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The Middle Ages

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Background/Some images and some notes sare from the Ms. Pojer at historyteacher.net Rome Collapsed in 476 A.D WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY MIDDLE ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle Ages


1
The Middle Ages
Background/Some images and some notes slidesare
from the Ms. Pojer at historyteacher.net
2
Rome Collapsed in 476 A.D
3
Periods of the Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages 500 1000 High Middle Ages
1000 1250 Late Middle Ages 1250 - 1500
4
WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY
MIDDLE AGES?
  • What is a frontier land?
  • Location. Europe is a relatively small area,
    although its impact on the modern world has been
    enormous. It lies on the western end of Eurasia.

5
WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY
MIDDLE AGES?
  • Resources. At the time of the Middle Ages,
    Europe had great-untapped potential. Dense
    farmland covered much of the North, and the
    regions rich black earth was better suited for
    farming.

6
WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY
MIDDLE AGES?
  • The seas that surround much of Europe were
    important to its growth.
  • A. Fishing
  • B. Trade
  • C. Exploration of new lands
  • Large rivers were ideal for trade. Mountain
    streams fueled the invention of the water wheel
    for powering mills.

7
Paving the way for Charlemagne
  • Between A.D. 400 and 700, the Germanic tribes
    carved up Western Europe into small kingdoms.
    The Franks were Powerful
  • No real cities or written laws. People lived in
    small communities ruled by kings.
  • Frankish leader Clovis became Catholic. He now
    had the support of the Romans and church.
  • 480 Clovis became King of the Franks and
    conquered the province of Gaul.

8
Paving the way for Charlemagne
  • Circa 800 Charlemagne built an empire reaching
    across France, Germany, and part of Italy.
  • The Pope proclaimed him emperor.
  • We now call this the Holy Roman Empire. He
    extended the Christian civilization into.
  • He also set up a strong government that was used
    as an example for medieval rulers.
  • After his death his empire crumbled.

9
Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor Dec.
25, 800
10
Charlemagne 742 to 814
11
Charlemagnes Empire
12
Charlemagnes Empire Collapses Treaty of Verdun,
843
13
HOW DID INVASIONS EFFECT THE PEOPLE OF WESTERN
EUROPE?
  • Attacks by the Vikings, Muslims, and other groups
    of people, made kings and emperors too weak to
    maintain law and order.
  • People needed a way to defend their homes and
    lands.
  • In response to the basic need for protection, a
    new government started called Feudalism.

14
Europe in the 6c
15
Feudalism
A political, economic, and social system based on
loyalty and military service.
16
The Medieval Manor
17
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
18
MANORIALISM
  • The land the vassal received was called a
    manor (fief). It included a manor house,
    farmland, and a group of peasants. Most were
    serfs.
  • Each manor was self-sufficient/self supporting.
  • Raised most of what they needed to live.
  • Grew their own food.
  • Raised farm animals for food and wool.
  • Managed trees for fuel and lumber.
  • Economic system of the Middle Ages

19
MANORIALISM
  • During the Early Middle Ages towns all but
    disappeared from Europe. Rome the Largest city
    of its time went from 1 million people to only a
    few thousand.
  • Around the 10th century, things began to improve
    and towns and trade began to grow.

20
The Carolingian Renaissance
21
The Rise of European Monarchies
England
22
The Road to Knighthood
KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
23
The Road to Knighthood
Role of a knight Most important member of the
feudal army Main job was fighting Served his
master Defended Christianity

24
Chivalry A Code of Honor and Behavior
Chivalry-Honored set of rules sworn to by all
knights. Emphasis upon courage, loyalty, devotion
to duty, courtesy towards and defense of women,
protected the poor, the weak the needy.
25
Stages of Knighthood
  • Stage 1 Page
  • (age 7)
  • Learned to ride a horse
  • Learned manners
  • Had religious instruction (learned to read)
  • Trained in music and dance by the ladies of
    castle.

26
Stages of Knighthood
  • Stage 2 Squire
  • (age 12)
  • Assisted knights
  • Became the lords devoted assistant
  • Took care of armor and weapons and became skilled
    in their use.
  • Helped in tournaments

27
Stages of Knighthood
  • Stage 3 Knight
  • (age- when qualified)
  • Knighted by the King

28
Heraldry
  • Heraldry is also called a coat of arms
  • Used as identification on a knights shield
    during battle

29
Heraldry
What does it mean?
30
The Medieval Catholic Church
  • Monastery
  • St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty and
    obedience.
  • provided schools for the children of the upper
    class.
  • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.
  • libraries scriptoria to copy books and
    illuminate manuscripts.
  • monks ? missionaries to convert the
    barbarians. St. Patrick, St. Boniface

31
The Power of the Medieval Church
  • bishops and abbots played a large part in the
    feudal system.
  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land
    in Western Europe.
  • tried to reduce feudal warfare ? only 40 days
    a year for combat.
  • tithe ? 1/10 tax on your assets given to the
    church.
  • Peters Pence ? 1 penny per person paid by
    the peasants.

32
Role of the Church Influence
  • Spread Christianity
  • Converted barbarians to Christianity
  • Unified Europe
  • Monks saved knowledge from past civilizations
  • Introduced Roman ideals of government and justice

33
Role of the Church Roles
  • Government duties
  • Collected taxes, ran courts, punished criminals,
    and made laws
  • Education
  • monasteries were centers of learning, monks
    taught reading and writing, preserved documents,
    established schools.
  • Hospitals
  • Cared for the sick and needy
  • Inn
  • Guest houses were built to accommodate travelers

34
Corruption
  • lack honesty, use of a position of trust for
    dishonest gain.
  • involvement in feudalism led to corruption and
    the fall of the church.
  • Awarded fiefs to wealthy church members.
  • Bishops and monks took on the role of vassals.
  • Loyalty of the church was divided between
    spiritual duties and economic duties.

35
A Medieval Monks Day
36
A Medieval Monastery The Scriptorium
37
Illuminated Manuscripts
38
Romanesque Architectural Style
  • Rounded Arches.
  • Barrel vaults.
  • Thick walls.
  • Darker, simplistic interiors.
  • Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.

39
Carcassonne A Medieval Castle
40
Parts of a Medieval Castle
41
Late Medieval Town Dwellings
42
Medieval Trade
43
Medieval Guilds
Guild Hall
  • Commercial Monopoly
  • Controlled membership apprentice ? journeyman
    ? master craftsman
  • Controlled quality of the product masterpiece.
  • Controlled prices

44
Medieval Guilds A Goldsmiths Shop
45
Crest of a Coopers Guild
46
  • Background/images/some note slides are from the
    historyteacher.net
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