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Chapters 1-11 (Part I) Wrap Up

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Title: Chapters 1-11 (Part I) Wrap Up


1
Chapters 1-11 (Part I) Wrap Up
  • To Kill a Mockingbird
  • By Harper Lee

2
Point of View and Scout
  • The novel is told from first person point of
    view.
  • The narrator uses I and Me to describe events
    in the novel.
  • The narrator Jean Louise Scout Finch, a 6
    year old girl.
  • Scout is the adult narrator in the novel, but
    Scout, the child, takes part in the action of the
    novel and engages in the dialogue.
  • The narrator is an ADULT, but she retells the
    events as she remembers experiencing them as a
    child.

3
Harper Lee is Scout
  • Harper Lee, the author, is a woman.
  • Scout represents the author as a little girl
    although the story is not strictly
    autobiographical.
  • The novel is shaped by a young girl who sees the
    story from a position of naïve acceptance.

4
Advantages and Disadvantages of First Person
Point of View
  • Advantages
  • Draws reader/viewer into story and character when
    one who is a part of the story tells it.
  • Makes story and narrator believable.
  • Interesting combination of Scout as the narrator
    and as the child protagonist.
  • Disadvantages
  • Her perspective is limited to what she saw and
    felt at the time.
  • Scout, the child, does not understand the full
    meaning of what she observes, but her childlike
    perceptions are a source of humor.
  • Atticus was feeble he was nearly 50 (Lee 89).

5
John Hale Finch Uncle Jack
  • Atticus brother
  • 10 years younger than Atticus
  • Studies medicine
  • Atticus invested in his education

6
Alexandra Finch
  • Atticus sister
  • Remained at Finchs Landing
  • Married a taciturn man who spent time lying in
    his hammock

7
Atticus Finch
  • Grew up in Finchs Landing
  • Was taught at home by his father
  • Attended law school and practiced law in Maycomb
  • Town lawyer
  • Represented his county in State Legislature
  • He liked Maycomb, he was Maycomb county born and
    bred (Lee 5).
  • Related to nearly everyone in Maycomb.
  • Widower
  • Father to Scout and Jem
  • He played with us, read to us, and treated us
    with courteous detachment (Lee 6).

8
Atticus Wife
  • 15 years younger than Atticus
  • She died from a heart attack when Scout was 2 and
    Jem was 6
  • Jem remembered her clearly and missed her, Scout
    did not

9
Calpurnia
  • Atticus black cook/housekeeper
  • Was all angles and bones
  • Nearsighted she squinted
  • Wide, hard hand which she used to discipline
    Scout
  • Tyrannical presence (Lee 6).
  • Always ordering Scout about
  • She always won the battles with Scout because
    Atticus always took her side (Lee 6).
  • Mother-figure to Jem Scout

10
Charles Baker Harris DILL
  • Seven years old
  • From Meridan, Mississippi
  • Spends every summer with his aunt, Ms. Rachel
    (Finch neighbor)
  • His mothers a photographer does not have a
    father
  • Won 5 in a photo contest used it to see the
    same movie twenty times
  • Dill was a curiosity (Lee 7).
  • Plays with his cowlick
  • Spent the summer playing with Jem and Scout
  • They improved their tree house
  • They produced plays they wrote, based on books
    they read
  • Fascinated by the Radley place and Boo Radley
  • Gave them the idea of making Boo Radley come
    out (Lee 8).

11
The Radley Place
  • 3 doors south of the Finches
  • Low house once white but darkened to a
    slate-gray
  • Rain-rotted shingles
  • Oak trees kept the sun away
  • Unswept yard filled with weeds
  • Malevolent phantom (Lee 8) lived inside the
    house Jem/Scout have never seen him
  • Many people fear the Radley Place and cross the
    street to avoid it
  • Any lost ball in the Radleys yard remains there.

12
The Radleys
  • Lived with their two children
  • Kept to themselves unforgivable in Maycomb
    (Lee 9).
  • Did not go to church principle recreation in
    Maycomb worshiped at home
  • Mrs. Radley never had coffee with her neighbors
    nor did she take part in missionary work
  • Their shutters and doors were closed every
    Sunday kept their shades drawn to discourage
    visitors
  • Never participated in Sunday formal afternoon
    visiting

13
Mr. Radley
  • Thin, leathery man
  • Colorless eyes did not reflect light
  • Sharp cheekbones wide mouth
  • Ramrod straight posture
  • Made a living doing nothing bought cotton (Lee
    9)
  • Walked to town at 1130 am every morning and
    returned home exactly at 12 pm carrying a brown
    paper bag
  • Never spoke to Jem and Scout
  • Calpurnia refers to him as, the meanest man ever
    God blew breath into (Lee 12).
  • Kept his son, Boo, out of sight
  • Jem figured he kept his son chained to the bed,
    but Atticus felt it wasnt that sort of thing,
    that there were other ways of making people into
    ghosts (Lee 11).
  • After his death Mr. Nathan Radley, Boos brother,
    returned from Pensacola and took his place

14
Arthur Radley (BOO) According to Jem
  • He was 6 and a half feet tall
  • Ate raw squirrels and cats
  • Had blood-stained hands
  • Long jagged scar on his face
  • Yellow, rotten teeth
  • Drooled

15
BOO Radley People in Maycomb said
  • Arthur goes out at night after the town is asleep
  • He was responsible for any crimes committed in
    town
  • He peeped into windows at night
  • He breathed on azaleas (flowers) and froze them

16
Boo Radley The Real Story
  • Got into trouble with a wrong crowd of boys came
    before a judge for disorderly conduct
  • Rather than being sent to a state school by the
    judge, Arthur was released in his fathers care
  • Mr. Radley guaranteed that he would see to it
    that Arthur gave no further trouble (Lee 10).
  • As a result Arthur was not seen again for 15
    years
  • As a result the doors of the Radley house closed
    on weekdays as well as Sundays

17
BOO The Real Story (continued)
  • At age 33, Arthur reportedly drove the scissors
    into his fathers leg
  • Mrs. Radley ran outside and started to scream,
    Arthur was killing us all (Lee 11)
  • Boos reaction He continued to cut the newspaper
    like nothing was wrong
  • After being temporarily locked up in the
    courtroom basement for a while, he was taken home
    by his father
  • From that day on people said the Radley house
    died (Lee 12).

18
Miss Caroline Fisher
  • Scouts teacher
  • 21 years old
  • Bright auburn hair
  • Pink cheeks
  • Crimson nail polish
  • Wore high heels and a dress
  • She looked and smelled like a peppermint drop
    (Lee 16).
  • Lived in a room at Miss Maudies house
  • Jem has a crush on her
  • From Winston County in North Alabama
  • Beliefs much different form Maycomb County
  • When Alabama seceded from the UnionWinston
    County seceded from Alabama, and every child in
    Maycomb County knew it (Lee 16).

19
Conflict with Miss Caroline
  • With Scout
  • Seemed unaware that the children were, immune to
    imaginative literature.
  • Tells Scout to tell Atticus not to teach her how
    to read anymore.
  • Scout gives in to Miss Carolines accusations
  • She is introducing a new way of teaching (Lee
    18).
  • With Walter Cunningham
  • Offers him a quarter to eat downtown.
  • Walter refuses.
  • Scout tries to explain the Cunninghams and gets
    herself in trouble
  • Scout gets hit on the palm with a ruler for being
    disrespectful

20
Think about this
  • My sojourn in the corner was a short one.
    Saved by the bell, Miss Caroline watched the
    class file out for lunch. As I was about to
    leave, I saw her sink down into her chair and
    bury her head in her arms. Had her conduct been
    more friendly toward me, I would have felt sorry
    for her. She was a pretty little thing (Lee 22).
  1. How do you think that Miss Caroline is feeling at
    the end of Chapter 2?
  2. Why?
  3. Was Scouts first day of school all she thought
    it was going to be?
  4. What proof can you find in the text to support
    your answer?

21
Conflict Caused by Walter
  • Between Jem and Scout
  • Between Calpurnia and Scout
  • Between Scout and Atticus
  • At the schoolyard, resulting in Jem inviting
    Walter for dinner
  • At dinner when Walter covers everything in syrup
  • Scout wants Atticus to fire Calpurnia, but he
    says that he never will

22
The same afternoon
  • Conflict between
  • Burris Ewell
  • Miss Caroline
  • Chuck Little
  • Events of the day
  • Burris has creatures crawling out of his hair
  • Miss Caroline tells him to go home and wash with
    lye and kerosene
  • Chuck Little gets involved, knowing that he is a
    Ewell -foreshadowing
  • Burris leaves, but not before making Miss
    Caroline cry in front of the class

23
Maycombs Societal Conflicts
  • Although every member of the Finch family
    understands the way Maycomb society works, they
    do not conform to Maycombs rules of class.
  • Walter is welcomed into the home by Atticus.
  • The Ewell family, on the other hand, in no way
    fits into Maycomb society. They even live on the
    edge of town. Burris and his father refuse to
    obey the school attendance rules and the hunting
    regulations of Maycomb.
  • Society elects to turn a blind eye on these
    activities.

24
Burris Ewell vs. Walter Cunningham A childs
behavior can be explained by his familys last
name.
  • He was the filthiest human I had ever seen (Lee
    26).
  • Dark grey neck
  • Rusty hands
  • Black fingernails
  • Cooties in his hair
  • Comes to class the first day every year and then
    leaves
  • Has repeated first grade three times illiterate
  • No mother, drunk father
  • Hes a mean one, a hard-down mean one (Lee 27).
  • Rude to the teacher made her cry
  • He looked as if he had been raised on fish food
    (Lee 23).
  • Thin because he has hookworms - shoeless
  • Red-rimmed and watery eyes
  • Neat and clean appearance
  • Doesnt take money offered by Miss Caroline
    because , hes a Cunningham (Lee 20).
  • Illiterate due to family obligations on the farm.

25
Social Class Poor Whites
  • The Cunninghams
  • Poor country farmers The crash hit them the
    hardest (Lee 21).
  • They never took anything off of anybody, they
    get along on what they have (Lee 20).
  • They do not take what they cannot pay back they
    wont accept handouts - Ex Welfare
  • Walter wont take lunch money even though he is
    starving because he cannot repay it.
  • Pride Came from a set breed of men (Lee 21)
    remain honorable despite situation cannot pay
    Atticus with money for his legal services, so
    they pay him with farm crops.

26
Poor Whites Continued
  • The Ewells
  • Disgrace of Maycomb for three generations
  • None of them had done an honest days work in
    their lives
  • They were people, but lived like animals
  • Father spends relief checks on whiskey
  • Lived outside local and national laws because
    they are poor and ignorant - children do not
    attend school and father hunts out of season
  • Maycombians allow this because of their name
    Ewell

27
Lessons Scout Learns
  • Calpurnia teaches Scout that when people differ,
    Scout is not called on to contradict em. . .
    (Lee 24).
  • Scout also learns from Calpurnia that guests in
    her home should be treated as such.
  • Atticus teachers her to consider things from
    another persons point of view in order to
    understand that person. He indicates that
    sometimes it is better to bend the law a little
    in special cases. Find the quote in chapter 3
    that exemplifies this.
  • He also tells Scout that at times it is best to
    ignore things. He reminds her that Maycomb
    overlooks Burriss skipping school and Robert
    Ewells hunting out of season. He applies this to
    Jem in the tree house if Scout will ignore Jem,
    Jem will come down.

28
Stylistic Devices in Chapter 3
  • The repetition of sounds, or alliteration, is
    used often. For instance, the reader finds words
    like snorted and slouched and snot-nosed
    slut.
  • Scout uses an idiom when she says that Walter
    made her start off on the wrong foot.
  • Walters dialect is apparent as he says, Almost
    died first year I come to school and et them
    pecansfolks say he pizened em and put em over
    on the school side of the fence.

29
Theme of Bravery
  • Once again the children must prove their bravery
    in the face of many threats. Often, this is
    easier in a group.
  • The children walk by the Radley Place when they
    are together, but go by at a full gallop when
    they are alone.
  • The children fake bravado in front of their
    peers, but they allow free rein to their feelings
    when they are unobserved.
  • Bravery versus cowardice also occurs with the
    confrontation of Little Chuck Little and Burris
    in the classroom. Little Chuck Little, one of the
    smallest children in the class, displays bravery
    and is able to confront Burris, a hard-down mean
    one.

30
Questions
  • Why do the children make Boos story into a game?
    Whose idea is it?
  • What do they do in this game? What scene do they
    seem to enjoy the most?
  • Do you think the game is an accurate version of
    what happens in the Radleys home?
  • What might be the cause of laughter from inside
    the house?

31
Answers.
  • The three of them act out scenes from the stories
    they have heard about the Radleys.
  • The scene they enjoy play acting the most
    concerns the rumors that Boo once stabbed his
    father with a pair of scissors.

32
Significance of their games..
  • Are the children listening to Atticus advice
    about trying to understand other peoples ways or
    have they forgotten?
  • The games of Scout, Jem, and Dill have a childish
    innocence, but they can be cruel.
  • Do you think the Radleys would appreciate having
    their private problems dramatized for the entire
    neighborhood?

33
Atticus and the Radleys
  • So thats what your doing, wasnt it? Makin fun
    of him? No said Atticus, Putting his lifes
    history on display for the edification of the
    neighborhood. Jem seemed to swell a little. I
    didnt say we were doin that, I didnt say it!
    Atticus grinned dryly. You just told me, he
    said. you stop this nonsense right now, every
    one of you.
  • Atticus is rarely stern with his children.
  • The fact that he is being stern shows that his
    opinions toward the Radleys differ from the
    childrens opinions.
  • Atticus does not believe the Radleys are bad
    people.

34
MISS MAUDIE
  • Widowed lady who lives next door a benign
    presence (Lee 42).
  • Hates her house spends as much time as possible
    working outdoors in her garden
  • Obsessed with her flowerbeds tends to them
    despite the disapproval of the foot washing
    Baptists (Lee 44), who accuse her of spending
    too much time in such vain earthly pursuits
  • Religious she finds a relationship between
    maintaining beautiful things in the world and
    connecting with God
  • Grew up with Uncle Jack Finch teases him

35
Miss Maudie continued.
  • Forms a special friendship with Scout (Why?)
  • Youre the best lady that I know (Lee 45).
  • Believes in the importance of pleasure and the
    enjoyment of life
  • Kind, gentle person (Proof)
  • Allowed Scout and Jem to play in her yard baked
    them cakes never told on them

36
What does Miss Maudie tell Scout about Boo Radley?
  • Knows that Arthur is still alive because she
    has not seen him carried out yet (Lee 43).
  • Says that legends about Arthur are three fourths
    colored folk and one fourth Stephanie Crawford
    (Lee 45).
  • She knew Arthur as a boy He always spoke nicely
    to me, no matter what folks said he did (Lee
    46).
  • Tries to make Scout see that Boo is a real human
    being who deserves her sympathy
  • Suggests Arthurs family hold strict religious
    beliefs, which have affected the way they treat
    him

37
  • What does Miss Maudie mean in the following
    statement that she makes to Scout?
  • Sometimes the Bible in the hand of one man is
    worse than a whiskey bottle in the hand of
    someone else (Lee 45).

38
Objects in The Tree
  • Scout and Jem find more objects in the tree
  • Figurines carved in soap (a boy and a girl)
  • A pack of chewing gum
  • A spelling contest medal
  • A pocket watch and an aluminum knife

39
Jem writes a thank-you note
  • Dear Sir,
  • We appreciate everything which you have put into
    the tree for us.
  • Yours very truly,
  • Jem Finch
  • Jean Louise Finch
    (Scout)

40
  • When Jem and Scout go to deliver the letter they
    are horrified to discover that the tree has been
    plugged up. Mr. Radley claimed the tree was
    dying.
  • The children ask Atticus about the tree and he
    tells them it is healthy. However, when they
    tell him what Mr. Radley has done Atticus says
    that he probably had good reason.

41
(No Transcript)
42
Chapter 7 Analysis
  • The reader can infer that it is Boo Radley
    leaving the objects in the tree
  • The objects represent someone who is generous and
    thoughtful, yet with few social skills
  • Mr. Radley discourages this interaction
  • Jem is upset by this yet this indicates that he
    is mourning the passing of childish things as he
    moves closer to adulthood.

43
Chapter 8 Summary
  • A harsh winter comes to Maycomb.
  • Mr. Avery blames the children for the inclement
    weather.
  • Mrs. Radley dies and Atticus visits the Radley
    household.
  • Snow arrives and Jem and Scout build a snowman
    that looks like Mr. Avery.
  • Atticus says that perhaps the children should
    make the snowman a little less realistic.

44
  • On a bitterly cold night, Miss Maudies house
    catches fire.
  • Atticus has the children stand safely by the
    Radley house.
  • Atticus saves Miss Maudies most prized
    possession.
  • Miss Maudies house collapses.
  • Scout has a blanket wrapped around her shoulders
    and the children realize that Boo must have done
    it.

45
Chapter 8 Analysis
  • Throughout the novel, the location of people and
    events inside or outside of houses speaks toward
    themes of the book.
  • For example, those who willfully stay inside are
    corrupted by the prejudices of society (Mrs.
    Dubose), yet those who are forced to stay inside
    are victims of society (Boo Radley and Tom).
    Those who are outside, are free and think freely.

46
Atticus is the exception
  • The presence of his office provides him a
    different type of house.
  • He is tied into the fabric of society yet is also
    outside of it.
  • His daily walks show that he is a part of those
    in the outside world, the free thinkers.
  • This is symbolic of the fact that his morals are
    the same whether at work or at home.

47
Chapter 9 Summary
  • Cecil Jacobs, a boy at school, teases Scout about
    Atticus defending Tom Robinson
  • Later, Scout asks Atticus why he is taking the
    case, Atticus responds that if he didnt he would
    not be able to hold up my head in town or even
    tell his children what to do
  • He explains the importance of this case and how
    it will affect him personally
  • Atticus advises Scout not to fight
  • Scout listens to this advice and is able to keep
    this up until Christmas

48
  • The Finches go to Finchs landing for Christmas
  • They are spending the holiday with Uncle Jack and
    Aunt Alexandra
  • Aunt Alexandra tells Scout she should be more
    ladylike this upsets Scout
  • Francis calls Atticus names
  • Scout punches Francis
  • The Finches return home

49
Chapter 9 Analysis
  • Atticus knows the Robinson trial will be
    difficult for the children
  • He knows the case is hopeless because the jury
    simply wont believe a black mans word against a
    white mans
  • Atticus will defend Tom anyway because he must
    follow his conscience and set an example
  • He believes that if he is false in his work than
    he cannot be true to his family

50
Characters Scout
  • Scout is seeking to maintain her own identity
  • She is a tomboy
  • Adventurous
  • Curious
  • Tough
  • Intelligent

51
  • Aunt Alexandra
  • dominating
  • strong
  • traditional
  • She has strong opinions about how Scout should
    behave. Thus, she imposes her ideas of what a
    Southern lady should be.

52
Chapter 10 Summary
  • Scout and Jem do not think their father can do
    anything
  • He does not do physical work
  • He wears glasses
  • Instead of hunting, he sits and reads inside
  • The children received air guns for Christmas and
    Atticus tells them the following

53
Titular line (where the title comes from)
  • Atticus said to Jem, "I'd rather you shot at tin
    cans in the back yard, but I know you'll go after
    birds. Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you
    can hit em, but remember it's a sin to kill a
    mockingbird." That was the only time I ever heard
    Atticus say it was a sin to do something.
  • "You're father's right," she said.
    "Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music
    for us to enjoy. They don't eat up people's
    gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do
    one thing but sing their hearts out for us.
    That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird" (Lee
    98).

54
One-Shot Finch
  • A rabid dog named Tim Johnson is loose in the
    neighborhood
  • Atticus reluctantly picks up a gun to shoot the
    dog
  • Jem is dumbstruck because Atticus is such a good
    shot

55
Atticus Finch
  • Does not like using a gun because it gives him an
    unfair advantage
  • He puts aside this moral for a higher goal the
    protection of human life
  • Atticus does not want his own children to inflict
    cruelty upon the innocent mockingbirds
  • His warning emphasizes that those with power must
    be careful not to use it cruelly

56
Mrs. Dubose
  • neighbor to the Finches
  • elderly
  • spends most of her day in a wheelchair
  • rumored that she keeps a pistol
  • Physical Description
  • Old
  • Face the color of a dirty pillowcase
  • Has liver spots
  • Pale eyes
  • Knobby hands
  • Lip protrudes

57
  • Mrs. Dubose Actions
  • Criticizes Jem and Scout
  • Yells racial slurs about Atticus
  • Attempts to kick her morphine habit
  • Mrs. Duboses words
  • Yells at the children hey you ugly girl!
    (Lee 99).
  • Calls Atticus trash for defending a black man
  • Calls Atticus a nigger-lover (Lee 108).

58
Scout, Jem and Mrs.. Dubose
  • Opinions of other characters
  • Jem and I hated her (Lee 99).
  • vicious
  • Mean
  • Old
  • nasty

59
Atticuss View of Mrs. Dubose
  • Shes an old lady and shes ill (Lee 100).
  • He knows she is a morphine addict and she was
    determined to kick the habit before her death.
  • She died beholden to nothing and nobody (Lee
    112).
  • she was a great lady (Lee 112).
  • She was the bravest person I ever knew (Lee
    112).
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