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Research Results on Obesity and Physical Activity Rates and Other Findings (Other findings include active screen time and sitting)

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Research Results on Obesity and Physical Activity Rates and Other Findings (Other findings include active screen time and sitting) Active Living Research – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research Results on Obesity and Physical Activity Rates and Other Findings (Other findings include active screen time and sitting)


1
Research Results on Obesity and Physical Activity
Rates and Other Findings(Other findings include
active screen time and sitting)
  • Active Living Research
  • www.activelivingresearch.org
  • A national program of the Robert Wood Johnson
    Foundation
  • Any of the slides contained in this set are
    available for public use. If you have comments or
    questions about a particular slide, please
    contact Debbie Lou at dlou_at_projects.sdsu.edu

2
Data from the national BRFSS survey show
racial-ethnic minority groups are less likely to
be physically active than Whites. Rates of
physical inactivity are highest among African
Americans and Hispanics.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Trends in leisure-time physical inactivity by
age, sex, and race/ethnicityUnited States,
1994-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
2005 54(39)991-994.
3
Self-reported PA levels collected in 2002 from
764 adults ages 50 to 80 living in a Canadian
city are related to multiple environmental
attributes. PA measured
by PASE (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly)
includes activities commonly engaged in by
elderly people, including gardening, housework,
and caring for others, in addition to walking and
other leisure activities.
4
Since the 1970s, the percentage of children and
youth ages 2 to 19 years who are obese has
tripled. The increase is greatest among
African-American and Low-income children.
Anderson PM, Butcher KF. Childhood obesity
Trends and potential causes. The Future of
Children Childhood Obesity 2006 16 (1) 19-46.
5
The Surgeon General recommends that children
engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate
physical activity most days of the week. Yet,
according to 2006 estimates, nearly 2/3 of
adolescents do not meet this recommendation,
based on self-reports.
Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, et al. Youth Risk
Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2005.
Surveillance Summaries, June 9. Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report 2006 55(SS-5), 1108.
6
Children who play video games that require
physical activity can burn up to eight times as
many calories as children who engage in sedentary
screen time. For example, one study found that
children burned 90 calories more per hour while
playing Dance Dance Revolution than did children
who played inactive video games.
Lanningham-Foster L, Jensen TB, et al. Energy
expenditure of sedentary screen time compared
with active screen time for children. Pediatrics
2006 118(6)1831-1835.
7
A 2006 cross-sectional national study of 8th and
10th grade students (N39,011)found more black
and Hispanic youth being overweight than white
youth at most every socioeconomic (SES) level.
Frequent exercise was associated with a lower
likelihood of being overweight for all groups.
referent
Based on self-reported data from the University
of Michigans Monitoring the Future Project
Defined as being at or above the 85th
percentile Delva J, Johnston LD, OMalley PM.
The epidemiology of overweight and related
lifestyle behaviors Racial/ethnic and
socioeconomic status differences among American
youth. American Journal Preventive Medicine
200733(4S) S178-S186.
8
Increase in percentage of adults ages 20 who are
obese since the 1970s Based on NHANES data
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Flegal KM.
Obesity among adults in the United States no
change since 20032004. NCHS data brief no 1.
Hyattsville, MD National Center for Health
Statistics. 2007. http//www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dat
abriefs/db01.pdf f
9
Data from the 2001-2002 Add Health Study show
rates of overweight and obesity are highest among
women, Native American, Hispanic, and
African-American populations.
Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the
United Statesgender, age, socioeconomic,
racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics a
systematic review and meta-regression analysis.
Epidemiologic Reviews 2007 29(1)6-28.
10
NHANES data from 2003-2004 show the percentage of
youth ages 6 to 19 meeting recommended physical
activity guidelines declines significantly with
age.
Troiano RP, Berrigan D, et al. Physical activity
in the United States measured by accelerometer.
Medicine Science In Sports Exercise 2008
40(1)181-188.
11
Deaths attributable to individual risks
(thousands) in both sexes
Danaei G, Ding EL, Mozafarrian D, et al. The
preventable causes of death in the United States
Comparative risk assessment of dietary,
lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS
Medicine 2009 6(4) http//www.plosmedicine.org/a
rticle/infodoi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000058
12
A study of children (N333 from the Iowa Bone
Development Study) found that children who were
most active at age 5 had significantly lower fat
mass at age 8 and age 11 than children who were
the least active at age 5.
  • Minutes per day spent in moderate to vigorous
    physical activity (MVPA) measured with
    accelerometers
  • Janz KF, Kwon S, Letuchy EM, et al. Sustained
    effect of early physical activity on body fat
    mass in older children. American Journal of
    Preventive Medicine, 2009 37(1)35-40.

13
A Canadian study (N17,013) found that people who
spend more time sitting are at higher risk for
mortality from all causes
Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Craig CL, et al.
Sitting time and mortality from all causes,
cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Medicine and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 2009 998-1005.
14
Adult Obesity Rates and Trends, 2009 Adult
obesity rates continued to rise in 23 states.
Rates did not decrease in any state. Thirty-one
states have adult obesity rates above 25. In
Mississippi, Alabama, West Virginia, and
Tennessee, adult obesity rates are above 30.
Trust for Americas Health. F as in Fat 2009 How
obesity policies are failing America, July 2009.
http//healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity2009/ h
ttp//healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity2009/
15
Data from the 2000 to 2003 National Health
Interview Survey reveal that all Hispanic groups
were more likely to have no leisure-time physical
activity (LTPA) than non-Hispanic Whites, and
that there are significant differences in levels
of no activity among Hispanic sub-groups.
Neighbors C, Marquez D, Marcus B. Leisure-time
physical activity disparities among Hispanic
subgroups in the United States. American Journal
of Public Health, 2008 98(8) 1460-1464.
16
Reduction in Calories Burned at Work is Related
to Increase in Obesity since the 1960s A
national study examined the relationship between
the prevalence of obesity and reductions in
calories burned during work from 1960 to 2006.
The study predicted that, given a baseline weight
of 76.9 kg in 1960-62 for men, a drop of 142
calories would result in an increase in average
weight to 89.7 kg, which closely matched the
actual average weight (according to NHANES data)
of 91.8 kg in 2003-06. The results were similar
for women.
Church TS et al. Trends over 5 Decades in U.S.
Occupation-Related Physical Activity and Their
Associations with Obesity. PLoS ONE 2011
6(5)e19657.
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