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Moving From Traditional BI to an Integrated Information Literacy Program


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Title: Moving From Traditional BI to an Integrated Information Literacy Program

Moving From Traditional BI to an Integrated
Information Literacy Program
  • Ilene F. Rockman, Ph.D.
  • Manager, Information Competence Initiative
  • The California State University
  • Office of the Chancellor
  • Presentation to SCIL Spring Program
  • May 16, 2003

Why Important?
  • Electronic information increasingly comes to us
    in unfiltered formats, raising questions about
    authenticity, validity, and reliability
  • The uncertain quality and expanding quantity of
    information (text, graphic, aural, spatial) poses
    new and special challenges for users

Why Important?
  • Students are entering colleges and universities
    lacking basic research and information competence
    skills (including critical thinking, decision
    making, self-directed learning)
  • Technology is transforming teaching and learning
  • concomitant with a proliferation of information
    formats and choices
  • Assessment efforts are indicating student over
    reliance on the web as an information source

Why Important?
  • Faculty want to see an improvement in the quality
    of student work, an increase in the effectiveness
    of student research, and students taking more
    responsibility for their own learning
  • Students want to complete assignments with less
    difficulty and more satisfaction
  • Employers want to hire graduates who are
    competent, take responsibility, can solve
    problems, and produce new ideas/directions

Why Important?
  • Accreditation bodies (regional, state,
    professional) want to see a change in past
  • Society wants an educated, informed and
    productive citizenry
  • Not limited to USA also in Denmark and Australia
    (Apr 22, 2003 workshop, Emerging Visions for
    Access in the 21st Century Library, presented by
    the Council on Library and Information Resources
    and the California Digital Library

The Reality
  • For many teens, the Internet has replaced the
    library as the primary tool for doing research
  • (The Internet and Education. Findings of the
    Pew Internet American Life Project, September
    1, 2001. http//

The Reality
  • Less than half (48) feel confident in their
    ability to find informationessentially, in the
    skills needed to research a topic.
  • A Report to Stakeholders on the Conditions and
    Effectiveness of Postsecondary Education. Change
    333 (May/June 2001), p. 29.

The Reality
  • More than 31 of all respondents use Internet
    search engines to find answers to their
    questions. However, people who use Internet
    search engines express frustration because they
    estimate that half of their searches are
  • OCLC White Paper on the Information Habits of
    College Students.
  • June 2002, p. 2.
  • (http//

Business Community
  • We are no longer teaching about technology,
    but about information literacywhich is a process
    of turning information into meaning,
    understanding, and new ideas. Students need the
    thinking, reasoning, and civic abilities that
    enable them to succeed inand ultimately leada
    contemporary, democratic economy, workforce, and
  • --Terry Crane, VP, AOL, Converge, Sept. 2000

Governmental Community
  • Information literacy is needed to guarantee
    the survival of democratic institutions
  • US Representative, Major Owens (D-NY), 1976,
    quoted in Student Learning in the Information
    Age, p. 34.

Educational Community
  • Within todays information society, the most
    important learning outcome for all students is
    their being able to function as independent
    lifelong learners. The essential enabler to
    reaching that goal is information literacy.
  • --Patricia Breivik, Information Literacy and
    Lifelong Learning The Magical Partnership.
    International Lifelong Learning Conference,
    Central Queensland University, 2000,

Making the Case
  • Content mastered by graduation is soon outdated
    and/or forgotten
  • Ongoing personal and professional competence
    depends on knowing how to find, evaluate, and use
  • Ability to find data, absorb and synthesize key
    concepts, organize and present information are
    desired knowledge economy skills

Making the Case
  • The first year is the period when you are going
    to succeed in the greatest proportion of
    students, and conversely, youre going to not
    succeed or lose the greatest proportion of
    students. Most institutions in the country have
    decided if they want to make students more
    successful, they have to pay more attention to
    the beginning college experience and make things
    happen by design.
  • --John Gardner, Senior Fellow of the National
    Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and
    Students in Transition at the University of South
    Carolina, Director of the Policy Center on the
    First Year of College at Brevard College, and
    Professor Emeritus of Library and Information
    Science, University of South Carolina

Lets Get Clear on Terms
  • BI
  • coined 30 years ago in print world
  • traditionally, skill-based approach
  • focus on tools and search interfaces (how to use
    an index, abstract, OPAC)
  • tied to course assignment from professor not
    all courses --in or outside the department
  • isolated with limited transference of student
    learning within the curriculum

Information Literacy
  • Integral part of the curriculum (foundational
  • Supports learning outcomes of academic programs
    (e.g. GE, degree, and non degree upper and lower
    division electives, pre-professional programs,
    courses in the major)
  • Contributes to an increase in retention, student
    achievement, and graduation rates (GCC, CSUH)

Information Literacy
  • Speaks in higher education terms (critical
    thinking, first year experience, learning
    communities, distant education, educational
    engagement, information fluency, etc.)
  • Focuses on campus collaboration (Faculty, General
    Education, Assessment, Centers for Excellence,
    Student Affairs Professionals, Academic Programs,
    University Governance groups, Instructional Media
    ServicesBlackboard, WebCT)

Information Literacy
  • Recognizes relationship to institutions mission
    and goals, program review, accreditation
    criteria, outcomes-based assessment strategies
  • Reflects a collaborative responsibility and
    partnership between dept faculty (content) and
    librarians (process)

From Library Skills to Information Literacy
  • Past Emphasis
  • Passive tours, lectures, etc
  • Prof-identified topics
  • Locate information
  • Print only
  • Established authority
  • Term paper product
  • Course level
  • Adapted from
  • Library Skills to Information Literacy A
    Handbook for the 21st Century. CSLA, 1997.
  • Current Emphasis
  • Active coordinated
  • Student identified topics
  • Evaluate, use, comm info
  • Multiple formats and choices
  • Determine authority
  • Multiple options
  • Discipline/program level

What Does an IL Curriculum Look Like?
  • College or university-wide
  • Inquiry, problem, performance, and resource based
  • Makes effective use of instructional technologies
  • Learner centered
  • Integrated with learning outcomes

  • Student introduced to information literacy in
    first year reinforced in general education and
    courses in the major (vertically and
  • Student continues to encounter IL throughout the
    curriculum, culminating in a senior level
  • Rather than graduating based on which courses
    you have taken, you will graduate based on what
    you have learned (CSU Monterey Bayoutcomes
    based campus).

Why Move?
  • Impact on learningresearch by Keith Curry Lance
    and colleaguestest scores rise with
    collaboration between teachers and librarians
  • Increased student learning results when multiple
    opportunities to learn occur
  • Need process for helping students to address
    their immediate information needs, and to
    continue learning after they leave the college or

How Move?
  • Find an administrative championProvost, VP of
    Student Affairs, Director of Residential Life,
    Coordinator of the First Year Experience, Head of
    Educational Mentoring, Coordinator of Distance
    Learning, Dean of Liberal Arts, etc.
  • Find a faculty championChair of dept or college
    curriculum committee, Coordinator of GE, Director
    of English composition or the campus writing
    program, Chair of Academic Senate or chair of key
    campus committee (curriculum)

How Move?
  • Be a champion yourselfteam up with new faculty
    at orientation, mentor new students, meet with
    career center or alumni director, become an
    indispensable campus leader as a member of a key
    campus committee (e.g. curriculum/instruction so
    strategic placement of IL within learning
    outcomes of new course proposal submissions, and
    degree programs)
  • Ask questions of facultyare you pleased with the
    performance of your students? How do you define
    IL in your discipline? How can I help you?

How Move?
  • College or university-wide IL committee to
    recommend action agenda and take next steps
  • Cal Poly, SLO Visionary Pragmatism
  • (http//
  • GCC Research Across the Curriculum TF
  • (http//

How Move?
  • Take advantage of timingaccreditation or program
    review, strategic planning efforts, grants
  • Start smallbuild support one dept/program at a
    time then move from dept to college or
    university level
  • Learn from experiences of WACJim Elmborgs
    article in RSR 311 (2003)Information literacy
    and writing across the curriculum sharing the
    vision (find common ground right place in curr)

How Move?
  • Refer to professional association documents for
  • --WPA Outcomes Statements for First-Year
    Composition, adopted by the Council of Writing
    Program Administrators, April 2000
  • --includes critical thinking, reading, and
    writing and notes that by the end of the first
    year, composition students should understand a
    writing assignment as a series of tasks including
    finding, evaluating, analyzing, and synthesizing
    appropriate primary and secondary sources.
  • (http//

How Move?
  • Refer to non-library publications
  • Bean, John C. Engaging ideas the professors
    guide to integrating writing, critical thinking,
    and active learning in the classroom. SF Jossey
    Bass, 1996.
  • (ch 12 Encouraging engagement and inquiry in
    research papersincludes how to ask research
    questions find, manage, cite sources)

How Move?
  • Give presentation to student clubs build
  • Work with IT on development of smart classrooms
  • Work with Faculty Development to co-sponsor
    programs on plagiarism (natural tie-in to IL)
  • Work with any/all campus stakeholders to find
    window of opportunity to promote IL

Gentle Reminders
  • IL skills are vital to future growth,
    development, and success
  • IL skills contribute to a higher level of
    learning which is long-lasting
  • Students need multiple opportunities to acquire,
    practice, and hone IL skills inside and outside
    of the classroom

Gentle Reminders
  • Not easy to write good assignmentsfaculty can
    benefit from working with librarians and Faculty
    Development Center personnel
  • Assignments need to be creative, structured, and
    focused on identifying, locating, accessing,
    evaluating, and integrating information into the
    content presented (lead to student success)
  • Research is not always a linear process

Gentle Reminders
  • Decades of research on college student
    development shows that the more time energy
    students invest in activities related to desired
    college outcomes, the more likely they are to
    benefit. (same holds true for IL)
  • (George Kuh, ACRL 2003 Conference)

Use Appropriate Language
  • Use language understandable to faculty and
  • Speak to their issues so they will (in turn)
    support yours (relationship building)
  • Teaching-learning-technology, educational
    mentoring, portfolio assessment, residential
    learning communities, service learning, honors
    program, first yr experience, international educ,
    interdisciplinary learning, capstone experiences

Language of 21st Century Literary
  • Technological literacyability to use media
    (Internet) to communicate effectively
  • Media Literacyability to produce and distribute
    content ethically and responsibly
  • Global Literacyability to collaborate
    effectively across cultures
  • 21st Century Literacy Summit, Mar 7-8, 2002,
    Berlin, Germany, sponsored by AOL Time Warner
    Foundation and Bertelsmann Foundation.

Add More Language
  • Emotional literacy
  • --develop self esteem
  • --fit into information society
  • --become socially and educationally successful

Language of Accreditation
  • Baccalaureate programs engage students in an
    integrated course of studythese programs also
    ensure the development of core learning abilities
    and competencies including college-level written
    and oral communication, quantitative skills,
    information literacy andcritical analysis of
  • (WASC Handbook of Accreditation, Standard 2,
    January 2001 p. 20.
  • http//

More Language
  • They (teacher education candidates) are able
    to appropriately and effectively integrate
    technology and information literacy in
    instruction to support student learning
  • National Council for Accreditation of Teacher
    Education (NCATE). Professional Standards for the
    Accreditation of Schools, Colleges, and
    Departments of Education, 2002, page 19.
  • (http//

More Language
  • Each participating teacher designs, adapts,
    and uses lessons which address students needs to
    develop information literacy and problem solving
    skills as tools for lifelong learning
  • California Commission on Teacher
    Credentialing. (CTC). Standards of Quality and
    Effectiveness for Professional Teacher Induction
    Programs. Program Standard 16. September 2001, p.
  • (http//

More Language
  • Students will demonstrate information
    competence and the ability to use computers and
    other technology for many purposes
  • American Psychological Association. Board of
    Educational Affairs. Undergraduate Psychology
    Major Learning Goals and Outcomes A Report,
    2000. http//

More Language
  • The American Chemical Society states that a
    student who intends to become a practicing
    chemist, or who will use chemistry in allied
    fields of science and medicine, should know how
    to use the chemical literature effectively and
  • http//

More Language
  • The Accrediting Council on Education in
    Journalism and Mass Communication requires that,
    irrespective of their particular specialization,
    all graduates should be aware of certain core
    values and competencies and be able to conduct
    research and evaluate information by methods
    appropriate to the communications professions,
    audiences, and purposes they serve.
  • ACEJMC Committee on Standards and Assessment.
    Accrediting Standards, 2002.
  • (http//

More Language
  • Academic Literacies A Statement of Competencies
    Expected of Students Entering Californias Public
    Colleges and Universities (Intersegmenal
    Committee of UC. CSU, CCC)includes information
  • Information Competency Challenges and Strategies
    for Development (Academic Senate of the CCC, Fall

Focus on Outputs
  • Measurable learning outcomes
  • Embed IL in GE assessment
  • What distinguishes a graduate of your program,
    department, college, or university from that of

More Roles For You!
  • Be aware of obstacles and work with key
    peoplekeep your friends close, and your enemies
    closer (M. Brando, Godfather I)
  • Add value to the curriculumprovide faculty with
    tools that are easily integrated into class (in
    class worksheets, out of class assignments,
    web-based tutorials, toolkits to integrate
    e-handouts into management systems)

More Roles For You!
  • Identify scope and sequence of competencies for
    your liaison departmentsdemonstrate how IL
    skills can build progressively within the
  • What is needed in the lower division, upper
    division, capstone experience?
  • Be an integrationistconnect teaching and
    learning to library resources and services across

Successes Within CSU
  • System-wide and campus level
  • Academic Senate resolutions grant funds to
    reshape curriculum, offer summer faculty
    workshops, support faculty retreats and release
    time, create assessment instruments conduct
    research studiesinfo mounted on CSU website
  • Share successes across campus through discipline
    IL workshops so all can reap benefits and share
    in the success

Successes Within CSU
  • Introduction in freshmen transition courses,
    lower and upper division general education
    courses, junior level courses for transfer
    students, honors courses
  • Reinforcement in courses in the major, service
    learning, senior capstone experiences, or
    portfolio assessmentsall raise visibility of IL
    on campus

Other Successes
  • Small liberal arts colleges (St. Olaf and
    Gustavus Adolphus)Journal of Library
    Administration vol 361/2 (2002)
  • Oberlin College (Information Literacy and the
    Oberlin Education)
  • http//
  • infolit/infolit.html

Planning for Campus-wide Program
  • Strong leadership (from top, middle, and bottom)
  • Support of key teaching faculty/campus leaders
  • Advocacy by Faculty Developmenthow IL and
    assignments can help faculty achieve (and exceed)
    their teaching goals
  • Collaborative approachadministrators, faculty,
    librarians, IT, Media, Faculty Development, GE
    faculty, assessment staff, peer mentors (students)

Planning for Campus-Wide Program
  • Develop a definition of IL which suits your
  • Determine if IL will be integrated into existing
    courses, be a separate course, part of GE, etc.
  • Develop clear IL learning outcomes which can be
    included on course syllabi and successfully

Planning For Campus-wide Program
  • Define appropriate instructional strategies
  • Design effective student assignments
  • Develop effective methods of evaluation

  • Faculty commitments and capabilities make or
    break the implementation of curriculum change,
    and they are central to sustaining program
  • Strong foundations twelve principles for
    effective general education programs. Washington,
    DC Association of American Colleges, 1994, p. 44.

  • Faculty need learning opportunities to explore
    new ideas and build their confidence to implement
    new types of curriculum change.
  • Jones, Elizabeth A. Transforming the curriculum
    preparing students for a changing world.
    ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Vol 293,
    2002, p. 81.

  • Building an IL program takes time
  • Offering faculty professional development
    opportunities for redesigning courses to include
    IL components can lead to future success
  • Integrating IL vertically and horizontally
    through the curriculum will reach a maximum of

  • Sharing campus successes (e.g. Faculty
    Development workshops, Teaching Tips listserv,
    etc.), can inspire and motivate faculty to move
    forward in a positive direction
  • Experience-based learning activities can
    contribute to deep learning (behavioral change)
    and transference of knowledge from course to

  • Help is available
  • -Guidelines for Instruction Programs in Academic
    Libraries (CRL News, Nov 2002, pp. 732-735)
  • -Characteristics of Programs of Information
    Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices
  • --SCIL colleagues

Thanks Very Much
  • Dr. Ilene Rockman, Manager
  • Information Competence Initiative
  • Office of the Chancellor
  • California State University
  • (510) 885-2446
  • http//