including the following Strength (dynamic, explosive, static), Speed, Power, Cardiovascular endurance/stamina, Muscular endurance and Flexibility/Suppleness
Skill related fitness (BCART) 1. To consider the ways in which skill-related factors contribute to fitness and effective performance. 2. To be aware of how these factors interrelate with each other and also the components of fitness. Balance Co-ordination Agility Reaction time Timing
2
Task 1 with a partner (if possible) think why
people take part in physical activity and
sport (dont click again as the possible answers
will be revealed)
  • To improve self esteem help feel good about
    yourself
  • To improve body shape toned body, lose weight
    etc
  • To improve HEALTH (physical, social and mental)
  • For ENJOYMENT
  • To relieve STRESS and TENSION
  • To meet new people socialise
  • For the COMPETITION/PHYSICAL CHALLENGE
  • For Aesthetic appreciation

3
Benefits continued
These benefits of taking part in sport and
physical activity can therefore be grouped
into Physical e.g to lose weight Social e.g
to meet new friends Mental e.g to increase
confidence Aesthetic e.g I like what it looks
like
4
What is health?
  • What does being healthy mean? Attempt to define
    health. Click again when you have done this.
  • Health is a complete state of PHYSICAL, SOCIAL
    and MENTAL well-being and not merely the absence
    of disease.

5
(No Transcript)
6
What contributes to good health?
7
Being Healthy continued..
  • Remember its PHYSICAL, SOCIAL and MENTAL
    well-being
  • Sleep Stress / Tension
  • Diet / alcohol / drugs Confidence
  • Exercise Self-esteem
  • Friends Family
  • Disease Happiness

8
Fitness
  • Think of a definition for the word fitness
  • Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of
    the environment
  • Fitness can be split into 2 categories
  • Health related fitness and
  • (2) Skill Related fitness.

9
Health Related Fitness
  • This refers to the type of fitness required by
    everyone to cope with the daily demands made of
    them and to still have enough energy left for
    emergencies.
  • The 6 components of general fitness are
  • (1) Speed
  • (2) Strength
  • (3) Power
  • (4) Cardiovascular Endurance
  • (5) Muscular Endurance
  • (6) Flexibility (Suppleness)

10
General fitness continued
  • These components are important in everyday life
    as well as for physical activity.
  • Strength and stamina are required to allow a
    person to carry out tasks such as carrying heavy
    shopping, climbing stairs, etc. Flexibility is
    important as it allows an individual to perform a
    range of simple movements without discomfort,
    e.g. tying laces, reaching for a book.

11
Task
  1. For 2 of the sports that you think you may have
    in your final assessments think of 3 components
    of general fitness that are important, providing
    examples to support (e.g. badminton flexibility
    stretching to reach the shuttle low down to the
    ground)
  2. Think of how having a shortfall in some of these
    components of fitness can affect everyday life
    (e.g. lack of strength struggle carrying
    shopping bags, school bag etc).

12
Skill Related Fitness
  • These are the aspects of fitness which allow a
    person to perform skills successfully
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Co-ordination
  • Reaction time
  • Power

13
Task
  • For 2 of the sports that you think you may have
    in your final assessments think of 3 components
    of skill related fitness that are important,
    providing examples to support.

14
Starter questions
  1. Discuss with the person next to you which four
    components of fitness are the most important in
    your sport (from your homework).
  2. Name a sport that requires a completely different
    type of fitness to the four needed in the sport
    you discussed in Q1.
  3. Why is it that a person can be fit for one sport
    and not for another? Consider examples of this.
  4. How can you get fitter for your own sport?

15
Components of Fitness
E/D you will understand what is meant by
components of fitness and be able to explain
why there are skill related and health related
components. C/B you should be able to link the
components of fitness to various sports to
explain why an individual could be fit for one
sport and not another. A/A - could consider how
to improve the many components of fitness.
Homework complete the SKILL RELATED
COMPONENTS and the FITNESS TESTING worksheets
using the VLE class page and/or your text books.
16
Health Related Components of Fitness
Components of Fitness By the end of this section
you should be able to describe and explain how
the different health related components of
fitness, (cardiovascular endurance, muscular
endurance, speed, strength, power and
flexibility) relate to good health and affect
performance in a variety of activities, and how
the importance of each differs between activities.
17
Cardiovascular Endurance
Cardiovascular endurance depends on The
efficiency of the heart and circulatory system to
meet the demands of the body for a sustained
period of activity
(Also known as STAMINA or AEROBIC CAPACITY)
Cardio heart Vascular system of
vessels Endurance the ability to keep going
for long periods.
  • Improved by regular endurance training
  • Increases the size of the heart (hypertrophy),
    therefore with each beat more blood is pumped
    around the body
  • Examples within sport

18
Muscular Endurance
  • The measure of the capacity of the muscles to
    perform repeated contractions, or near maximum
    level for an extended period of time without
    becoming fatigued
  • How long your muscles can work for at nearly
    maximum levels
  • Most swimming events rely on localised muscular
    endurance
  • Once the oxygen supply fails to keep up with
    demand, muscles work anaerobically and lactic
    acid accumulates

19
Speed
  • Speed is the time taken to move all or parts of
    the body through a specified distance
  • How fast we can run the 100m is the example we
    all think of, but a golf swing is requires fast
    arm and torso speed
  • Most believe speed is an innate ability,
    something we are born with
  • Speed can be improved through moving more
    efficiently. Rotational speed in discus
    throwing, for example

20
Strength
  • The maximum force that can be developed within a
    muscle or group of muscles during a single
    maximal contraction
  • This is often an all-out effort
  • A judo player will use strength repeatedly
    against an opponent
  • Improved through regular training and exercise,
    especially by using weights that push the muscle
    to use maximum force
  • There are 3 different types of strength,
  • each being suited to a different activity
  • DYNAMIC STRENGTH muscle length alters many
    times during the activity
  • EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH one all out effort from
    the muscle group
  • STATIC STRENGTH muscle length stays the same

21
Strength

STATIC EXPLOSIVE DYNAMIC
Activity Example ? ? ?
Body State Stays the same Moves fast Moves fast
Distance Moved Little or none Little Can be considerable
Time Taken Varies but not long Small amount Can be considerable
Muscle State Stays the same Changes quickly Changes quickly and repeatedly
22
Strength

STATIC EXPLOSIVE DYNAMIC
Activity Example Tug of War Rugby Scrum Shot putt High Jump Rowing 100m sprint
Body State Stays the same Moves fast Moves fast
Distance Moved Little or none Little Can be considerable
Time Taken Varies but not long Small amount Can be considerable
Muscle State Stays the same Changes quickly Changes quickly and repeatedly
23
Flexibility
  • The greatest range of movement possible at a
    given joint (Also known as suppleness and
    mobility)
  • Depends on the elasticity of ligaments and
    tendons and the strength of muscle groups
  • Flexibility depends of the type of joint
  • Good flexibility guards against tendon, ligament
    and muscle damage
  • Developed through stretching
  • What specific areas need to be flexible to
    prevent injuries and enhance performance in your
    sport?

24
Skill Related Components of Fitness
  • Components of fitness
  • By the end of this section you should be able to
  • describe and explain how the different skill
    related fitness components (agility, balance,
    coordination, speed of reaction, timing) relate
    to good health and affect performance in a
    variety of games activities, and how the
    importance of each differs between games
    activities.

25
Skill Related Components of Fitness
These are types of fitness that affect our
ability to perform particular skills.
Weight lifting relies on one component of fitness
strength. But a gymnastics routine or football
dribble relies on various fitness factors that
produce quality and skilful movements
26
Agility
The performers ability to move in a controlled
way and to change direction, turn, stop and start
quickly
  • Expressions such as quick footed or nimble
    are used to mean very much the same as agile
  • Concerned with freedom in whole body movement.
  • Examples within sport

27
Balance
  • The ability to control and adjust body position
    so as to remain in a stable position
  • Keeping the centre of mass (bulk of our body
    weight) over our base of support
  • We do this naturally in everyday situations
    without realising, just as a badminton player
    quickly adjusts her feet after lunging to return
    the shuttlecock.
  • Examples in sport

28
Co-ordination
  • The ability of various parts of the body
    combining to produce a desired movement or
    sequence of movements
  • This is necessary in all sporting skills
  • Essential in maintaining balance and controlling
    movement (striking a ball, dodging an opponent,
    throwing, etc)
  • In the skills listed above, each movement must
    occur in order and at a specific time, if the
    skill is to be performed successfully.

29
Speed of Reaction
  • Speed of reaction has two closely related
    processes
  • Reaction Time

The time taken between the initial stimulus (the
gun!) and the initiation of response (moving out
of the blocks)
  • Movement Time

Time taken from the initiation of response
(moving out of the blocks) to the completion of
the movement (sprinting 5m)
Other sporting examples?
  • Response Time Reaction Time Movement Time

30
Timing
  • Timing is simply about performing a skill at the
    right time or in the right way so that it is
    effective
  • The timing of a pass in rugby, a stroke in
    cricket or a smash in badminton
  • Which sports do not require timing?
  • Influenced by internal mechanisms (spotting a
    landing from a somersault)

31
  • Improving Skill Related Components of Fitness

Different activities might require more of a
particular skill related component than others.
Therefore, we need to identify the components
that most affect performance in our chosen sport
Because skill related components are mostly
concerned with the control of the nervous system,
they are more difficult to improve than the more
physical components (strength, speed, etc)
The brain sends signals to the muscles through
the nerves to contract. How fast the brain can
perform this task is important, but is not
something that can be directly improved by
training
However
32
Continued
  • the amazing thing about the brain is that it
    learns.

The more you practise skills and take part in
your activities, the better your brain becomes at
anticipating what you will need to do next
Improving the physical components of fitness,
such as strength, flexibility and speed lays the
foundation for improving skill related fitness
components through practise and training.
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